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The Plains Wars Mr McDonald
What motivated the Indians? <ul><li>White settlement of the Plains. </li></ul><ul><li>A lack of understanding/ignorance by...
Settlement on the Plains <ul><li>Not bad at first e.g. Oregon Trail for 1848. </li></ul><ul><li>Real problems started with...
Army Ignorance <ul><li>The Army was used to protect settlers but no real thought was made to see Indian views. </li></ul><...
Broken Treaties <ul><li>The Indians were seen as a problem by 1851.  </li></ul><ul><li>The American government made treati...
The Conflicts: <ul><li>1862 Little Crow’s War (Sioux). </li></ul><ul><li>1863 The Cheyenne Uprising – also Sand Creek Mass...
Little Crow’s war <ul><li>Little Crow was Santee Sioux. </li></ul><ul><li>He gave his tribe’s homelands for reservation li...
Little Crow’s War <ul><li>In August 1862 the Santee Sioux attacked the white traders and settlers. </li></ul><ul><li>20 me...
American Reaction <ul><li>307 Santee Sioux were tried for the rebellion. </li></ul><ul><li>38 were hanged. </li></ul><ul><...
Cheyenne Uprising 1863 <ul><li>Black Kettle signed an agreement in 1861 (Fort Wise). </li></ul><ul><li>His tribe moved to ...
Cheyenne Uprising 1863 <ul><li>The Cheyenne ended up attacking wagon trains and stealing food. </li></ul><ul><li>No-one wa...
Sand Creek Massacre <ul><li>Chivington said any tribes wanting peace had to report to the Forts. </li></ul><ul><li>The Che...
Sand Creek Massacre <ul><li>At least 163 Cheyenne were killed – many women and children! </li></ul><ul><li>It was an atroc...
Consequences <ul><li>The Sioux, Arapaho, Kiowa, Commanche and Cheyenne all joined forces and fought a war lasting until 18...
Red Cloud’s War 1867 <ul><li>The creation of the Bozeman Trail was to allow gold miners to get to the gold in Montana. Thi...
Red Cloud’s War <ul><li>The Government tried talking to Red Cloud but whilst doing this they built Forts along the route. ...
Red Cloud’s War <ul><li>Captain Fetterman took a party of soldiers to guard wood cutters building a Fort whent ehy were am...
Consequences <ul><li>Red Cloud won but the Army was  humiliated and wanted revenge. </li></ul><ul><li>Red Cloud ended up l...
The Winter Campaign of 1868 <ul><li>By 1868 the army had grown wise to Indian tactics – they did not attack in winter – no...
Winter Campaign <ul><li>The Army led by Sheridan and Custer attacked Black Kettle’s camp at Washita. </li></ul><ul><li>Bla...
Consequence <ul><li>Even the right to roam for Buffalo was removed from the Medicine Creek Treaty. </li></ul><ul><li>This ...
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The Plains Wars

