Forging by vamja


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Forging by vamja

  1. 1. Darshan Institute Of Engineering & Technology HIREN R VAMJA
  2. 2.  Definition : Forging is process of plastically deforming metal or alloy to a specific shape by a compressive force exerted by some external agency like hammer, press, rolls,or by an upsetting machine of some kind.
  3. 3.  Forging is manufacturing process where metal is pressed, pounded or squeezed under great pressure into high strength parts known as forgings. The process is normally (but not always) performed hot by preheating the metal to a desired temperature before it is worked. It is important to note that the forging process is entirely different from the casting (or foundry) process, as metal used to make forged parts is never melted and poured (as in the casting process).
  4. 4. History of Forging: Forging is one of the oldest known metalworking processes. Traditionally, forging was performed by a smith using hammer and anvil, and though the use of water power in the production and working of iron dates to the 12th century, the hammer and anvil are not obsolete. The smithy or forge has evolved over centuries to become a facility with engineered processes, production equipment, tooling, raw materials and products to meet the demands of modern industry.
  5. 5.  In modern times, industrial forging is done either with presses or with hammers powered by compressed air, electricity, hydraulics or steam. These hammers may have reciprocating weights in the thousands of pounds. Smaller power hammers, 500 lb (230 kg) or less reciprocating weight, and hydraulic presses are common in art smithies as well. Some steam hammers remain in use, but they became obsolete with the availability of the other, more convenient, power sources.
  6. 6. Classification of Forging 1. Smith die forging • a. Hand forging • b. Power forging • Hammer forging • Press forging 2.impression-die forging • a.Drop forging • b.Press forging • c.Machine forging
  7. 7. 1. Smith die forging (open-die)  Smith forging, also called flat-die forging and open die forging.
  8. 8. The final shape of the forging depends on skill of smith or size and shape Smith forging, done by hand on an anvil, is employed only to shape a small number of light forging. Heavy forgings weighing up to 25,000 kg as well as medium forgings in small batches, are produced exclusively in hammers and presses
  9. 9. Open-Die Forging with No Friction  (1) Start of process with work-piece at its original length and diameter,  (2) partial compression, and  (3) final size
  10. 10. Open-Die Forging with Friction  Actual deformation of a cylindrical work part in open-die forging, showing pronounced barreling:  (1) start of process,  (2) partial deformation, and  (3) final shape
  11. 11. 2.Impression-die forging  Impression die forging presses metal between two dies (called tooling) that contain a profile of the desired part.
  12. 12.   More complex shape of greater accuracy can be formed by impression die forging techniques Large quantities of identical forging of greater accuracy are required as is necessary in mass production impression die forging are commonly use.
  13. 13.     Compression of work part by dies with inverse of desired part shape • Flash is formed by metal that flows beyond die cavity into small gap between die plates • Flash must be later trimmed, but it serves an important function during compression: – As flash forms, friction resists continued metal flow into gap constraining metal to fill die cavity
  14. 14. Advantages and Limitations of Impression-Die Forging  Advantages : – Higher production rates – Less waste of metal – Greater strength – Favorable grain orientation in the metal  Limitations: – Not capable of close tolerances – Machining is often required to achieve accuracies and features needed.
  15. 15. Applications of forging:           connecting rods crankshafts wheel spindles axle beams pistons, gears, and steering arms Automotive and Truck Aerospace Agricultural Valves and Fittings Industrial, Hardware and Tools
  16. 16. Industrial, Hardware and Tools