The Welfare State


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The Welfare State

  1. 1. The Welfare State Mr McDonald
  2. 2. What we will learn today: <ul><li>Why the Welfare State was created </li></ul><ul><li>The National Health Service </li></ul><ul><li>How people reacted to the NHS </li></ul><ul><li>How the NHS/Welfare State has changed over time. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Birth of the Welfare State <ul><li>In 1942, the Beveridge report was published. </li></ul><ul><li>He stated that the government should take charge of peoples’ welfare from the ‘cradle to the grave.’ </li></ul><ul><li>His report became a best seller and saw the state as having a responsibility for welfare – a far cry from laissez faire! </li></ul>
  4. 5. The Creation of the NHS <ul><li>In 1946 the NHS was established as part of a wider welfare state. </li></ul><ul><li>Family Allowances and National Insurance for everyone was established. </li></ul><ul><li>The mastermind for the NHS was an MP named Bevan. </li></ul><ul><li>The NHS was supposed to give free medical treatment for all regardless of income. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Opposition to the NHS <ul><li>The level of opposition was quite high. </li></ul><ul><li>Three groups in particular opposed the introduction of the NHS. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Doctors – part of the BMA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local Authorities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People who saw cost as too much </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Doctors and the BMA <ul><li>Doctors and the British Medical Authority saw the NHS as stifling their ability to work on private patients. The medical profession believed they would be told where to go and work and how much they could be paid. </li></ul>
  7. 8. Local Authorities <ul><li>Local authorities opposed the NHS as they saw the centralisation (Nationalisation) of hospitals as taking away the control they had over the hospitals they used to control. </li></ul>
  8. 9. People who opposed costs <ul><li>Some people opposed the level of cost involved. </li></ul><ul><li>This was the greatest social welfare development ever and thus the cost would be enormous. </li></ul><ul><li>Some saw the cost as too expensive but Bevan believed that the cost was necessary to make the NHS work. </li></ul>
  9. 10. The NHS <ul><li>At first doctors and other health professionals did not like the NHS for they feared it would mean they could not treat private patients and thus lose out with fixed incomes and being told what to do. </li></ul><ul><li>However Bevan agreed they could still see private patients and for being in the NHS they would be paid a fee for each patient they registered. </li></ul>
  10. 11. The NHS <ul><li>By 1948, 92% of the doctors were in the NHS as were the vast majority of hospitals. </li></ul><ul><li>The cost was enormous. By 1950 it was costing the taxpayer £350,000,000 a year to run. </li></ul><ul><li>Added to this the costs of fighting a war in Korea – it meant charges for treatments (Prescriptions) came into effect. </li></ul><ul><li>Bevan resigned over the issue! </li></ul>
  11. 12. NHS and Vaccination <ul><li>No big vaccination programme had been done since 1854 and the Smallpox vaccine. </li></ul><ul><li>However in 1948 the NHS wanted a healthier nation so it provided vaccinations for all starting with TB (Tuberculosis) </li></ul><ul><li>In 1954 it progressed with the triple vaccine for Diphtheria, Whooping Cough and Tetanus. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1955 Polio, a wasting illness was targeted with other diseases following suit (Measles in 1964 and Rubella in 1969) </li></ul>
  12. 13. Changes in the NHS <ul><li>The modern NHS is far different from the one of 1948. </li></ul><ul><li>Hospitals have reverted back to self control! </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in the views on private medicine have created what some call a two tier system of health care. </li></ul><ul><li>More focus has been placed on preventative medicine to avoid the costs of treating the patient when they become ill e.g. obesity. </li></ul>