U2 Sunday Bloody Sunday <ul><li>You are listening to the U2 song, “Sunday Bloody Sunday”.  </li></ul><ul><li>The song desc...
The United Kingdom: Politics <ul><li>By the late 1970s, England’s economy was in bad  shape  partly because of the costlin...
The United Kingdom: The “Troubles” in Northern Ireland Background <ul><li>The British had oppressed the people  </li></ul>...
The United Kingdom: The “Troubles” in Northern Ireland Background <ul><li>1919:  The new Irish Republican Army (people who...
The United Kingdom: The “Troubles” in Northern Ireland Background <ul><li>Leads to a prolonged conflict in Northern </li><...
The United Kingdom: The “Troubles” in Northern Ireland <ul><li>Between 1969 and 2001, 3,523 people were killed as a result...
The United Kingdom: Politics “ Thatcherism” <ul><li>Margaret Thatcher (“The Iron Lady”) </li></ul><ul><li>ushered in a new...
The Falkland Islands War <ul><li>1982:  Military  </li></ul><ul><li>leaders in Argentina  </li></ul><ul><li>seize the Falk...
France <ul><li>1981:  Francois Mitterand is elected  </li></ul><ul><li>president, the first socialist president </li></ul>...
France <ul><li>The “Great Projects” of Francois Mitterand: </li></ul>The Channel Tunnel between  England and France The Py...
Developments in the Cold War The End of Détente  <ul><li>1979:  The Soviet Union invades Afghanistan </li></ul><ul><li>to ...
Developments in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe <ul><li>1980:  Economic hard times prompt  </li></ul><ul><li>electrici...
Developments in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe <ul><li>1985:  A new energetic leader comes to  </li></ul><ul><li>powe...
Developments in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe <ul><li>1986:  Meltdown at the nuclear power plant in  Chernobyl,  Ukr...
Developments in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe East Germany <ul><li>1989:  Mass protests against East German govt. fo...
A portion of the wall is on display outside the EU Parliament in Brussels, Belgium.  clip
Developments in Asia China <ul><li>1989:  Students and intellectuals  </li></ul><ul><li>lead pro-democracy protests in  </...
Developments in South Africa The End of Apartheid Background <ul><li>In the 1800s, British imperialists  </li></ul><ul><li...
Developments in South Africa The End of Apartheid Background <ul><li>1948:  Afrikaners impose apartheid  – a system of com...
Developments in South Africa The End of Apartheid <ul><li>1984:  Bishop Desmond Tutu </li></ul><ul><li>wins Nobel Peace Pr...
Meanwhile….back in the States…. Breedlove at his Freshman Homecoming Dance…. 1981
Breedlove at his Senior Prom, 1985… with the “love of my life”….
Breedlove’s Graduation Photos
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1980s world(1)

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1980s world(1)

  1. 1. U2 Sunday Bloody Sunday <ul><li>You are listening to the U2 song, “Sunday Bloody Sunday”. </li></ul><ul><li>The song describes an incident in Northern Ireland, in 1972 in which 26 civil rights protesters were shot by members of a British Regiment during a Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association march. </li></ul><ul><li>Thirteen people, six of whom were minors, died immediately. </li></ul>
  2. 2. The United Kingdom: Politics <ul><li>By the late 1970s, England’s economy was in bad shape partly because of the costliness of running </li></ul><ul><li>a welfare state with nationalized industries. </li></ul><ul><li>1979: Conservative Party leader Margaret Thatcher becomes the first female Prime Minister in the history of </li></ul><ul><li>England… more on “Thatcherism” later. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The United Kingdom: The “Troubles” in Northern Ireland Background <ul><li>The British had oppressed the people </li></ul><ul><li>of Ireland since the rule of Oliver Cromwell </li></ul><ul><li>in the 1640s. </li></ul><ul><li>The Irish Potato Famine from 1845 – 1849 </li></ul><ul><li>intensified Irish anger against the British </li></ul><ul><li>(even though it wasn’t really England’s fault). </li></ul><ul><li>1916: Easter Uprising: Small group </li></ul><ul><li>of Irish nationalists launches a revolt </li></ul><ul><li>against British rule… 15 rebel leaders </li></ul><ul><li>were executed by the British. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The United Kingdom: The “Troubles” in Northern Ireland Background <ul><li>1919: The new Irish Republican Army (people who wanted Irish independence) start a revolution against the British. </li></ul><ul><li>1922: England agrees to grant independence to the majority of Ireland. </li></ul><ul><li>The northern counties (Ulster) remain under British rule (Northern Ireland). </li></ul>
