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  1. 1. How Network Management Systems Work <ul><ul><li>WEEK 10 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>S1170055 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HIROMU KANOMATA </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. How Fiber Optics Work <ul><ul><li>An optical fiber (or fibre) is a glass or plastic fiber that carries light along its length. Fiber optics is the overlap of applied science and engineering concerned with the design and application of optical fibers. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. How Fiber Optics Work <ul><ul><li>An optical fiber is a cylindrical dielectric waveguide (nonconducting waveguide) that transmits light along its axis, by the process of total internal reflection. The fiber consists of a core surrounded by a cladding layer, both of which are made of dielectric materials. To confine the optical signal in the core, the refractive index of the core must be greater than that of the cladding. The boundary between the core and cladding may either be abrupt, in step-index fiber, or gradual, in graded-index fiber. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. How High-speed Dial-up Works <ul><ul><li>Dial-up connections to the Internet require no infrastructure other than the telephone network. As telephone access is widely available, dial-up remains useful to travelers. Dial-up is usually the only choice available for rural or remote areas where broadband installations are not prevalent due to low population and demand. Dial-up access may also be an alternative for users on limited budgets as it is offered for free by some ISPs, though broadband is increasingly available at lower prices in many countries due to market competition. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. How High-speed Dial-up Works <ul><ul><li>Modern dial-up modems typically have a maximum theoretical transfer speed of 56 kbit/s (using the V.90 or V.92 protocol), although in most cases 40-50 kbit/s is the norm. Factors such as phone line noise as well as the quality of the modem itself play a large part in determining connection speeds. Some connections may be as low as 20 kbit/s in extremely &quot;noisy&quot; environments, such as in a hotel room where the phone line is shared with many extensions. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. THE END