ICT in B2B
Tunde Omitogun
Hisplus Systems Limited.
info@hisplus.net
www.hisplus.net
+234-809-505-2922
+234-803-888-8701
Fundamentals of ICT in B2B on Telecom‟s
Platform
An overview of ICT and applications in B2B.
Touching on the most common...
• B2B stands for business to business. Some businesses only provide products or
services to other businesses.
• B2B is fre...
B2B: Business-to-business (B2B) describes commerce transactions
between businesses, such as
• between a manufacturer and a...
Applications of ICT in B2B
ICT
BANKING
INDUSTRY
EDUCATION
business
Oil and Gas
Real Estate
Entertainment
1.EDUCATION
E-learning
To manage books
Eg: library automation
system
School mgt system
 E-Learning
– Student and lecturer can communicate
to each other if there is something
problem or have to make discussion...
B2B platform
for bank
customers 2. BANKING
Assembling
ATM Machine
to dispense
naira
 E-Banking
- Online services such as transfer money
and pay bill online.
ATM Machine
- to withdraw and to transfer money
3. INDUSTRY
Automobile manufacturing
Industry using robotic /
SCADA
Eg : factory
ERP
Advertising.
Eg : billboard,
magazine
4. COMMERCE
E-commerce.
Buying and
selling
something
from the
internet
Eg : online
p...
Applicationscommunicating applications
newsletters
websites
multimedia presentations
music scores
cartoons
flyers / poster...
Applicationscommunication applications
the Internet
electronic mail
fax
electronic conferencing
mobile telephones
Internet...
Few ICT data from developing countries
E-commerce (B2B, B2C, B2G sales and purchases)
Use of ICT by SMEs (e-business)
Use ...
E-tourism as case study
 E-tourism is the digitisation of all the
processes and value chains in the
tourism, travel, hosp...
Tourisma. Hotel Reservation Systems
i. Reservation Systems (CRS)
ii. Profiles
iii. Groups and blocks
iv. Rate and inventor...
ICT Today
 Cell phone applications (SMS)
 Digital cameras
 Internet
 Wireless (WiFi and WiMAN)
 GPS & GIS
 Digital r...
Characteristics (Cont)
 Dominated by small enterprise
 History of lengthy supply chains based
on commissions
– Product s...
ICT, b2b and Tourism
 e-tourism is the leading B2B with B2C applications - 40% of all
B2C e-commerce
 50% of German tour...
Tourism Site Selection, Management,
Monitoring
 Geospatial Information Technologies help
delineate:
– Boundaries of the p...
Sites that Leverage Well-Known Brands & Niche
Channels
Prevalence of PCs and access to Internet
Presence of website, intranet and extranet
Use of ICTs for business processes:
Cu...
Few official ICT data in developing countries despite increasing
demand
Indicators and data are rarely comparable between ...
Exercise
 How have you been using
Information communication
Technology in you’re your business
as a provider of products ...
Some examples of IT
 Image Morphing
– changing (or morphing) one image into another through a
seamless transition
 Video Conferencing
Some examples of IT
 GPS Tracking
– Track your vehicles, wherever they go,
using GPS.
 Geo Spatial for O&G
Some examples of IT
Exercise
 List some other uses in enterprises
b2b
– Computer Technology
– Communication Technology
Related IT terms
 The E-word ; E Stands for Electronic
–E-mail
–E-learning
–E-business
–E-commerce
–E-government
Exercise
 Generate a list of ways the computer/IT
has impacted the world.
– Include both positive changes and negative
ch...
Exercise
 How difficult would it be to live without
computers?
ICT b2b In Society
 Computers / mobile at home
• Business
• Entertainment
• Communication
• Education
1A-33
Computers / mobile In Society
 Computers in education
– Computer literacy required at all levels
 Computers in small bus...
Computers / mobile In Society
 Computers in government
– Necessary to track data for population
• Police officers
• Tax c...
Computers / mobile In Society
 Computers in health care
– Revolutionized health care
– New treatments possible
– Scheduli...
Connectivity
Interactivity
Multimedia
Auto PC
Where Is Information Technology Headed?
Three Directions of Communication...
When Computers & Communications Combine:
Convergence, Portability, & Personalization
Convergence
Portability
Personaliz...
 What should be the next Technology?
– What can be the applications of that technology?
– Your own ideas/thoughts
Infrastructures Support for ICT Tools
Infrastructure
Backbone e.g.
MTN
Information and Communication Infrastructure for Grenada
ICT Industry
Development
Moderni...
ICT
Dynamic
Industry
Knowledge-
Based Society
MTN
Physical Infrastructure
Human Resource
Development
Regulatory & Legal
In...
ICT for Grenada-Physical Infrastructure
Infrastructure
Backbone
Integrated
Voice, Data,
Video
Ease Of Access
Connectivity
...
ICT for Grenada -Education & TrainingInfrastructural Support ( Business / Oil and Gas / SME)
Infrastructure
Backbone
SME
O...
Companies
Infrastructure
Backbone
ICT for Grenada - Regulation & Legal Infrastructure
Recognition of
electronic
records
Or...
ICT for Grenada - Regulation & Legal Infrastructure
Companies
Infrastructure
Backbone
Recognition
of electronic
records
Or...
E- Government Local Area Network
Ministry
Agriculture, Lands
Ministry Social
Services
Ministry Finance
DEPARTMENTS
E-Gover...
E- Business Local Area Network
ON-LINE
SHOPPING
TELE-BANKING
E-Business
Server/Storage
ATM
Help Desk
Services
Professional...
E- Commerce Local Area Network
Manufacturing Placing Orders
E-Commerce
Server/Storage/
Resources
Real Estate
Investment
Se...
