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Road Side Information Infrastructure vs. Indepebdent Self Driving Vehicles

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Two types of self driving vehicles are introduced: 1) Independent self driving vehicle which is usually known as self driving vehicle with high capacity AI system whose price is very high because of high research and development cost, , and 2) self driving vehicle heavily dependent on information provided by road side information infrastructure. The second case needs a huge amount of investment to build the infrastructure and big amount of budget. Fortunately self driving vehicle of the second case needs much simpler AI than the first case. My proposal is A) building road side information infrastructure only city area and high way. Then we get rid of huge investment for wide rural area. In sparsely populated rural area, traffic is rare and simple AI based self driving vehicles, I guess, work well. I also explain legal liability of both 1) and 2) cases.

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Road Side Information Infrastructure vs. Indepebdent Self Driving Vehicles

  1. 1. Road Side Information Infrastructure versus Independent Self-Driving Vehicles Hiroshi Nakagawa RIKEN AIP Sep. 1. 2018 Saarland University German-Japanese Conference on New Technology Governance Images in the following slides are Creative Commons (CC by SA)retrieved by PowerPoint2016
  2. 2. . . . Other Road Segment Data Road Segment Data Automotive Car Data Collector RSD Integrater Integrated RSD Map Maker Online Map Self driving = following the precise road map Self-driving vehicle with cameras
  3. 3. Automotive Car Data Collector RSD Integrater . . . Other Road Segment Data Road Segment Data Integrated RSD Map Maker Online Map Self driving(SD) = following the precise road map Matching the online map and recognized camera image and follow the route
  4. 4. Independent S-D vehicle acquires information around it by cameras or lidars of its own • Information processing and understanding the outside situation needs heavy computation  powerful AI computer and consume a lot of power • Small dependency on the information provided from the road side information infrastructure
  5. 5. Road side information infrastructure Road side information infrastructure Road side information infrastructure gather the following kinds of information and send them to the vehicles approaching or nearby.  Road edge condition, including status of road construction  Information about vehicles nearby: location, direction, speed, drive plan  Traffic signal’s status  Pedestrians state around crossing , or side road.  Bikes state around crossing , or side road.
  6. 6. Dependent S-D vehicle acquires a big amount of information around it from the road side information infrastructure Full use from the outside of vehicle Road side information infrastructure • Heavy dependency on the information provided from the road side information infrastructure  Heavy cost of building this infrastructure : budget comes from national or local governments (eventually from tax) • Not so powerful AI system is needed on the vehicle  computer on a vehicle consumes less power
  7. 7. Comparison between Independent and Dependent S-D Amount of investment 1. Powerful AI system for independent S-D needs a big amount of money to research and development. Once developed and started to sell, no further heavy need of R and D. 2. To build road side information infrastructure, huge amount of investment will be needed. 1. If build in sparsely inhabited region, investment is quite big. 2. If build in densely populated area like city center, road side information infrastructure should be quite complex and high cost. Running cost also will be high. 3. If build along highway, it’s easy and cost will be not that big. Most cost effective case!
  8. 8. Proposal The total information system proposed here: 1. Road side information infrastructure is build on highway and densely populated city area 2. We need less powerful AI system for S-D vehicles , because they must work well only in sparsely inhabited region where traffic is low and easy to drive if good road map are provided. 3. Research and development of AI system for less powerful S-D vehicles will be much easier than AI system on full independent S-D vehicles. 4. Then investment for this less powerful AI system is expected to be much lower than full independent S-D. R&D cost for S-D vehicle is NOT that big, Get rid of big investment for road side info. Infra. in rural area.
  9. 9. Legal liability: Independent S-D vehicles Liability of AI system and sensors(camera and lidar) in accidents 1. AI components Products Liability 2. Developer’s Liability 3. Retailer’s Liability 4. Owner’s Liability 5. We have to consider that AI system sometimes behaves not as originally designed because it continues to learn by actual driving Accident between S-D vehicle and other vehicle(can be S-D). It is most important which of S-D or other vehicle more strictly obeyed the rules or laws , because percentage of responsibility depends on how illegally they drive. Driving record will surely give us the information about accident situation.  AI systems need to have the good ability of explanation.  AI system must be transparent, explainable and even accountable.
  10. 10. Legal liability: Dependent S-D vehicles Liability of AI system on vehicles in accidents 1. Background: AI system is simpler than Independent S-D, then AI system’s behavior is more predictable and more explainable in accident time. 2. Failure of communication system is fatal, but cause of communication failure is much simpler and predictable than complex AI.  Easy to identify who / what is responsible
  11. 11. Liability of road side information infrastructure 1. Road side info. Infra. consists of moving vehicle recognition( easy ), road surface condition recognition ( easy ) , 2. Moving bike recognition (not so easy) 3. Walking pedestrians recognition ( not so difficult because they are slower than vehicles) These recognition tasks are much easier than what AI on independent S-D vehicles does. Because road environment is fixed. AI on road side info. infra. is more simpler and explainable. Stable and reliable , of course maintenance is necessary and duty.
  12. 12. if accident, liability is inevitable for both of road side info. Infra. and S-D cars. Liability of road side info. Infra. is easily identified because of its fixed circumstance ( compared to moving Independent S-D vehicles). Liability of dependent S-D vehicles is easily identified because of simplicity of AI on it ( compared to moving Independent S-D vehicles).
  13. 13. Remaining Problem • The design of road information infrastructure must be the same at least within one country. • Who makes the unified design of road side information infrastructure ? • What organization invest to build road side information infrastructure? • The national government , local government, private enterprise, or? • Who maintains the system of road side information infrastructure ?
  14. 14. Thank you for your attention.

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