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<ul><li>iodine is necessary for the formation of  thyroid hormones  (T-4 and T-3) </li></ul><ul><li>deficiency of iodine i...
<ul><li>The total iodine content of the body is 20-30mg. </li></ul><ul><li>80% present in  THYROID GLAND . </li></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>PLASMA IODINE </li></ul><ul><li>4-10micrograms/100ml </li></ul><ul><li>INORGANIC or filterable ionic form .(5%) </...
<ul><li>DIETARY REQUIREMENT AND SOURCES: </li></ul><ul><li>1OO-150micrograms/day. </li></ul><ul><li>Drinking water,sea foo...
<ul><li>IODINE DEFICIENCY </li></ul><ul><li>SIMPLE COLLOID ENDEMIC GOITER: </li></ul>
<ul><li>BIOCHEMICAL FUNCTIONS: </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly found in bones and teeth. </li></ul><ul><li>Prevents dental caries...
<ul><li>Fluoride is important for proper development of bones. </li></ul>
<ul><li>DIETARY REQUIREMENT AND SOURCES: </li></ul><ul><li>Less than 2ppm of fluoride will meet the daily requirement. </l...
<ul><li>Fluoride supplementation is available in both oral and topical forms: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oral: mainly sodiu...
<ul><li>DISEASE STATES </li></ul><ul><li>DENTAL CARIES . </li></ul><ul><li>Drinking water containing less than 0.5 ppm flu...
<ul><li>Intake greater than 20ppm is toxic and causes pathological changes in bones. </li></ul><ul><li>Hypercalcification ...
<ul><li>15mg-Total body contentt. </li></ul><ul><li>Liver and kidney are rich in manganese. </li></ul><ul><li>Mainly found...
<ul><li>BIOCHEMICAL FUNCTIONS. </li></ul><ul><li>Cofactor for several enzymes,arginase,pyruvate carboxylase,Isocitrate deh...
<ul><li>Tea is a rich source of Mn. </li></ul><ul><li>5-20 μ g/dl. </li></ul><ul><li>Transmagnanin. </li></ul>
<ul><li>MOLYBDENUM. </li></ul><ul><li>Xanthine oxidase. </li></ul><ul><li>Widely distributed in natural foods. </li></ul><...
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Microminerals2

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  • Very poor information regarding fluoride.....
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Microminerals2

  1. 1. <ul><li>iodine is necessary for the formation of thyroid hormones (T-4 and T-3) </li></ul><ul><li>deficiency of iodine is manifested by a goiter (enlargement of the thyroid gland) </li></ul><ul><li>to prevent the development of endemic goiter, tablet salt has been spiked with sodium iodide </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>The total iodine content of the body is 20-30mg. </li></ul><ul><li>80% present in THYROID GLAND . </li></ul><ul><li>1% as iodide ions </li></ul><ul><li>20-25% incorporated in thyroid hormones. </li></ul><ul><li>Thyroglobulin </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>PLASMA IODINE </li></ul><ul><li>4-10micrograms/100ml </li></ul><ul><li>INORGANIC or filterable ionic form .(5%) </li></ul><ul><li>ORGANIC or hormonal iodine .Protein bound iodine(PBI).3.5-8 micrograms/100ml. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>DIETARY REQUIREMENT AND SOURCES: </li></ul><ul><li>1OO-150micrograms/day. </li></ul><ul><li>Drinking water,sea foods,vegetables fruits(grown on seaboard) </li></ul><ul><li>High altitudes are deficient in iodine content. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>IODINE DEFICIENCY </li></ul><ul><li>SIMPLE COLLOID ENDEMIC GOITER: </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>BIOCHEMICAL FUNCTIONS: </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly found in bones and teeth. </li></ul><ul><li>Prevents dental caries,Forms a protective layer of acid resistant fluoroapatite with hydroxy apataite of the enamel and prevents the tooth decay by bacterial acids. </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibitor of several enzymes,inhibit bacterial enzymes,Sodium fluoride inhibits enolase(of glycolysis),fluroacetate inhibits aconitase(TCA cycle) </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Fluoride is important for proper development of bones. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>DIETARY REQUIREMENT AND SOURCES: </li></ul><ul><li>Less than 2ppm of fluoride will meet the daily requirement. </li></ul><ul><li>Drinking water is the main source.the optimum fluoride content of the drinking water is placed at 1-2ppm.Plant source include spinach,onions and lettuce. </li></ul><ul><li>95% fluoride in the body is present in calcified tissues. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Fluoride supplementation is available in both oral and topical forms: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oral: mainly sodium fluoride </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Topical: either sodium or stannous fluoride </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>DISEASE STATES </li></ul><ul><li>DENTAL CARIES . </li></ul><ul><li>Drinking water containing less than 0.5 ppm fluoride is associated with the development of dental caries in children. </li></ul><ul><li>DENTALFLUOROSIS </li></ul><ul><li>An intake greater than 5ppm in children causes mottling of enamel and discoloration of teeth. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Intake greater than 20ppm is toxic and causes pathological changes in bones. </li></ul><ul><li>Hypercalcification increases the density of bones of limbs,pelvis and spine. </li></ul><ul><li>Ligaments of collagen and spine get calcified. </li></ul><ul><li>Skeletal flurosis. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>15mg-Total body contentt. </li></ul><ul><li>Liver and kidney are rich in manganese. </li></ul><ul><li>Mainly found in nuclei in association with nucleic acids. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>BIOCHEMICAL FUNCTIONS. </li></ul><ul><li>Cofactor for several enzymes,arginase,pyruvate carboxylase,Isocitrate dehydrogenase,superoxide dismutase(mitochondrial) and peptidase. </li></ul><ul><li>Necessary for the synthesis of mucoplysaccharides and glycoproteins. </li></ul><ul><li>Hb synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibits lipid peroxidation. </li></ul><ul><li>Cholesterol biosynthesis. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Tea is a rich source of Mn. </li></ul><ul><li>5-20 μ g/dl. </li></ul><ul><li>Transmagnanin. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>MOLYBDENUM. </li></ul><ul><li>Xanthine oxidase. </li></ul><ul><li>Widely distributed in natural foods. </li></ul><ul><li>COBALT </li></ul><ul><li>Only important as a constituent of vitamin B12. </li></ul><ul><li>Administration of cobalt stimulates the production of erythropoietin. </li></ul>

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