  5. 5. The United Kingdom: The “Troubles” in Northern Ireland Background <ul><li>Leads to a prolonged conflict in Northern </li></ul><ul><li>Ireland between Catholics who want </li></ul><ul><li>to join the Republic of Ireland and </li></ul><ul><li>Protestants who want to remain part </li></ul><ul><li>of the United Kingdom. </li></ul><ul><li>Sinn Fein – Political division of the IRA . </li></ul><ul><li>Para-military groups: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Republican - Provisional IRA (Catholic). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loyalist – Ulster Freedom Fighters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(UFF), Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ulster Defence Association (UDA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(all Protestant). </li></ul></ul>clip
  6. 6. The United Kingdom: The “Troubles” in Northern Ireland <ul><li>Between 1969 and 2001, 3,523 people were killed as a result of the “Troubles”. </li></ul>80 Persons Unknown 368 Security Forces 1,020 Loyalist Paramilitary Groups 2,055 Republican Paramilitary Groups Number of Deaths Responsible Party
  7. 7. The United Kingdom: Politics “ Thatcherism” <ul><li>Margaret Thatcher (“The Iron Lady”) </li></ul><ul><li>ushered in a new era of conservatism in British </li></ul><ul><li>politics during career as prime minister from 1979 – 1990. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>She reduced social welfare programs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>She returned government-run industries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to private control. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>She cut taxes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>She fought against labor unions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thatcher appears at number 16 in the 2002 List of &quot;100 Greatest Britons&quot;, which was the highest placing for a living person. </li></ul><ul><li>She also appears at number 3 in the 2003 List of &quot;100 Worst Britons&quot;, which was confined to those living. </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Falkland Islands War <ul><li>1982: Military </li></ul><ul><li>leaders in Argentina </li></ul><ul><li>seize the Falkland </li></ul><ul><li>Islands, ruled by the </li></ul><ul><li>British since the 1800s. </li></ul><ul><li>Argentina assumes that </li></ul><ul><li>England will not fight </li></ul><ul><li>to keep the Falklands… </li></ul><ul><li>Argentina is wrong . </li></ul><ul><li>England defeats </li></ul><ul><li>Argentina within two months, </li></ul><ul><li>boosting Thatcher’s popularity. </li></ul>clip
  9. 9. France <ul><li>1981: Francois Mitterand is elected </li></ul><ul><li>president, the first socialist president </li></ul><ul><li>of the French Fifth Republic. </li></ul><ul><li>Mitterand abolishes the death penalty </li></ul><ul><li>and imposes a wealth tax. </li></ul><ul><li>Mitterand, unlike de Gaulle, establishes </li></ul><ul><li>closer ties with the West and does not </li></ul><ul><li>attempt to ease relations with the </li></ul><ul><li>Soviet Union. </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually world learns Mitterand has two completely </li></ul><ul><li>separate families – c’est la vie! </li></ul>
  10. 10. France <ul><li>The “Great Projects” of Francois Mitterand: </li></ul>The Channel Tunnel between England and France The Pyramid at the Louvre The Grande Arche
  11. 11. Developments in the Cold War The End of Détente <ul><li>1979: The Soviet Union invades Afghanistan </li></ul><ul><li>to stop rebellion against the Soviet-controlled govt. </li></ul><ul><li>The U.S. responds to the invasion by boycotting the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Developments in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe <ul><li>1980: Economic hard times prompt </li></ul><ul><li>electrician Lech Walesa to organize </li></ul><ul><li>“Solidarity ”, an independent labor union. </li></ul><ul><li>(Unions are illegal in the Soviet Union.) </li></ul><ul><li>The Soviet Union pressures the Polish </li></ul><ul><li>govt. into outlawing the union and </li></ul><ul><li>arresting Walesa. </li></ul><ul><li>But, the Soviet Union eventually </li></ul><ul><li>backs down due to political pressure </li></ul><ul><li>created by Pope John Paul II… </li></ul><ul><li>Walesa becomes a national hero </li></ul><ul><li>in Poland. </li></ul>Poland clip
