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Week10

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Week10

  1. 1. How Network Management Systems Work WEEK 10 S1170055 HIROMU KANOMATA
  2. 2. How Fiber Optics Work An optical fiber (or fibre) is a glass or plastic fiber that carries light along its length. Fiber optics is the overlap of applied science and engineering concerned with the design and applica- tion of optical fibers.
  3. 3. How Fiber Optics Work An optical fiber is a cylindrical dielec- tric waveguide (nonconducting waveguide) that transmits light along its axis, by the process of total internal reflec- tion. The fiber consists of a core sur- rounded by a cladding layer, both of which are made of dielectric materials. To confine the optical signal in the core, the refractive index of the core must be greater than that of the clad- ding. The boundary between the core and cladding may either be abrupt, in step- index fiber, or gradual, in graded-index fiber.
  4. 4. How High-speed Dial-up Works Dial-up connections to the Internet re- quire no infrastructure other than the telephone network. As telephone access is widely available, dial-up remains useful to travelers. Dial-up is usually the only choice available for rural or remote areas where broadband installa- tions are not prevalent due to low popu- lation and demand. Dial-up access may also be an alternative for users on lim- ited budgets as it is offered for free by some ISPs, though broadband is in- creasingly available at lower prices in many countries due to market competi- tion.
  5. 5. How High-speed Dial-up Works Modern dial-up modems typically have a maximum theoretical transfer speed of 56 kbit/s (using the V.90 or V.92 protocol), although in most cases 40-50 kbit/s is the norm. Factors such as phone line noise as well as the quality of the modem itself play a large part in determining connection speeds. Some con- nections may be as low as 20 kbit/s in extremely "noisy" environments, such as in a hotel room where the phone line is shared with many extensions.
  6. 6. THE END

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