Application Interface
An application interface specifies how some ICT tools
should interact with B2B.
Application Interface
 Characteristics of different types of user
interfaces.
 Types of user interfaces which make
them ...
Human Computer Interface (HCI) /
User Interface (UI)
 The means by which the human and the
computer communicate.
Human Computer
/ User Interfaces
Graphical
User
Interface
(GUI)
Command
Line
Interface
(CLI)
Natural
Language
Windows
Icon...
Graphical User Interface (GUI)
Most popular today is WIMP (windows,
icons, menus, pointer).
–View different applications ...
Uses of GUI
Non-experienced user
Justifications
Largely intuitive and only requires a little
knowledge of how a computer ...
Command Line Interface (CLI)
User types a series of commands at the
keyboard which tell the computer what their
intention...
Uses of CLI
technician looking after a network
Justifications
Allows access to whole system.
Does not use large amount of...
Menu Based Interface
Restricted number of choices offered to the
user which may lead to further sub-menus.
Uses of Menu B...
 Easy to use and very intuitive (even for non-computer
users), requires almost no knowledge of how a
computer actually wo...
Form Based Interface
 Replicates a hard copy paper form.
 Specified areas for the data which may have helpful
instructio...
Uses of Form Based Interface
telephone sales, order forms
Justifications
User can be forced to enter data in a
predetermi...
Plenary
 What is a or human computer
interface or user interface?
– The means by which the human and
the computer communi...
Plenary
 Describe the following types of user
interface. For each type of interface
give a suitable use, justifying your
...
Plenary
 Form-based
– Prompts operator for inputs / Specified areas for
the data / Data entered in order / in format
– Op...
Plenary
 Command line
– Set of commands recognised by the OS / typed in
at prompt/need to be learned by user
– Technician...
Plenary
 Wired
 Wireless
 VPN
Define e-business and discuss
how it can help achieve business
success.
Distinguish between a corporate
and a marketing We...
Guess what Nigeria stats would be?
It is easier to create a bad website than a good one.
Organizations must think about:
Planning and Preparation
Content a...
Cloud Computing: Software-as-a-Service for b2b
The Changing Face
of Infrastructure
Expressed Interest
Public Impact
LOW HI...
Innovations to Address Mobile Workforce in b2b
On Travel
Disaster Response
In the Office
Home
PC On-A-Stick
• Mobility: De...
Mobile Solutions
 Incident Management – Aids Field
Tech Investigation, Diagnosis,
Resolution, Problem ID
• Expert Help
• ...
Data Representation
an Processing
Computing Systems Data
 Usually the computing systems are
complex devices, dealing with a vast
array of information categ...
Digital vs. Analog (1)
 Computing systems are finite machines. They store a limited
amount of information, even if the li...
Digital vs. Analog (2)
 Why digital signal?
– Both electronic signals (analog and digital) degrade as
they move down a li...
Digital vs. Analog (3)
Threshold
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Digital Signal
Analog Signal
Digital Signal Degradation
A...
Binary Representation (1)
 Why binary representation (as suppose to
decimal or octal, etc..)?
– Because the devices that ...
Binary Representation (2)
 One bit can be either 0 or 1. Therefore, one bit can
represent only two things.
 To represent...
Review Question 1
 Why digital signal is better than
analogue signal in computing systems
A. Signal integrity can be main...
Review Question 2
How many things can a bit represent ?
A. One
B. Two
C. Ten
D. I don’t know …
Review Question 3
How many things a byte can represent ?
A. One
B. Two
C. 256
D. I don’t know
Data Formats - How to Interpret Data
 Meaning of internal representation must be
appropriate for the type of processing t...
Why Standards? They exist because they are:
– Convenient – sometimes the time to market is very
important whenever trying...
Standards Organizations
 ISO – International Standards
Organization
 IEEE – Institute for Electrical and
Electronics Eng...
Examples of Standards
Type of Data Standards
Alphanumeric ASCII, Unicode
Image JPEG, GIF, PCX, TIFF, BMP,
etc
Motion pictu...
Alphanumeric Data
 Three standards for representing letters
(alpha) and numbers
– ASCII – American Standard Code for Info...
Codes and Characters
 The problem:
– Representing text strings, such as
“Hello, world”, in a computer
 Each character is...
ASCII Features
 7-bit code
 8th bit is unused (or used for a parity bit)
 27 = 128 codes
 Two general types of codes:
...
000 001 010 011 100 101 110 111
0000 NULL DLE 0 @ P ` p
0001 SOH DC1 ! 1 A Q a q
0010 STX DC2 " 2 B R b r
0011 ETX DC3 # 3...
000 001 010 011 100 101 110 111
0000 NULL DLE 0 @ P ` p
0001 SOH DC1 ! 1 A Q a q
0010 STX DC2 " 2 B R b r
0011 ETX DC3 # 3...
95 Graphic codes
000 001 010 011 100 101 110 111
0000 NULL DLE 0 @ P ` p
0001 SOH DC1 ! 1 A Q a q
0010 STX DC2 " 2 B R b r...
33 Control codes
000 001 010 011 100 101 110 111
0000 NULL DLE 0 @ P ` p
0001 SOH DC1 ! 1 A Q a q
0010 STX DC2 " 2 B R b r...
Alphabetic codes
000 001 010 011 100 101 110 111
0000 NULL DLE 0 @ P ` p
0001 SOH DC1 ! 1 A Q a q
0010 STX DC2 " 2 B R b r...
“Hello, world” Example
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
Binary
01001000
01100101
01101100
01101100
01101111
00101100
00100000
01110...