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The Plains Wars

  1. 1. The Plains Wars Mr McDonald
  2. 2. What motivated the Indians? <ul><li>White settlement of the Plains. </li></ul><ul><li>A lack of understanding/ignorance by the Army. </li></ul><ul><li>A lack of respect by the American government with regards to treaties. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Settlement on the Plains <ul><li>Not bad at first e.g. Oregon Trail for 1848. </li></ul><ul><li>Real problems started with the gold rushes and the gradual settlement on the Plains. </li></ul><ul><li>The fencing of the land and the destruction of the Buffalo made this worse. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Army Ignorance <ul><li>The Army was used to protect settlers but no real thought was made to see Indian views. </li></ul><ul><li>There was a deep mistrust by both sides and the Army was quick to react in ways that went ‘over the top’. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Broken Treaties <ul><li>The Indians were seen as a problem by 1851. </li></ul><ul><li>The American government made treaties to create reservations but these kept getting smaller and the land was poor – it often led to trouble. </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Conflicts: <ul><li>1862 Little Crow’s War (Sioux). </li></ul><ul><li>1863 The Cheyenne Uprising – also Sand Creek Massacre. </li></ul><ul><li>1867 Red Cloud’s War (Sioux). </li></ul><ul><li>1868 The Winter Campaign – also Battle of Washita. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Little Crow’s war <ul><li>Little Crow was Santee Sioux. </li></ul><ul><li>He gave his tribe’s homelands for reservation life. </li></ul><ul><li>The life was bad – harvests failed and no compensation came from Washington. </li></ul><ul><li>12,000 people faced death. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Little Crow’s War <ul><li>In August 1862 the Santee Sioux attacked the white traders and settlers. </li></ul><ul><li>20 men were killed, 10 women and children were captured. </li></ul><ul><li>The Indians took food and ambushed soldiers trying to deal with the incident. </li></ul><ul><li>These attacks lasted over three months. </li></ul>
  9. 9. American Reaction <ul><li>307 Santee Sioux were tried for the rebellion. </li></ul><ul><li>38 were hanged. </li></ul><ul><li>2000 were moved to a smaller reservation. Conditions were worse and several hundred died in the winter. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Cheyenne Uprising 1863 <ul><li>Black Kettle signed an agreement in 1861 (Fort Wise). </li></ul><ul><li>His tribe moved to Sand Creek in Colorado. </li></ul><ul><li>The land was hard and infertile and had been opened up for white settlement. </li></ul><ul><li>Even Buffalo could not be found. They were starving </li></ul>
  11. 11. Cheyenne Uprising 1863 <ul><li>The Cheyenne ended up attacking wagon trains and stealing food. </li></ul><ul><li>No-one was harmed but in 1864 there was news they were stealing cattle. </li></ul><ul><li>The Army responded by attacking the camp at Sand Creek. </li></ul><ul><li>Colonel Chivington commanded the American forces. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Sand Creek Massacre <ul><li>Chivington said any tribes wanting peace had to report to the Forts. </li></ul><ul><li>The Cheyenne reported to Chivington who decided to misinterpret the Indians actions. </li></ul><ul><li>An American and white flag at the camp were ignored. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Sand Creek Massacre <ul><li>At least 163 Cheyenne were killed – many women and children! </li></ul><ul><li>It was an atrocity and Col. Chivington left the army before he faced trial. </li></ul><ul><li>Those taken prisoner were shown to American theatre audiences. </li></ul><ul><li>It meant more violence in the long term. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Consequences <ul><li>The Sioux, Arapaho, Kiowa, Commanche and Cheyenne all joined forces and fought a war lasting until 1868. </li></ul><ul><li>Hundred of settlers were attacked. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1867, the Kiowa, Arapho, Cheyenne and Commanche made peace at Medicine Lodge Creek – but not Red Cloud and his tribe. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Red Cloud’s War 1867 <ul><li>The creation of the Bozeman Trail was to allow gold miners to get to the gold in Montana. This went against the Fort Laramie Treaty in 1851. </li></ul><ul><li>Red Cloud wanted this stopped and attacked those making the journey on the trail. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Red Cloud’s War <ul><li>The Government tried talking to Red Cloud but whilst doing this they built Forts along the route. </li></ul><ul><li>Red Cloud was angry at this and withdrew from the talks. He attacked the Forts. </li></ul><ul><li>He was joined by other Sioux leaders Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Red Cloud’s War <ul><li>Captain Fetterman took a party of soldiers to guard wood cutters building a Fort whent ehy were ambushed. </li></ul><ul><li>100 soldiers died in the ambush. </li></ul><ul><li>In Spring 1867, the government threw in the towel – the forts were abandoned and the army left – Red Cloud won – but for how long? </li></ul>
  18. 18. Consequences <ul><li>Red Cloud won but the Army was humiliated and wanted revenge. </li></ul><ul><li>Red Cloud ended up loosing out in the end with a new Fort Laramie Treaty (1868). </li></ul><ul><li>A new Sioux reservation was made in the Black Hills but not everyone agreed – Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull did not. </li></ul>
  19. 19. The Winter Campaign of 1868 <ul><li>By 1868 the army had grown wise to Indian tactics – they did not attack in winter – no doubt due to conditions and their way of life. </li></ul><ul><li>The Americans decided to go on the offensive. </li></ul><ul><li>A winter campaign was launched on the Cheyenne for attacks on white settlers. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Winter Campaign <ul><li>The Army led by Sheridan and Custer attacked Black Kettle’s camp at Washita. </li></ul><ul><li>Black Kettle was flying a peace flag but it did not stop the attack. </li></ul><ul><li>It was like Sand Creek all over again. </li></ul><ul><li>The dead were mainly women and the venerable – even Black Kettle died. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Consequence <ul><li>Even the right to roam for Buffalo was removed from the Medicine Creek Treaty. </li></ul><ul><li>This highlights the way in which America failed to keep the promises it made and why the Plains Wars continued until 1890 and the Battle of Wounded Knee. </li></ul>

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