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  3. 3. WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN INDUSTRYA. List of tablesB. List of FiguresC. Acknowledgement1. Introduction:2. Review of Literature:3. Objective of Study A) Objective of choosing the particular topic B) Justification of the study4. Research Methodology A) Type of Research B) Population for the survey C) Sample size D) Sampling Procedure E) Selection of particular market F) Questionnaire Description G) S/W Used5. Analysis of Data A) Category wise analysis B) VERBATIM analysis6. ConclusionANNEXUREA) QuestionnaireB) Bibliography3
  4. 4. WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN INDUSTRYWith regard to our project with WOMEN EMPOWERMENT ININDUSTRY we would like to thank each and everyone whooffered help, guideline and support whenever requiredWe would take the opportunity to thank Prof. Gour Banerjee,Principal, The Heritage Academy and Mrs.SreeparnaChakraborty for allowing us to form a group of three people andfor providing us with all the necessary facilities to make our projectwork and of worth. Their guidance and words of encouragementmotivated us to achieve our goal and impetus to excel.We thank all our other faculty members and technical assistantsat The Heritage Academy for paying a pivotal and decisive roleduring the development of the project. Last but not the least wethank our friends and parents for their cooperation andencouragement that they have bestowed on us. Signature:_______________________________ (Name of the Group M1) Signature:__________________________________ (Name of the4
  6. 6. WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN INDUSTRYWomen Empowerment refers to increasingthe spiritual, political, social or economicstrength of women. It often involves theempowered developing confidence in theirown capacities”.During the 18th century, the women’s roleand work was extremely difficult,exhausting, and society was6
  7. 7. WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN INDUSTRYunappreciative. For poor families incolonial times, women’s full time job washomemaking. Poor housewives had tocook meals, make clothing, and doctortheir family on top of cleaning, makinghousehold goods to use and sell, takingcare of their animals, maintaining a fireand even tending to the kitchen gardens.Middle class and wealthy women alsoshared some of these chores in theirhouseholds, but they often had servants tohelp them. Both men and women hadgreat social pressure on them to marry.Young girls were often married by the ageof 13 or 14 and if women weren’t married7
  8. 8. WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN INDUSTRYby the age of 25, it was sociallyhumiliating. Widows were also pressuredto get married as soon as possible. Even insome states, laws were proposed thatwould force widows to marry within 7 yearsafter their husband’s death. Widows,however, were often married within a yearif not sooner. Once married, they legallybecame one with their husbands. Marriedwomen had no control of their earnings,inheritance, property, and also could notappear in court as a witness nor vote.Their husbands, therefore, wereresponsible for all aspects of their wifeincluding discipline. Widows were better8
  9. 9. WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN INDUSTRYoff. They had control over their property,but could only receive up to one-third ofher late husband’s property. A widow couldalso vote in some areas, but often widowswere not aware of this fact or chose not to.Husbands could legally beat their wives. Ifa woman ran away from her husband, shewas considered a thief because she wasstealing the clothes she was wearing andherself. If a man murdered his wife, hewould be hung. If a woman murdered herhusband, she would be burned alive.9
  10. 10. WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN INDUSTRYThe status of women in India hasbeen subject to many great changes overthe past few millennia.. From equal statuswith men in ancient times through the lowpoints of the medieval period, to thepromotion of equal by many reformers, thehistory of women in India has beeneventful. In modern India, women haveadorned high offices in India including thatof the President, Prime minister, Speakerof the Lok Sabha, Leader of Opposition,etc. The current President of India is awoman.10
  11. 11. WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN INDUSTRYGender systems are established indifferent socio-cultural contexts whichdetermine what is expected, allowed andvalued in a woman/man and girl/boy inthese specific contexts. Gender roles arelearned through socialization processes;they are not fixed but are changeable.Gender systems are institutionalizedthrough education systems, political and11
  12. 12. WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN INDUSTRYeconomic systems, legislation, and cultureand traditions. In utilizing a genderapproach the focus is not on individualwomen and men but on the system whichdetermines gender roles / responsibilities,access to and control over resources, anddecision-making potentials. It is alsoimportant to emphasize that the conceptof gender is not interchangeable withwomen. Gender refers to both women andmen, and the relations between them.Promotion of gender equality shouldconcern and engage men as well aswomen. In recent years there has been amuch stronger direct focus on men in12