Numeric codes
000 001 010 011 100 101 110 111
0000 NULL DLE 0 @ P ` p
0001 SOH DC1 ! 1 A Q a q
0010 STX DC2 " 2 B R b r
00...
Audio Information Representation (1)
 Sound is perceived when a series of air
compressions vibrate a membrane in our ear,...
Audio Formats
 Several popular formats are: WAV, AU, AIFF, VQF,
and MP3. Currently, the dominant format for
compressing a...
Representing Images and Graphics (4)
RGB Value
ColorRed Green Blue
0 0 0 black
255 255 255 white
255 255 0 yellow
255 130 ...
Digitized Images and Graphics
 Digitizing a picture is the act of representing
it as a collection of individual dots call...
BMP Raster Image Example
 The smiley face in the
top left corner is a
bitmap image.
 When enlarged,
individual pixels ap...
Review Question 6
Given a raster image with a 16x12
resolution, what would be the number of
pixels:
A. 192 pixels
B. 256 p...
Review Question 7
Given a raster image with a 16x12
resolution, what would be the aspect
ratio:
A. 16:9
B. 4:3
C. 3:2
D. I...
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Fundmentals of ICT in B2b on Telecomms Platform

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* An overview of ICT and applications in B2B.
* Touching on the most common ICT applications, and trends on telecom platform.
* Touching on the basic infrastructure that supports the use of ICT tools and services within organizations.
* Application Interface.
* Data representation and Processing

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  • 3 Frames form a morph from George W. Bush to Arnold Schwarzenegger showing also the mid-point between the two extremes
  • Fundmentals of ICT in B2b on Telecomms Platform

    1. 1. ICT in B2B Tunde Omitogun Hisplus Systems Limited. info@hisplus.net www.hisplus.net +234-809-505-2922 +234-803-888-8701
    2. 2. Fundamentals of ICT in B2B on Telecom‟s Platform An overview of ICT and applications in B2B. Touching on the most common ICT applications, and trends. Touching on the basic infrastructure that supports the use of ICT tools and services within organizations. Application Interface Data representation and Processing
    3. 3. • B2B stands for business to business. Some businesses only provide products or services to other businesses. • B2B is frequently used as to describe different types of transactions and services between two businesses. • Selling B2B selling applications allow a business to sell to other businesses through an electronic transaction. Some companies choose to sell through a private website while others may use an electronic selling service, or e-commerce site, run by another business. • B2B buying applications involve a business purchasing goods and services from another company via an electronic transaction. This can also be done via an e- commerce site. • E-commerce is the way shopping and selling is done on Internet. Credit cards can be used to purchase services and products in virtual stores. Marketing Businesses can also use electronic means to market their services and goods to other businesses. • Email promotions and electronic newsletters are commonly used to promote B2B services. • "Business to Business" markets, in which sellers sale to the other businesses instead of final consumers and Buyers purchase to resale the goods after finishing to end- users. An example of it is wholesale business in which Wholesalers buy from manufacturers in order to resell the products to "retailers".
    4. 4. B2B: Business-to-business (B2B) describes commerce transactions between businesses, such as • between a manufacturer and a wholesaler • between a wholesaler and a retailer. Contrasting terms are business- to-consumer (B2C) and business-to-government (B2G). • B2B branding is a term used in marketing. • The overall volume of B2B (Business-to-Business) transactions is much higher than the volume of B2C transactions. • The primary reason for this is that in a typical supply chain there will be many B2B transactions involving sub components or raw materials, and only one B2C transaction, specifically sale of the finished product to the end customer. • For example, an automobile manufacturer makes several B2B transactions such as buying tires, glass for windscreens, and rubber hoses for its vehicles. The final transaction, a finished vehicle sold to the consumer, is a single (B2C) transaction.
    5. 5. Applications of ICT in B2B
    6. 6. ICT BANKING INDUSTRY EDUCATION business Oil and Gas Real Estate Entertainment
    7. 7. 1.EDUCATION E-learning To manage books Eg: library automation system School mgt system
    8. 8.  E-Learning – Student and lecturer can communicate to each other if there is something problem or have to make discussion no matter how far the distance to each other.  Internet – We have an internet to get more information about our learning.
