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  1. 2. <ul><li>There are 2–4 grams of zinc distributed throughout the human body. </li></ul><ul><li>Most zinc is in the brain, muscle, bones, kidney, and liver, with the highest concentrations in the prostate and parts of the eye. </li></ul><ul><li>Semen is particularly rich in zinc, which is a key factor in prostate gland function and reproductive organ growth. </li></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>SERUM ZINC. </li></ul><ul><li>100micrograms/dl </li></ul><ul><li>Erythrocytes contain higher content(1.5mg/dl),found in association with enzyme carbonic anhydrase . </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>DAILY REQUIREMENT AND SOURCES. </li></ul><ul><li>10-15mg/day </li></ul><ul><li>Meat ,fish,eggs,milk,beans and nuts are good sources.Animal source is a better source. </li></ul><ul><li>Zinc supplements. </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>ABSORPTION,TRANSPORT AND STORAGE . </li></ul><ul><li>zinc absorption appears to be dependent on a transport protein, metallothionein . </li></ul><ul><li>Transported in plasma in association with albumin and transferrin. </li></ul><ul><li>Phytate , calcium ,iron and copper interfere,while peptides and amino acids promote absorption. </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><ul><li>Involved in many enzymes (over 20 metalloenzymes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carbonic anhydrase </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carboxypeptidase A </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alcohol dehydrogenase </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alkaline phosphatase </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Four types of proteases </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Serine </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cysteine </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aspartic acid </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Zinc </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RNA and DNA polymerases,transcription factors </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>The storage and secreation of insulin from beta cells of pancrease requires zinc. </li></ul><ul><li>Essential for proper reproduction in males,requires for spermatogenesis. </li></ul><ul><li>GUSTEN,is important for taste sensation. </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Zinc lactate is used in toothpaste to prevent halitosis . </li></ul><ul><li>Zinc ions are effective antimicrobial agents even at low concentrations. Gastroenteritis is strongly attenuated by ingestion of zinc. </li></ul><ul><li>Required for wound healing. </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>DISEASE STATES. </li></ul><ul><li>ZINC DEFICIENCY is associated with growth retardation,poor wound healing anemia,loss of apetite and congenital abnormalities(animal studies). </li></ul><ul><li>Impaired spermatogenesis in males. </li></ul><ul><li>Dwarfism and hypogonadism. </li></ul><ul><li>ZINC TOXICITY </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>BIOCHEMICAL FUNCTIONS. </li></ul><ul><li>component of several enzymes: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ceruloplasmin (an oxidase) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>tyrosinase (production of melanin) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>amine oxidase (metabolism of catecholamines) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cytochrome C oxidase </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>dopamine beta hydroxylase </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>copper/zinc superoxide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Erythrocuperin(superoxide dismutase),cerebrocuprin. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Synthesis of hemoglobin (component of ALA Synthase),and phospholipids . </li></ul><ul><li>Collagen and elastin formation, Lysyloxidase. </li></ul><ul><li>Helps in the absorption of iron ,increases effectiveness of iron in treating iron deficiency anemia. </li></ul><ul><li>Hemocyanin in invertebrates functions like hemoglobin. </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>DIETARY REQUIREMENT AND SOURCES </li></ul><ul><li>2-3mg/day for adults. </li></ul><ul><li>Liver is the richest source </li></ul><ul><li>Others include kidney,meat,egg yolk,cereals,green leafy vegetables . </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>ABSORPTION </li></ul><ul><li>Only 10% is absorbed. </li></ul><ul><li>Metallothionein facilitates absorption. </li></ul><ul><li>Plasma conc. Is 100-200micrograms/dl </li></ul><ul><li>95% bound to ceruloplasmin,5% with albumin </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>COPPER DEFICIENCY </li></ul><ul><li>MENKE’S DISEASE </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic disorder. </li></ul><ul><li>Poor Cu absorption. </li></ul><ul><li>Anemia,greying of hair,hypopigmentation of skin. </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>COPPER TOXICITY </li></ul><ul><li>WILSONS’DISEASE.(Hepatolenticular degeneration). </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>BIOCHEMICAL FUNCTIONS : </li></ul><ul><li>Chromium is very important in order for insulin to function. Insulin is an important hormone that regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates (sugars), fats, and proteins. </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>Chromium is a constituent ingredient of what is called the Glucose Tolerance Factor .  It works closely with insulin to facilitate the uptake of glucose into cells.  </li></ul><ul><li>Without chromium, blood sugar levels stay elevated because the action of insulin is blocked so that glucose is not transported into the cells. </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>The liver also needs chromium to manufacture fatty acids, lecithin , cholesterol and lipoproteins. </li></ul><ul><li>Cr participates in the in the transport of aminoacids into the cells(Heart,Liver). </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>DIETARY REQUIREMENT AND FOOD SOURCES: </li></ul><ul><li>Not known,daily cosumption is 10-100 micrograms. </li></ul><ul><li>20 μ g/dl </li></ul><ul><li>Brewer’s yeast,grains,cereals cheese,black pepper and meat. </li></ul><ul><li>DEFICIENCY </li></ul>