  13. 13. WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN INDUSTRYresearch on gender perspectives. Thereare three main approaches taken in theincreased focus on men. Firstly, the needto identify men as allies for genderequality and involve them more actively inthis work. Secondly, the recognition thatgender equality is not possible unless menchange their attitudes and behavior inmany areas, for example in relation toreproductive rights and health. And lastbut not the least that gender systems inplace in many contexts are negative formen as well as for women creatingunrealistic demands on men.13
  14. 14. WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN INDUSTRYThe systematic, unfavorable treatment ofindividuals on the basis of their gender,which denies those rights, opportunities orresources, is called Gender Discrimination.Across the world, women are treatedunequally and less value is placed on theirlives because of their gender. Women’sdifferential access to power and control ofresources is central to this discriminationin all institutional spheres, i.e. thehousehold, community, market, and state.Within the household, women and girlscan face discrimination in the sharing out14
  15. 15. WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN INDUSTRYof household resources including food,sometimes leading to higher malnutritionand mortality indicators for women. At itsmost extreme, gender discrimination canlead to son preference, Expressed in sexselective abortion or female feticide. In thelabor market, unequal pay, occupationalexclusion or segregation into low skill andlow paid work limit women’s earnings incomparison to those of men of similareducation levels. Women’s lack ofrepresentation and voice in decision.Making bodies in the community and thestate perpetuates discrimination, in termsof access to public services, such as15
  16. 16. WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN INDUSTRYschooling and health care ordiscriminatory laws. Patriarchy is the central to understanddiscrimination against women. Feministssay about three broad forms of womenhating or misogyny (Maitra: 1999). Amongthe three only patriarchies has socialconnotation. So it is necessary tounderstand patriarchy and itsinstitutional role in oppressing andexploiting women for ages. The concepthas been revalued and redefined by16
  17. 17. WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN INDUSTRYdifferent thinkers at different time. Genderconstitutes the hierarchical principle ofpatriarchy. Currie defined patriarchy as” aprocess operating on different level(sexual and ideological) and in differentspheres (public, private, political,economic) in which women are, and havebeen, subordinate to male domination.’(Currie 1996:147).The norms of patriarchy and patriarchalideology affect all women. The essentialelements of patriarchal ideology thatinfluence and regulate gender relationsare division of labor and economic17
  18. 18. WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN INDUSTRYdependence. The glorification ofmotherhood in Indian society has beenemphasized only within the terms andconditions set by patriarchy. Howeversome confusion exists regarding the utilityof the term ‘patriarchy’ for Indian society.According to Wadley, the term ‘patriarchy’and ‘patriarchal’ are too laden withEurocentric meanings while othersquestion their validity for all caste andclasses in India( Wadley1994:261)18
  19. 19. WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN INDUSTRY The status of women in India hasbeen subject to many great changes overthe past few millennia. From equal statuswith men in ancient times through the lowpoints of the medieval period to thepromotion of equal rights by manyreformers, the history of womenin India has been eventful. In modernIndia, women have adorned high officesin India including that of19
  20. 20. WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN INDUSTRYthe President, Prime minister, Speaker ofthe Lok Sabha, Leader of Opposition, etc.The current President of India is a woman.Empowering women usually involves givingthem opportunity for better education.With that, fertility rates decrease, as wellas infant mortality rates. Literate womenhave other opportunities in life other thanmarriage and motherhood, such as beingpart of the work force. Delaying marriageusually also means that women have lessfertile years, which naturally decreases thenumber of children they can have. Theyare also better informed about familyplanning options, although it seems that20