    9. 9. B2B platform for bank customers 2. BANKING Assembling ATM Machine to dispense naira
    10. 10.  E-Banking - Online services such as transfer money and pay bill online. ATM Machine - to withdraw and to transfer money
    11. 11. 3. INDUSTRY Automobile manufacturing Industry using robotic / SCADA Eg : factory ERP
    12. 12. Advertising. Eg : billboard, magazine 4. COMMERCE E-commerce. Buying and selling something from the internet Eg : online payment Partnership Manufacturers – Distributors
    13. 13. Applicationscommunicating applications newsletters websites multimedia presentations music scores cartoons flyers / posters interactive communication applications blogs wikis social networking websites Entertainment Animation Make belief Movie Morphing Music Games analysis measurement applications scientific experiments electronic timing environmental monitoring data handling applications surveys address lists tuck shop records clubs and society records school reports school libraries control applications turtle graphics control of lights, buzzers and motors automatic washing machines automatic cookers central heating controllers burglar alarms video recorders / players microwave ovens computer controlled greenhouse modelling applications 3D modelling simulation (e.g. flight or driving) spreadsheets for personal finance spreadhseets for tuck shop finances
    14. 14. Applicationscommunication applications the Internet electronic mail fax electronic conferencing mobile telephones Internet telephony (VOIP) services publicity and corporate image publications business cards letterheads flyers brochures applications in manufacturing industries robotics in manufacture production line control applications for finance departments billing systems stock control payroll school management systems registration records Reports applications in the retail industry stock control POS EFTPOS internet shopping automatic re- ordering booking systems travel industry theatre cinemas applications in banking Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT) ATMs for cash withdrawals and bill paying credit/debit cards cheque clearing phone banking Internet banking applications in medicine doctors' information systems hospital and pharmacy records patient monitoring expert systems for diagnosis applications in libraries records of books and borrowers issue of books the use of expert systems mineral prospecting car engine fault diagnosis medical diagnosis chess games
    15. 15. Few ICT data from developing countries E-commerce (B2B, B2C, B2G sales and purchases) Use of ICT by SMEs (e-business) Use of ICT within economic sectors (wholesale & retail trade, services, manufacturing) Emerging data collection For promoting competitiveness in enterprises in SMEs For measuring ICT impact on enterprise development For policy advice on development strategies incorporating ICTs ICT data and B2B
    16. 16. E-tourism as case study  E-tourism is the digitisation of all the processes and value chains in the tourism, travel, hospitality and catering industries that enable organisations to maximise their efficiency and effectiveness
    17. 17. Tourisma. Hotel Reservation Systems i. Reservation Systems (CRS) ii. Profiles iii. Groups and blocks iv. Rate and inventory control v. Administration vi. Reporting vii. Global distribution interface viii. PMS interface ix. Tracking of inventory in real time. x. CVB access to real time inventory at participating hotels. xi. Notification for reservation. xii. Confirmation of reservation. b. Events Management System i. Event organizers for routing ii. Customizable Events Management c. Advertisement Management i. Advertising Presentation Banners ii. Branding iii. Marketing through the Global Distribution System (GDS) and Computer d. Technical support i. Help-Desk Support ii. Knowledge Management iii. Online Ticket Support Management f. Tourism i. Tour Operators Management ii. Tourist product suppliers and iii. Pre-travel arrangements 1. general information 2. availability/prices inquiries 3. negotiations and bargaining 4. reservations & confirmations iv. ancillary services 1. Travel related documentation 2. lists of groups/visitors 3. receipts/documents 4. vouchers & tickets production v. Post travel arrangements 1. payments & commissions 2. feedback & suggestions 3. complaint handling vi. Consolidation of distribution structure of organized tours vii. Business travel viii. Vacation packages ix. Location strategy targeting major world capitals x. Location strategy in sun, sea and sand destinations with suitable access xi. Tour Operators Marketing and promotion strategic management xii. Elite tourism xiii. Mass tourism xiv. Segmented tourism xv. Restaurants Management xvi. Excursions with registered private guides xvii. Low-price standardized tour xviii. Tourist class hotels
    18. 18. ICT Today  Cell phone applications (SMS)  Digital cameras  Internet  Wireless (WiFi and WiMAN)  GPS & GIS  Digital radio  Applications on demand
    19. 19. Characteristics (Cont)  Dominated by small enterprise  History of lengthy supply chains based on commissions – Product suppliers – Consolidators – Wholesalers – Retailers – Consumers
    20. 20. ICT, b2b and Tourism  e-tourism is the leading B2B with B2C applications - 40% of all B2C e-commerce  50% of German tourists use Internet to get information on destinations.  "Internet will account for 25% of travel purchases within the next five years."  “…Predicted to be the next revolution in travel technology. … Waiting for the customer to come to you is no longer enough."  Brand: 80 percent of on-line customers prefer buying from companies they already know.
    21. 21. Tourism Site Selection, Management, Monitoring  Geospatial Information Technologies help delineate: – Boundaries of the proposed tourism attractions – Location of surrounding communities – Who has rights to which pieces of land – Proximity of roads and lodging to proposed sites – Areas in need of protection – Location of utilities – water, power – How land use is changing over time V. Managing, monitoring site and destination IV. Operations III. Customer Relationship Management II. Marketing I. Selecting, designing, developing destination
    22. 22. Sites that Leverage Well-Known Brands & Niche Channels
    23. 23. Prevalence of PCs and access to Internet Presence of website, intranet and extranet Use of ICTs for business processes: Customer relationship management Finance, budget and account management Human resource management Product design & development Logistics (inbound & outbound) and inventory control Product service and support Knowledge management ICT usage in b2b
    24. 24. Few official ICT data in developing countries despite increasing demand Indicators and data are rarely comparable between countries Insights Businesses with PCs ..   ..       Employees using PCs .. ..  .. .. ..   .. .. Businesses with an intranet  ..     ..   .. Businesses with an extranet  ..  ..   ..   .. Businesses with Internet access           Employees using the Internet ..   ..  ..   .. .. Businesses with a website      ..   ..  Businesses receiving orders over the Internet (Internet sales)  ..  .. ..    ..  Businesses placing orders over the Internet (Internet purchases) .. .. ..  ..    .. .. Indicator Argentina Chile Colombia Russian Federation Singapore ThailandMorocco Peru Philippines Romania 23 developing countries surveyed 20 replies, of which 10 provided comparable results Source: UNCTAD (2004) Household data is more prevalent than business data Readiness (access) data is more prevalent than intensity (usage) data Limited capacity for ICT data collection
    25. 25. Exercise  How have you been using Information communication Technology in you’re your business as a provider of products and services for other businesses?
    26. 26. Some examples of IT  Image Morphing – changing (or morphing) one image into another through a seamless transition
    27. 27.  Video Conferencing Some examples of IT
    28. 28.  GPS Tracking – Track your vehicles, wherever they go, using GPS.  Geo Spatial for O&G Some examples of IT
    29. 29. Exercise  List some other uses in enterprises b2b – Computer Technology – Communication Technology
    30. 30. Related IT terms  The E-word ; E Stands for Electronic –E-mail –E-learning –E-business –E-commerce –E-government
    31. 31. Exercise  Generate a list of ways the computer/IT has impacted the world. – Include both positive changes and negative changes. – think creatively.