  13. 13. Developments in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe <ul><li>1985: A new energetic leader comes to </li></ul><ul><li>power in the Soviet Union, Mikhail Gorbachev . </li></ul><ul><li>Gorbachev launches a two-pronged reform effort: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1) Glasnost – “openness”, the ending of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>censorship. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2) Perestroika – “restructuring” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An attempt re-shape the dismal Soviet </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>economy. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To produce more and higher-quality </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>goods, Gorbachev gives factory managers, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>instead of govt. officials, the ability to make </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>business decisions. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers are allowed to sell food on the free </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>market. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Developments in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe <ul><li>1986: Meltdown at the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl, Ukraine. </li></ul><ul><li>The disaster released as much as 300 times more radioactive fallout than the atomic bomb of Hiroshima. </li></ul><ul><li>Soviet-era cover-up makes it difficult to know how many people have </li></ul><ul><li>been affected.. A 2005 report attributed 56 direct deaths and estimated that as many as 9,000 people will die from some form of cancer. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Developments in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe East Germany <ul><li>1989: Mass protests against East German govt. force </li></ul><ul><li>Erich Honecker to resign. </li></ul><ul><li>November 9, 1989: New East German govt. announces that East Berliners would be allowed to cross the border with proper permission (???). </li></ul><ul><li>Tens of thousands of East Berliners heard the announcement and flooded the checkpoints. The guards don’t know what to do… so they let them all pass into West Berlin. </li></ul><ul><li>In the next few days, people showed up with sledgehammers to destroy the Berlin Wall. </li></ul>
  16. 16. A portion of the wall is on display outside the EU Parliament in Brussels, Belgium. clip
  17. 17. Developments in Asia China <ul><li>1989: Students and intellectuals </li></ul><ul><li>lead pro-democracy protests in </li></ul><ul><li>Tiananmen Square. </li></ul>“ The Goddess of Democracy&quot; erected in the Square during the protest. <ul><li>The Chinese govt. eventually </li></ul><ul><li>unleashes the army on the </li></ul><ul><li>protestors, killing as many as </li></ul><ul><li>3,000 and injuring up to 10,000 ?? </li></ul>
  18. 18. Developments in South Africa The End of Apartheid Background <ul><li>In the 1800s, British imperialists </li></ul><ul><li>clashed with Boers (descendents of Dutch settlers) </li></ul><ul><li>1899 – 1902: Boer War… </li></ul><ul><li>the British win. </li></ul><ul><li>1902 – WWII: Whites in </li></ul><ul><li>South Africa (Afrikaners) </li></ul><ul><li>assert more control over </li></ul><ul><li>native South Africans. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Developments in South Africa The End of Apartheid Background <ul><li>1948: Afrikaners impose apartheid – a system of complete segregation based on race. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-- More than 80% of South </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Africa, including cities, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> mines and the richest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> farmland was reserved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> for whites. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1962: anti-apartheid </li></ul><ul><li>activist Nelson Mandela </li></ul><ul><li>is arrested and sentenced </li></ul><ul><li>to life in prison. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Developments in South Africa The End of Apartheid <ul><li>1984: Bishop Desmond Tutu </li></ul><ul><li>wins Nobel Peace Prize for </li></ul><ul><li>non-violent opposition to </li></ul><ul><li>apartheid. </li></ul><ul><li>1989: South African President </li></ul><ul><li>F.W. de Klerk abandons </li></ul><ul><li>apartheid. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Meanwhile….back in the States…. Breedlove at his Freshman Homecoming Dance…. 1981
  22. 22. Breedlove at his Senior Prom, 1985… with the “love of my life”….
  23. 23. Breedlove’s Graduation Photos

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