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Unit 4 - Scientific Revolution


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This unit examines the explosion of scientific knowledge and reasoning in the 15th and 16th centuries that laid the foundation for the development of the modern world. After the return of Columbus in 1493 with reports of a “New World” unknown to the ancients, and the shattering of the Catholic consensus by Martin Luther in 1517, the announcement by Copernicus on his deathbed in 1543 that the universe was not centered around the earth was the third and most unsettling blow to more than a thousand years of traditional wisdom. These new developments nourished an air of skeptical inquiry spread far and wide by the printing press. The primary method for understanding the world slowly shifted from simply accepting ancient authority and traditional teachings, to observation, measurement and analysis. Both Chapter 15 and the readings from “The Science of Liberty” demonstrate the profound social and political impacts of this new way of thinking.

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Unit 4 - Scientific Revolution

  1. 1. Unit 4They Moved the Earth!
  2. 2. Our closest neighbors within 6,000 light years
  3. 3.
  4. 4. 15th Century Beliefs about the Universe 1. The earth was young and the universe was small. a. 6,000 years old b. Stars within walking distance (25 miles a day for 713 years. 2. Perfect order and symmetry of spheres. 3. Earth the center of creation— humans the center of the center of creation.
  5. 5. The Figure of the Heavenly BodiesPtolemaic geocentric conception of the universe Bartolomeu Velho (1568)
  6. 6. Ptolemaic GeocentricConception of the Universe
  7. 7. Ptolemaic GeocentricConception of the Universe
  8. 8. Earth3D Space Simulations many beautiful 3D simulations including an excellentportrait of the Ptolemaic System. Look particularly at thefollowing: Models for planetary motion: a geocentric viewwith epicycles, and how phenomena of internalplanets can suggest a different setting. (avi-Divx, 20 Some other simpler animations of solarMb). system: Models for planetary motion: the retrograde phase external planets and the two main historic For another offbeat look at the way realityexplanations. (avi-Divx, 3,9 Mb). can be shoe-horned into a scientific model Panoramic view of the Milky Way, and solar look at this view of Ptolmey and Homer! within. (avi-Divx, 13,7 Mb). From Earth to the fixed stars: the planetary orderaccording to Aristotle (avi-Divx, 7 Mb).
  9. 9. Copernicus and Galileo Nikolaus Copernicus Galileo Galilei (1473-1543) (1564-1642)
  10. 10. Astronomer Copernicus, or Conversations with God (1873) Astronomer_Copernicus-Conversation_with_God.jpg Copernicus - 1473-1543The world was not at the center of the solar system as theChurch and European traditions had taught for more than athousand years…
  11. 11. The Copernican Universe
  12. 12. The Copernican Universe The Copernican Universe This seventeenth-century Dutch engraving illustrates Copernicuss revolutionary “heliocentric” theories, which placed the sun—rather than the Earth—at the center of the universe.
  13. 13. Galileo
  14. 14. Galileo Galileo before the 2009 Re-Trial. Holy Office 1633 (Click on the link to view the transcript) by Joseph-Nicolas (1847) In spring 2012 the Portland Opera staged a new opera by composer Philip Glass.
  15. 15. 3 Keys on Road to the Scientific Skepticism Decline of faith in tradition and authority as the explanation of the way the world works! 1493 - Columbus’s return changed earth 1517 - Martin Luther’s protest changed faith 1543 - Copernicus’s system changed universe What else was different between tradition and reality?
  16. 16. Mathematics: The Language of the Universe by Galileo Galilei (1623)Our universe “cannot be understoodunless one learns to comprehend thelanguage and read the letters in which itis composed. It is written in the languageof mathematics…without which it ishumanly impossible to understand asingle word of it; without these, onewanders about in a dark labyrinth.” (The Assayer, 1623)
  17. 17. Learning How to CountWhile addition of Roman numerals is notcomplicated, multiplication of large numbers is.Click the link below to view a video that describes thebasics of using Roman numbers.
  18. 18. The Church Was Right
  19. 19. ?cience• Comes from latin word scire “to know” or scienta “knowledge”• In 1600s “scientific knowledge” less fallible than “common knowledge”• Science as belief system embraces as a goal: – questions, not answers – doubt, not faith – ignorance, not knowledge
  20. 20. Science is always wrong (and that’s why it works)“Religion is always right. Religion protects us against that great problem which we all must face.“Science is always wrong; it is the very artifice of men. Science can never solve one problem without raising 10 more problems.” George Bernard Shaw honoring Albert Einstein, October 28, 1930 (New York Times, March 14, 1991)