    32. 32. Exercise  How difficult would it be to live without computers?
    33. 33. ICT b2b In Society  Computers / mobile at home • Business • Entertainment • Communication • Education 1A-33
    34. 34. Computers / mobile In Society  Computers in education – Computer literacy required at all levels  Computers in small business – Makes businesses more profitable – Allows owners to manage  Computers in industry – Computers are used to design products – Assembly lines are automated 1A-34
    35. 35. Computers / mobile In Society  Computers in government – Necessary to track data for population • Police officers • Tax calculation and collection – Governments should be the first computer users. Is it in Nigeria? 1A-35
    36. 36. Computers / mobile In Society  Computers in health care – Revolutionized health care – New treatments possible – Scheduling of patients has improved – Delivery of medicine is safer 1A-36
    37. 37. Connectivity Interactivity Multimedia Auto PC Where Is Information Technology Headed? Three Directions of Communication Development
    38. 38. When Computers & Communications Combine: Convergence, Portability, & Personalization Convergence Portability Personalization
    39. 39.  What should be the next Technology? – What can be the applications of that technology? – Your own ideas/thoughts
    40. 40. Infrastructures Support for ICT Tools
    41. 41. Infrastructure Backbone e.g. MTN Information and Communication Infrastructure for Grenada ICT Industry Development Modernizing Government Human Resource Development Regulation & Legal Infrastructure ICT Infrastructure
    42. 42. ICT Dynamic Industry Knowledge- Based Society MTN Physical Infrastructure Human Resource Development Regulatory & Legal Infrastructure LAN Development Access & Connectivity Pre-Literacy Internet Access Facilities IT Competence E-CommerceE-Government E-Business Infrastructure Backbone LAN/WAN Strategy & Action Plan E-Transaction
    43. 43. ICT for Grenada-Physical Infrastructure Infrastructure Backbone Integrated Voice, Data, Video Ease Of Access Connectivity WAN Tele-Density of 1:1
    44. 44. ICT for Grenada -Education & TrainingInfrastructural Support ( Business / Oil and Gas / SME) Infrastructure Backbone SME O and G Vocational Training Tertiary Education Skill TargetsReal Estate Entertainment Financial Institution
    45. 45. Companies Infrastructure Backbone ICT for Grenada - Regulation & Legal Infrastructure Recognition of electronic records Original Form Writing Formation & Validity Signatures Certification Service Providers Standards & Code Of conduct Virtual Companies Encryption Liability Of Intermediaries Personal Data
    46. 46. ICT for Grenada - Regulation & Legal Infrastructure Companies Infrastructure Backbone Recognition of electronic records Original Form Writing Formation & Validity Signatures Certification Service Providers Standards & Code Of conduct Virtual Companies Encryption Liability Of Intermediaries Personal Data • Judicial admissibility for e-documents • “ In Writing” requirements satisfied by e-documents • e-records used in place of originals • e-signatures authorize usage for evidentiary purposes • Authentication of e- signature through issue of accredited certification • e- contractual acceptance for all contractual negotiations •Electronic business boundaries definition • Lawful use of encryption programs, and authority to decode encrypted information • Clear definition of the liabilities of ISP’s and protection against content • Standards established to guide quality of transaction behavior • Standards and protection criteria established for personal data
    47. 47. E- Government Local Area Network Ministry Agriculture, Lands Ministry Social Services Ministry Finance DEPARTMENTS E-Government Server/Storage / Resources Ministry Health State Govt Ministry Foreign Affairs Ministry Office Ministry Implementation Ministry Tourism,Civil Aviation Ministry Carriacou & Petite Martinique Ministry Education Ministry Works, Com. Ministry Legal Affairs Youth,Sports & Community Dev Infrastructure Backbone Customs
    48. 48. E- Business Local Area Network ON-LINE SHOPPING TELE-BANKING E-Business Server/Storage ATM Help Desk Services Professional Services Financial Transactions ON-LINE PURCHASING Infrastructure Backbone Global Advertising
    49. 49. E- Commerce Local Area Network Manufacturing Placing Orders E-Commerce Server/Storage/ Resources Real Estate Investment Services Professional Services Financial Transactions On-Line Marketing Infrastructure Backbone Global Transaction
    50. 50. Application Interface An application interface specifies how some ICT tools should interact with B2B.
    51. 51. Application Interface  Characteristics of different types of user interfaces.  Types of user interfaces which make them appropriate for use by different types of users or B2B.
    52. 52. Human Computer Interface (HCI) / User Interface (UI)  The means by which the human and the computer communicate.
    53. 53. Human Computer / User Interfaces Graphical User Interface (GUI) Command Line Interface (CLI) Natural Language Windows Icons Mouse Pointer (WIMP) Windows, Apple Mac, Linux DOS Menu- Based Form - Based e.g. Key:
    54. 54. Graphical User Interface (GUI) Most popular today is WIMP (windows, icons, menus, pointer). –View different applications or files in windows. –Use some sort of pointing device to select options in menus and small pictures (icons).
    55. 55. Uses of GUI Non-experienced user Justifications Largely intuitive and only requires a little knowledge of how a computer actually works. It is possible to restrict access to certain parts of the system.
    56. 56. Command Line Interface (CLI) User types a series of commands at the keyboard which tell the computer what their intentions are. The user needs to: –Know what commands are available. –Understand the commands. –Understand the way that material is stored in the computer system.