  21. 21. WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN INDUSTRYreligion plays a stronger part in this aspectother than simple literacy. Instead of beingseen as a liability, and therefore beingmarried off as soon as possible, they canbecome a valuable asset to their families.Of course, at a personal level,empowerment gives women a chance tomake their own choices, challenge theworthiness of old traditions, and toactually look for opportunities away fromtheir families and villages. The erstwhileScheme of Development of Women andChildren in Rural Areas(DWCRA),nowmerged with the SGSY, was intended toraise the income level of women of poor21
  22. 22. WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN INDUSTRYhouseholds so as to enable organizedparticipation by them in socialdevelopment for economic self – reliance.The primary thrust was the formation ofgroups of 10-50 women from poorhouseholds at the village level for deliveryof services like credit and skill training andcash and infrastructure support for selfemployment. Studies show that whenwomen are supported andempowered, all of societybenefits. Their families are healthier,more children go to school, agriculturalproductivity improves and incomes22
  23. 23. WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN INDUSTRYincrease. In short, communities becomemore resilient.23
  25. 25. WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN INDUSTRYThe researcher has tried to review thefollowing:  The empowerment of women occurs in reality, when women achieve increased control and participation in decision making that leads to their better access to resources, and therefore, improved socio-economic status. The experts also inform that there are five levels of the womens empowerment framework, namely- welfare, access, conscientisation, mobilization and control.  According to the article Introduction: A Curriculum Vitae for Gender25
  26. 26. WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN INDUSTRY Studies by Philomena Essed, David Theo Goldberg, and Audrey Kobayashi from Black Well- Companions in cultural Studies gender has a wide range of primary expressions. It expresses itself through-sexuality, race, class, region, as well as by other meaningful designation of human. Donna Harway’s ( 1991) conceptions of gender reveals that “mutually constitutive relationships between the social conditions through which people manifest and elaborate gender in their everyday lives and practices-always bounded and blinkered”.26
  27. 27. WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN INDUSTRY  Women are creditworthy, will share the fruits of investment with family and this will eventually lead to her empowerment. (Kabeer, 2005a, and Little, Murdoch and Hashemi, 2003).  Micro credit improves household incomes and has associated family benefits. (Hulme and Mosley, 1996, Kandker, 1998 etc.)27
  29. 29. WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN INDUSTRYWe are doing this project as a part of thefulfillment of our course requirements.Apart from these our objectives of thestudy are as follows: I. Establishing mechanisms for womens equal participation at all levels of the political process and public life in each community and society II. Promoting the fulfillment of womens potential through education, skill development and employment, paying urgent attention to the elimination of poverty and illiteracy among adult women;III. Eliminating all practices that discriminate against women and29
  30. 30. WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN INDUSTRY assisting them to establish and realize their rights, including those that relate to sexual and reproductive health.IV. To study the condition of women in industry V. To study the GENDER PREJUDICE and society trends.30
  32. 32. WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN INDUSTRYThe word research is composed of twosyllables, re and search. Re is a prefixmeaning again, anew or over again searchis a verb meaning to examine closely andcarefully, to test and try, or to probe.Together they form a noun describing acareful, systematic, patient study andInvestigation in some field of knowledge,undertaken to establish facts or principles.Research methodology is defined as ahighly intellectual human activity used inthe investigation of nature and matter and32
  33. 33. WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN INDUSTRYdeals especially with the manner in whichdata is collected, analyzed andinterpreted.1. A means or manner of procedure,especially a regular and systematic way ofaccomplishing something: a simplemethod for making a pie crust; mediationas a method of solving disputes.33
  34. 34. WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN INDUSTRY2. Orderly arrangement of parts or steps toaccomplish an end: Random efforts thatlack method3. The procedures and techniquescharacteristic of a particular discipline orfield of knowledge. These field coursesgive overview of archaeological method. 4. Method A technique of acting in whichthe actor recalls emotions and reactionsfrom past experience and uses them inidentifying with and individualizing thecharacter being portrayed.34
