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Plant Parts


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Plant Parts

  1. 1. Parts of the plant and their functions
  2. 2. Importance of plants <ul><li>Without plants life on earth would not exist </li></ul>
  3. 3. Plants: <ul><li>Primary source of food for people and animals </li></ul><ul><li>Produce oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>help to keep us cool </li></ul><ul><li>renew the air </li></ul>
  4. 4. Plants: <ul><li>slow wind speed </li></ul><ul><li>provide a home for wildlife </li></ul><ul><li>beautify surroundings </li></ul><ul><li>perfume the air </li></ul><ul><li>furnish building materials and fuel </li></ul>
  5. 5. Parts of a plant <ul><li>Four basic parts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>leaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>roots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>flowers </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Leaves <ul><li>the food factory of the plant </li></ul><ul><li>produce the food used by the plant or stored for later use </li></ul>
  7. 7. Shape and size of leaves <ul><li>vary among plants </li></ul><ul><li>used for identification of plants </li></ul>
  8. 8. Leaf arrangement <ul><li>alternate </li></ul><ul><li>opposite </li></ul><ul><li>whorled </li></ul><ul><ul><li>arranged in a circle around the stem </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. External leaf structure <ul><li>petiole - leaf stalk </li></ul><ul><li>leaf blade (leaf) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>has veins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>forms structural framework of the leaf </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Midrib <ul><li>large center vein from which all other leaf veins extend </li></ul>
  11. 11. Margins <ul><li>edges of leaves </li></ul><ul><li>assists in plant identification </li></ul>
  12. 12. Internal leaf structure <ul><li>epidermis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>skin of the leaf </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>single layer of cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>protects leaf from loss of too much moisture </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Guard Cells <ul><li>open and close the small pore on the underside of the leaf </li></ul>
  14. 14. Stomates <ul><li>allow the plant to breathe and transpire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>give off moisture </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Chloroplasts <ul><li>contain chlorophyll </li></ul><ul><li>located inside the food making cells </li></ul>
  16. 16. Photosynthesis <ul><li>process by which CO2 and H2O in the presence of light are converted to sugar and oxygen </li></ul>
  17. 17. Chemical formula <ul><li>6CO2 + 6H2O </li></ul><ul><li>-----> in reaction with sunlight and chlorophyll ------> </li></ul><ul><li>C6H12O6 (glucose) + 6O2 </li></ul>
  18. 18. food <ul><li>manufactured in the leaves moves downward through the stem to the roots </li></ul><ul><ul><li>used by the plant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stored in stem or root and leaf in the form of sugar, starch or protein. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Respiration <ul><li>plants respire 24 hours a day </li></ul><ul><li>consume O2 and give off CO2 </li></ul><ul><li>plants produce more O2 through ps. Than they consume during respiration and growth. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Stems <ul><li>have two main functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>movement of water and minerals from the roots upward and movement of manufactured food down </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Stem functions <ul><li>support of leaves and reproductive structures </li></ul>
  22. 22. Stems also <ul><li>used for food storage and reproduction of plants involving cuttings </li></ul><ul><li>Green stems manufacture food just as leaves do </li></ul>
  23. 23. External Stem Structure <ul><li>lenticels- breathing pores </li></ul><ul><li>bud scale scars-indicate where terminal bud has been located previous year. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Leaf Scars <ul><li>shows where leaf was attached </li></ul><ul><li>Distance between the two represents one year of growth. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Internal Stem Structure <ul><li>phloem- bark, carries manufactured foods down. </li></ul><ul><li>Xylem- wood, carries water and minerals up. </li></ul><ul><li>Cambium- separates the 2 and produces all new cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristic of dicots </li></ul>
  26. 26. Internal Stem Structure <ul><li>dicot- dicotyledon, a plant with 2 seed leaves </li></ul>
  27. 27. Monocot <ul><li>Monocotyledon - a plant with one seed leaf. </li></ul><ul><li>Have vascular bundles, contain both xylem and phloem in each small bundle </li></ul>
  28. 28. Monocot <ul><li>stems have no cambium </li></ul><ul><li>cells enlarge to create size of mature stem </li></ul>
  29. 29. Economic Importance <ul><li>food </li></ul><ul><li>building materials </li></ul>
  30. 30. Roots <ul><li>Usually underground </li></ul><ul><li>functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>anchor plant and hold upright </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>absorb water and minerals form soil and conduct to stem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>store food, & propagation </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Root Structure <ul><li>internal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>similar to stems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>older roots have xylem, phloem and cambian </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. external <ul><ul><li>root cap </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>produces continuous supply of new cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>protects roots as they push through soil </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Structure <ul><li>root hairs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>absorb moisture and minerals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>small roots </li></ul>
  34. 34. Functions other than water and mineral absorption <ul><li>cash crops for food </li></ul><ul><ul><li>carrots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>beets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>radishes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sweet potatoes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>propagation </li></ul>
  35. 35. Type of root systems <ul><li>fibrous-grasses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>easier transplanting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>shorter, smaller, more compact </li></ul></ul><ul><li>lap root-carrot </li></ul><ul><ul><li>longer and fewer roots </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Flowers, Fruits, and Seeds <ul><li>pollination- color of flower attracts insects to fertilize flower </li></ul><ul><ul><li>beginning of fruit and seed formation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>fruits and seed are attractive to birds who eat and spread seeds . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproduces plant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>some seeds carried on animals coats </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Parts of the Flower <ul><li>differ in size, shape, and color, some basic parts </li></ul><ul><li>sepal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>green leaf-like part, covers and protects bud before opening </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Petals <ul><li>are actually leaves </li></ul><ul><li>usually bright colors to attract pollinating insects. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Parts of the Flower <ul><li>stamens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>male part of flower </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>has two parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>filament-stalk </li></ul></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Anther <ul><li>anther- sac-like structure on top of filament, contains pollen </li></ul>
  41. 41. Parts of the Flower <ul><li>Pistil - female part </li></ul><ul><li>in the center of flower </li></ul><ul><li>has three parts </li></ul>
  42. 42. Pistil <ul><li>three parts </li></ul><ul><li>stigma - top - sticky </li></ul><ul><li>style - tube leading from stigma to ovary </li></ul>
  43. 43. Ovary <ul><li>egg cells develop here </li></ul><ul><li>grows to become fruit or seedcoat </li></ul>
  44. 44. Types of Flowers <ul><li>complete </li></ul><ul><ul><li>contains 4 main parts </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Incomplete <ul><li>does not have all 4 main parts </li></ul>
  46. 46. Perfect <ul><li>has stamens and pistils </li></ul>
  47. 47. Imperfect <ul><li>lacks stamens or pistils </li></ul>
  48. 48. Types of Flowers <ul><li>monoecious </li></ul><ul><ul><li>stamens and pistils are found in separate flowers on the same plant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ex: Corn </li></ul></ul></ul>
  49. 49. dioecious <ul><li>male or staminate flowers found on one plant, female or pistilate flowers on another plant </li></ul><ul><li>ex: holly </li></ul>