    57. 57. Uses of CLI technician looking after a network Justifications Allows access to whole system. Does not use large amount of memory
    58. 58. Menu Based Interface Restricted number of choices offered to the user which may lead to further sub-menus. Uses of Menu Based Interface Typically with touch screen e.g. information bureaus
    59. 59.  Easy to use and very intuitive (even for non-computer users), requires almost no knowledge of how a computer actually works.  Limits user to choices required by the data structure  Easy to test, administer and change  Restricts access to computer system  Helps customers to determine what they want because choices are given at each stage. Justifications
    60. 60. Form Based Interface  Replicates a hard copy paper form.  Specified areas for the data which may have helpful instructions (usually by clicking a ? mark by the text box). –E.g. boxes for input of coded material like the date or the sex of the customer, and areas to be filled in with textual information.  Can contain radio buttons and/or drop down lists.  A cursor moves to the next box to be filled in.  Highlighted boxes make it clear where the data is to be inserted  User can be forced to enter data before being allowed to continue.  Checks can be made to make sure input is sensible for that box before moving on to the next.
    61. 61. Uses of Form Based Interface telephone sales, order forms Justifications User can be forced to enter data in a predetermined order Does not allow information to be missed out Simple to use and easy to validate data
    62. 62. Plenary  What is a or human computer interface or user interface? – The means by which the human and the computer communicate.
    63. 63. Plenary  Describe the following types of user interface. For each type of interface give a suitable use, justifying your answer in each case.
    64. 64. Plenary  Form-based – Prompts operator for inputs / Specified areas for the data / Data entered in order / in format – Operator taking information over phone – Does not allow information to be missed out / simple to use  Graphical User Interface (GUI) – Icons used to stand for options/when selected, command code is run/normally accessed by use of mouse or other pointing device / WIMP – Non-experienced user / child in school – Restricts access to certain parts of the system
    65. 65. Plenary  Command line – Set of commands recognised by the OS / typed in at prompt/need to be learned by user – Technician – Allows access to whole system / does not use large amount of memory  Menu based – Restricted number of choices offered to the user which may lead to further sub-menus. – Typically with touch screen e.g. information bureaus – Helps customers to determine what they want because choices are given at each stage.
    66. 66. Plenary  Wired  Wireless  VPN
    67. 67. Define e-business and discuss how it can help achieve business success. Distinguish between a corporate and a marketing Web site. List the major forms of B2B e-business. Explain B2C e-business and identify the products most often sold online. Describe some of the challenges associated with e-business. Discuss how organizations use Internet communications to advance their objectives. Discuss Web sites and identify methods for measuring Web site effectiveness. Explain the global scope of e-business. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Exercises
    68. 68. Guess what Nigeria stats would be?
    69. 69. It is easier to create a bad website than a good one. Organizations must think about: Planning and Preparation Content and Connections Costs and Maintenance
    70. 70. Cloud Computing: Software-as-a-Service for b2b The Changing Face of Infrastructure Expressed Interest Public Impact LOW HIGH HIGH TechnologyComplexity Cost FOIA Manager Situational Landscape Health Terminology Management Grants Mgmt Data Visualization Call Center Management Broad solution targeted at a specific function Specialized solution targeted at specific activity or problem Low Complexity, Low Cost, High Interest, High Impact Low Complexity, Low Cost, Low Interest, Low Impact High Complexity, High Cost, High Interest, High Impact High Complexity, High Cost, Low Interest, Low Impact Asset Management Security-As-A- Service Compute-As- A-Service IT Service Mgmt Storage-As-A- Service Social Collaboration E-Mail ERP Logistics
    71. 71. Innovations to Address Mobile Workforce in b2b On Travel Disaster Response In the Office Home PC On-A-Stick • Mobility: Desktop Travels with You on a Flash Drive • Tiered Security: Application White Listing and Wrappers, Hardware Encryption • Enterprise Management: Complete Centralized Control
    72. 72. Mobile Solutions  Incident Management – Aids Field Tech Investigation, Diagnosis, Resolution, Problem ID • Expert Help • Knowledge Base Access • Rich Capture  Asset Management – Integration with scanner technology • By year-end 2015, 2.0 billion people will carry handsets capable of rich, mobile commerce providing a rich environment for the convergence of mobility and the Web (Gartner) • By 2012, 70% of all workers will be mobile and 90% of all enterprises will develop at least one mobile application (Forrester & IDC)
    73. 73. Data Representation an Processing
    74. 74. Computing Systems Data  Usually the computing systems are complex devices, dealing with a vast array of information categories  The computing systems store, present, and help us modify: – Text – Audio – Images and graphics – Video
    75. 75. Digital vs. Analog (1)  Computing systems are finite machines. They store a limited amount of information, even if the limit is very big. – The goal, is to represent enough of the world to satisfy our computational needs and our senses of sight and sound.  The information can be represented in one or two ways: analog or digital. – Analog data is a continuous representation, analogous to the actual information it represents. • In example, a mercury thermometer is an analog device. The mercury rises in a continuous flow in the tube in direct proportion to the temperature. – Digital data is a discrete representation, breaking the information up into separate (discrete) elements. • Computers can’t work with analog information, so a need do digitize the analog information arise. • This is done by breaking the analog information into pieces and representing those pieces using binary digits
    76. 76. Digital vs. Analog (2)  Why digital signal? – Both electronic signals (analog and digital) degrade as they move down a line. The voltage of the signal fluctuates due to environmental effects. – As soon as an analog signal degrades, information is lost. Since any voltage level within the range is valid, it is impossible to know that the original signal was even changed – Digital signals jump sharply between two extremes (high and low state). A digital signal can degrade quite a bit until the information is lost, because any value over a certain threshold is considered high value and bellow the threshold is considered low value  Answer: Signal Integrity can be maintained!
