14 04 principles for curric development


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Principles for curriculum development

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14 04 principles for curric development

  1. 1. Principles for Curriculum Development Hirotaka Onishi, MD, MHPE International Research Center for Medical Education Graduate School of Medicine, the University of Tokyo
  2. 2. Textbooks
  3. 3. What Did You Learn in the Last Class?   
  4. 4. Goals of Medical Education  Begin with patient/society needs  Balance between basic sciences, clinical studies, and clinical practice  Balance of knowledge, attitude, and skills  Not only recalling information but also using it to solve problems (deep knowledge)
  5. 5. Educational System Elementary School 6 yrs Junior High School 3 yrs High School 3 yrs University 4 yrs (Medical, Dental, Pharmaceutical Curriculum 6 yrs)
  6. 6. Medical Career Medical School 6 yrs Postgraduate Training 2 yrs Fellowship 3-5? Yrs Continuing Medical Education
  7. 7. Name of Medical Education for Each Career Level in Japan Undergraduate Medical Education Preparatory Subjects Basic Sciences Clinical Medicine Postgraduate Medical Education Residency Fellowship Entrance Exam CAT License Exam
  8. 8. Major Changes in Medical Education Curricula 1. Until 1850: Basically OJT (on-the-job training)  Basic science was not developed widely 2. 1850~1950: Discipline-based curriculum  Microbiology, Physiology, Public health… 3. 1950s~60s: Organ-system-based curriculum  Cardiology, Gastroenterology…  Basic science and clinical medicine are integrated 4. 1970s~: PBL(problem-based learning)  Faculty-resource-intensive 5. 2000~: Outcome-based education
  9. 9. Innovative Curriculum The SPICES model Harden, 1984 Systematic Traditional Student-centred Teacher-centred Problem-based Passive acquisition Integrated Discipline-based Community Hospital-based Elective Standardized Systematic Opportunistic
  10. 10. Why Outcome-based Education?  Information explosion  Changing public expectation  Accountability  Informing curriculum decisions  Integrating teaching and assessment  Planning the continuum of education
  11. 11. Framework of Outcome-based Education Educational Environment Support Assessment How to learn (Methods) What to learn (Contents) Medical Students Educational Outcome
  12. 12. Examples of OBE (1)  6 outcomes of Postgraduate training: ACGME (Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education) ACGME Outcome Project: http://www.acgme.org/Outcome/  Patient Care  Medical Knowledge  Practice-Based Learning and Improvement  Interpersonal and Communication Skills  Professionalism  Systems-Based Practice
  13. 13. Examples of OBE (2) (CanMEDS 2000, 1996)
  14. 14. Examples of OBE (3) IIME (Institute for International Medical Education): GMER (Global Minimum Essential Requirements) in medical education Med Teach 2002, 24, 130–135 Clinical Skills Population Health Scientific Foundations Professional Values, Attitudes Critical Thinking Information Management Communication Skills
  15. 15. Examples of OBE (4) The Scottish Deans’ Medical Curriculum Group’s Three circle model (Simpson et al. Med Teach 2002, 24, 136-143) Medical informatics Patient management Patient investigation Clinical skills Communication Practical procedures Health promotion and disease prevention Personal development Role of the doctor within the health service Attitudes, ethical understanding and legal responsibilities Decision-making skills and clinical reasoning and judgement Basic, social and clinical sciences and underlying principles
  16. 16. Points of OBE  Integrated competencies (e.g. critical thinking and professionalism) are more clearly targeted.  Assessment for comprehensive performance is more emphasized  Nowadays “competency” is often used instead of “outcome” if mentioned for curriculum (e.g. competency-based curriculum)
  17. 17. Quality Assurance of Medical Education in Japan  Admission policy  Combination of nationwide achievement test and schools’ own examination (most have interview)  Diploma (graduating) policy  No external examiner, schools’ own policy  Institutional systems for quality assurance  Not specific  National standards for quality assurance  Guidelines for curriculum: Nationwide core curriculum + Common Achievement Test (for 4th year)  Quality assurance for undergraduate clinical teaching is difficult to implement
  18. 18. Accreditation System in Japan  In 2002, the Higher Education bureau, MOE declared the amendment of the 3rd paragraph of Article 69 of the School Education Act.  All the universities have to undergo self- evaluation process and accreditation by a certified body every 7 years.  This has become effective since 2004.  No specific accreditation system for medical education
  19. 19. Program Accreditation in Japan  Post-graduate professional schools (Law, Business, Accounting, and Midwifery) must undergo self-evaluation and take external “program evaluation” by accreditation bodies every 5 years according to the School Education Act.  Program certification only to only post- graduate professional schools.
  20. 20. Pharmaceutical Education Accreditation in Japan  Japan Accreditation Board for Pharmaceutical Education (JABPE) is now starting self-evaluation. Full-scale external evaluation will start in 2012. After 2012, all pharmacy schools will take accreditation.  Program certification by JABPE is voluntary activities. They are non-governmental bodies. These activities aspire their educations to be fit to their global standards.
  21. 21. Why Accreditation?  To assure the standardized medical education  To prepare for practitioners’ mobility to another country  In 2010 ECFMG states that all the examinees must graduate from internationally accredited medical schools after 2023
  22. 22. Group Discussion  What was the model of the curriculum you have experienced or known?  Any idea of which direction health professional education curricula goes.