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  1. 2. <ul><li>BIOCHEMICAL FUNCTIONS: </li></ul><ul><li>It maintains Intracellular Osmotic pressure,acid base balance. </li></ul><ul><li>Involves in cardiac & skeletal muscle activities, Mainly K+ required in depolarization & contraction of Heart. </li></ul><ul><li>Involved proper transmission of Nerve Impulses. </li></ul><ul><li>Pyruvate kinase(of glycolysis) needs K+. </li></ul><ul><li>Involved in Biosynthesis of proteins. </li></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>Absorption is efficient(90%). </li></ul><ul><li>Normal Serum Potassium 3.5 – 5 meq/L (Cell contain 100 – 120 meq/L ). </li></ul><ul><li>Excretion is through urine, during absorption of Na+ there is obligatory loss of K+, Aldosterone increases K+ excretion. </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>DAILY REQUIREMENT AND SOURCES </li></ul><ul><li>Potassium Total body potassium is 3500 meq 75% in skeletal muscle. </li></ul><ul><li>Daily requirement 3-4 gm/day </li></ul><ul><li>Banana, Orange, Potato, beans, Liver etc. Rich Source is Tender coconut water. </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Hypokalemia </li></ul><ul><li>Serum K+ less than 3 meq/L </li></ul><ul><li>Cushing syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Renal tubular acidosis. </li></ul><ul><li>Metabolic alkalosis, Diarrhea & vomiting </li></ul><ul><li>In Diabetic coma treatment with Insulin & Glucose Diuretics. </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle weakness, Tachycardia ,Cardiac arrest. </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Hyperkalemia </li></ul><ul><li>Renal failure </li></ul><ul><li>Addison’s disease </li></ul><ul><li>Severe dehydration. </li></ul><ul><li>Intravenous administration of fluids with excessive potassium salts. </li></ul><ul><li>Depression of CNS, </li></ul><ul><li>Bradycardia. </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>The adult body contains about 20g magnesium. </li></ul><ul><li>70% is present in bones and 30% in soft tissue and body fluids. </li></ul><ul><li>2-3mg/dl </li></ul><ul><li>350mg/day </li></ul><ul><li>Cereals,nuts beans,vegetables,meat milk and fruits. </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>BIOCHEMICAL FUNCTIONS. </li></ul><ul><li>Bones and teeth </li></ul><ul><li>Cofactor for enzymes requiring ATP,Hexokinase,glucokinase,phosphofructokinase,adenylate cyclase etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Neuromuscular function. </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>ABSORPTION. </li></ul><ul><li>Specific carrier system </li></ul><ul><li>Large amounts of calcium,phosphate and alcohol diminish Mg absorption. </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Mostly organic form. </li></ul><ul><li>Methionine,cysteine.cystin. </li></ul><ul><li>Proteins contain about 1% sulfur by weight. </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>BIOCHEMICAL FUNCTIONS. </li></ul><ul><li>Structural conformation and biological function of proteins.The disulfide linkages </li></ul><ul><li>(-S-S-) and sulfhydral groups(-SH). </li></ul><ul><li>Thiamin,biotin,lipoic acid,pantathenic acid. </li></ul><ul><li>Heparin,Chondroitin sulphate,glutathione,taurocholic acid etc, </li></ul><ul><li>PAPS in the synthesis of glycosaminoglycans,detoxification mechanism. </li></ul><ul><li>S-adenosylmethionine in transmethylation reactions. </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>EXCRETION </li></ul><ul><li>Oxidized to sulfate in the liver and excreted in urine. </li></ul><ul><li>Inorganic sulfate(80%),organic or conjugated or etheral sulfate(10%) and unoxidized (10%). </li></ul><ul><li>The unoxidized sulpfur is in the form of sulfur containing aminoacids and thiocynates. </li></ul>