    77. 77. Digital vs. Analog (3) Threshold 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Digital Signal Analog Signal Digital Signal Degradation Analog Signal Degradation • You can still retrieve the information from a reasonably degraded digital signal • Periodically a digital signal is reclocked to regain its original shape. As long as it is reclocked before too much degradation, no info is lost.
    78. 78. Binary Representation (1)  Why binary representation (as suppose to decimal or octal, etc..)? – Because the devices that store and manage the digital data are far less expensive and complex for binary representation. – They are also far more reliable when they have to represent one out of two possible values. – Because the electronic signals are easier to maintain if they carry only binary data.
    79. 79. Binary Representation (2)  One bit can be either 0 or 1. Therefore, one bit can represent only two things.  To represent more than two things, we need multiple bits. Two bits can represent four things because there are four combinations of 0 and 1 that can be made from two bits: 00, 01, 10,11.  In general, n bits can represent 2n things because there are 2n combinations of 0 and 1 that can be made from n bits. Note that every time we increase the number of bits by 1, we double the number of things we can represent.
    80. 80. Review Question 1  Why digital signal is better than analogue signal in computing systems A. Signal integrity can be maintained relatively easy B. Information is never lost C. Digital signal is more precise D. I don’t know …
    81. 81. Review Question 2 How many things can a bit represent ? A. One B. Two C. Ten D. I don’t know …
    82. 82. Review Question 3 How many things a byte can represent ? A. One B. Two C. 256 D. I don’t know
    83. 83. Data Formats - How to Interpret Data  Meaning of internal representation must be appropriate for the type of processing to take place: – i.e. Images & sound: have to be digitized • Images – need detailed description of the data, how color is represented at each data point • Sound – need sampling rate  Proprietary formats – Unique to a product or company – E.g., Microsoft Word, Corel Word Perfect, IBM Lotus Notes  Standards – Evolve two ways: • Proprietary formats become de facto standards (e.g., Adobe PostScript, Apple Quick Time) • Committee is struck to solve a problem (Motion Pictures Experts Group, MPEG)
    84. 84. Why Standards? They exist because they are: – Convenient – sometimes the time to market is very important whenever trying to finish a product, therefore existing standards may be used to save time elaborating own protocols and interfaces – Efficient – most of the standards are put together by committees with a wide experience in the specific area – Flexible – usually the standards allow for manufacturer or OEM specific extensions – Appropriate – address a specific problem in a specific domain  Allow communication and sharing of information  Allow computing systems and software to interoperate (at both hardware and software levels)  Sometimes standards are arbitrary and have some “blast from the past” (due to historical evolution)
    85. 85. Standards Organizations  ISO – International Standards Organization  IEEE – Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers  CSA – Canadian Standards Association  ANSI – American National Standards Institute  NSAI – National Standards Authority of Ireland
    86. 86. Examples of Standards Type of Data Standards Alphanumeric ASCII, Unicode Image JPEG, GIF, PCX, TIFF, BMP, etc Motion picture MPEG-2, MPEG-4, etc Sound WAV, AU, MP3, etc.. Outline graphics/fonts PostScript, TrueType, PDF
    87. 87. Alphanumeric Data  Three standards for representing letters (alpha) and numbers – ASCII – American Standard Code for Information Interchange – EBCDIC – Extended Binary-Coded Decimal Interchange Code (not used anymore, used to be used in IBM mainframes) – Unicode
    88. 88. Codes and Characters  The problem: – Representing text strings, such as “Hello, world”, in a computer  Each character is coded as a byte ( = 8 bits)  Most common coding system is ASCII  ASCII = American National Standard Code for Information Interchange
    89. 89. ASCII Features  7-bit code  8th bit is unused (or used for a parity bit)  27 = 128 codes  Two general types of codes: – 95 are “Graphic” codes (displayable on a console) – 33 are “Control” codes (control features of the console or communications channel)
    90. 90. 000 001 010 011 100 101 110 111 0000 NULL DLE 0 @ P ` p 0001 SOH DC1 ! 1 A Q a q 0010 STX DC2 " 2 B R b r 0011 ETX DC3 # 3 C S c s 0100 EDT DC4 $ 4 D T d t 0101 ENQ NAK % 5 E U e u 0110 ACK SYN & 6 F V f v 0111 BEL ETB ' 7 G W g w 1000 BS CAN ( 8 H X h x 1001 HT EM ) 9 I Y i y 1010 LF SUB * : J Z j z 1011 VT ESC + ; K [ k { 1100 FF FS , < L l | 1101 CR GS - = M ] m } 1110 SO RS . > N ^ n ~ 1111 SI US / ? O _ o DEL Most significant bit Least significant bit Replace any with naira
    91. 91. 000 001 010 011 100 101 110 111 0000 NULL DLE 0 @ P ` p 0001 SOH DC1 ! 1 A Q a q 0010 STX DC2 " 2 B R b r 0011 ETX DC3 # 3 C S c s 0100 EDT DC4 $ 4 D T d t 0101 ENQ NAK % 5 E U e u 0110 ACK SYN & 6 F V f v 0111 BEL ETB ' 7 G W g w 1000 BS CAN ( 8 H X h x 1001 HT EM ) 9 I Y i y 1010 LF SUB * : J Z j z 1011 VT ESC + ; K [ k { 1100 FF FS , < L l | 1101 CR GS - = M ] m } 1110 SO RS . > N ^ n ~ 1111 SI US / ? O _ o DEL i.e. „a‟ = 11000012 = 9710 = 6116
    92. 92. 95 Graphic codes 000 001 010 011 100 101 110 111 0000 NULL DLE 0 @ P ` p 0001 SOH DC1 ! 1 A Q a q 0010 STX DC2 " 2 B R b r 0011 ETX DC3 # 3 C S c s 0100 EDT DC4 $ 4 D T d t 0101 ENQ NAK % 5 E U e u 0110 ACK SYN & 6 F V f v 0111 BEL ETB ' 7 G W g w 1000 BS CAN ( 8 H X h x 1001 HT EM ) 9 I Y i y 1010 LF SUB * : J Z j z 1011 VT ESC + ; K [ k { 1100 FF FS , < L l | 1101 CR GS - = M ] m } 1110 SO RS . > N ^ n ~ 1111 SI US / ? O _ o DEL
    93. 93. 33 Control codes 000 001 010 011 100 101 110 111 0000 NULL DLE 0 @ P ` p 0001 SOH DC1 ! 1 A Q a q 0010 STX DC2 " 2 B R b r 0011 ETX DC3 # 3 C S c s 0100 EDT DC4 $ 4 D T d t 0101 ENQ NAK % 5 E U e u 0110 ACK SYN & 6 F V f v 0111 BEL ETB ' 7 G W g w 1000 BS CAN ( 8 H X h x 1001 HT EM ) 9 I Y i y 1010 LF SUB * : J Z j z 1011 VT ESC + ; K [ k { 1100 FF FS , < L l | 1101 CR GS - = M ] m } 1110 SO RS . > N ^ n ~ 1111 SI US / ? O _ o DEL
    94. 94. Alphabetic codes 000 001 010 011 100 101 110 111 0000 NULL DLE 0 @ P ` p 0001 SOH DC1 ! 1 A Q a q 0010 STX DC2 " 2 B R b r 0011 ETX DC3 # 3 C S c s 0100 EDT DC4 $ 4 D T d t 0101 ENQ NAK % 5 E U e u 0110 ACK SYN & 6 F V f v 0111 BEL ETB ' 7 G W g w 1000 BS CAN ( 8 H X h x 1001 HT EM ) 9 I Y i y 1010 LF SUB * : J Z j z 1011 VT ESC + ; K [ k { 1100 FF FS , < L l | 1101 CR GS - = M ] m } 1110 SO RS . > N ^ n ~ 1111 SI US / ? O _ o DEL
    95. 95. “Hello, world” Example = = = = = = = = = = = = Binary 01001000 01100101 01101100 01101100 01101111 00101100 00100000 01110111 01101111 01110010 01101100 01100100 Hexadecimal 48 65 6C 6C 6F 2C 20 77 6F 72 6C 64 Decimal 72 101 108 108 111 44 32 119 111 114 108 100 H e l l o , w o r l d = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = Note: 12 characters – requires 12 bytes Each character requires 1 byte
    96. 96. Numeric codes 000 001 010 011 100 101 110 111 0000 NULL DLE 0 @ P ` p 0001 SOH DC1 ! 1 A Q a q 0010 STX DC2 " 2 B R b r 0011 ETX DC3 # 3 C S c s 0100 EDT DC4 $ 4 D T d t 0101 ENQ NAK % 5 E U e u 0110 ACK SYN & 6 F V f v 0111 BEL ETB ' 7 G W g w 1000 BS CAN ( 8 H X h x 1001 HT EM ) 9 I Y i y 1010 LF SUB * : J Z j z 1011 VT ESC + ; K [ k { 1100 FF FS , < L l | 1101 CR GS - = M ] m } 1110 SO RS . > N ^ n ~ 1111 SI US / ? O _ o DEL
    97. 97. Audio Information Representation (1)  Sound is perceived when a series of air compressions vibrate a membrane in our ear, which sends signals to our brain  A stereo sends an electrical signal to a speaker to produce sound. This signal is an analog representation of the sound wave. The voltage in the signal varies in direct proportion to the sound wave  To digitize the signal we periodically measure the voltage of the signal and record the appropriate numeric value. The process is called sampling  In general, a sampling rate of around 40,000 times per second is enough to create a very good high quality sound reproduction
    98. 98. Audio Formats  Several popular formats are: WAV, AU, AIFF, VQF, and MP3. Currently, the dominant format for compressing audio data is MP3.  MP3 is short for MPEG-2, audio layer 3 file.  Compressed formats usually employ both lossy and lossless compression. – Analyzes the frequency spread and compares it to mathematical models of human psychoacoustics (the study of the interrelation between the ear and the brain) and it discards information that can’t be heard by humans. – Then the bit stream is compressed using a form of Huffman encoding to achieve additional compression.
    99. 99. Representing Images and Graphics (4) RGB Value ColorRed Green Blue 0 0 0 black 255 255 255 white 255 255 0 yellow 255 130 255 Pink 146 81 0 brown 157 95 82 purple 140 0 0 maroon
    100. 100. Digitized Images and Graphics  Digitizing a picture is the act of representing it as a collection of individual dots called pixels.  The number of pixels used to represent a picture is called the resolution.  The storage of image information on a pixel- by-pixel basis is called a raster-graphics format. – Several popular raster file formats including bitmap (BMP), GIF, and JPEG.
    101. 101. BMP Raster Image Example  The smiley face in the top left corner is a bitmap image.  When enlarged, individual pixels appear as squares.  Each pixel is described by a value for red, green and blue.
    102. 102. Review Question 6 Given a raster image with a 16x12 resolution, what would be the number of pixels: A. 192 pixels B. 256 pixels C. 512 pixels D. I don’t know …
    103. 103. Review Question 7 Given a raster image with a 16x12 resolution, what would be the aspect ratio: A. 16:9 B. 4:3 C. 3:2 D. I don’t know …
    104. 104. End

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