  35. 35. WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN INDUSTRY1. A body of practices, procedures, andrules used by those who work in adiscipline or engage in an inquiry; a set ofworking methods: the methodology ofgenetic studies; a poll marred by faultymethodology.2. The study or theoretical analysis of suchworking methods.3. The branch of logic that deals with thegeneral principles of the formation ofknowledge4. Usage Problem. Means, technique, orprocedure; method.35
  36. 36. WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN INDUSTRYFor the purpose of the study we have selectedSurvey Method and Documentary MethodThe Survey method is the technique ofgathering data by asking questions topeople who are thought to have desiredinformation. A formal list of questionnaireis prepared. Generally a non disguisedapproach is used. The respondents areasked questions on their demographicinterest opinion. A "survey" can beanything forms a short paper-and-pencilfeedback form to an intensive one-on-onein-depth interview. The attributes attemptto describe basic characteristics or36
  37. 37. WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN INDUSTRYexperience of large and small populationsin our world.●Information is gathered by asking peoplequestions.●Information is collected either by havinginterviewers ask questions and recordanswers or by having people read or hearquestions and record their answers.●Information is collected from only asubset of the population to be described (asample) rather than from all members.37
  38. 38. WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN INDUSTRYThe study was carried out for a period of10 days.A sample is a finite part of a statisticalpopulation whose properties are studied togain information about the whole(Webster, 1985). When dealing withpeople, it can be defined as a set ofrespondents (people) selected from alarger population for the purpose of asurvey. Sampling is that part38
  39. 39. WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN INDUSTRYof statistical practice concerned with theselection of a subset ofindividual observations within a populationof individuals intended to yield someknowledge about the population ofconcern, especially for the purposes ofmaking predictions based on statisticalinference. The sample size of our project is limited to 8 people only.Data has been presented with the help offollowing things:39
  40. 40. WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN INDUSTRYTables, Pie Charts and various graphs likeline graph, bar graphUnstructured Questionnaire- UnstructuredInterviews are a method of interviews where questions can bechanged or adapted to meet the respondents intelligence,understanding or belief. Unlike a structured interview they donot offer a limited, pre-set range of answers for a respondent tochoose, but instead advocate listening to how each individualperson responds to the question. The method to gatherinformation using this technique is fairly limited, for examplemost surveys that are carried out via telephone or even inperson tend to follow a structured method. Outside ofsociology the use of such interviews is very limited.There are many problems in our societywhich cannot be studied through clinicalmethod. Then we have to take help ofsurvey method uses questionnaire like40
  41. 41. WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN INDUSTRYinterview, rating scale, check list etc. Inthis method information are collected fromthe person through structurequestionnaire.A questionnaire contains a set of standardquestion. This method is used to obtaininformation about the personal difficulties,attitude, toward marriage etc.There are four types of questionnaire:41
  42. 42. WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN INDUSTRY 1. Open ended questionnaire 2. Close ended questionnaire 3. Structured questionnaire 4. Unstructured questionnaireCase study method is an investigativemethod for the understanding andanalysis of human behavior which is beingused particularly by clinical psychologist. Itis a two way process in which theinvestigator uses test, check list orquestionnaire like the survey technique.42
  44. 44. WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN INDUSTRY More thanAge Group Less than 30 30 - 40 41 - 50 50No. ofWomen 2 3 1 2 44
  45. 45. WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN INDUSTRY No. of Women 3.5 3 2.5 2 No. of Women 1.5 1 0.5 0 Less than 30 30 - 40 41 - 50 More than 50Finding: Large portion of women falls in the age category of 30-40yrs. 2 women each falls under the range of less than 30 and morethan 50. Only 1 woman comes under the range 41-50 years.Education Qualification No. of Women 1Post Graduate 3Under Graduate 4Graduate 8Total45
  46. 46. WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN INDUSTRY Graduate Under Graduate Series1 Series2 Series3 Post Graduate Education Qualif ication 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5Finding: Large portion of women were highly educated withGraduates and 3 women are under graduate. 1 woman is only withPost Graduate.Response Yes NoNo. of Respondents 6 246
  47. 47. WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN INDUSTRY No. of Respondents 25% Yes No 75%Finding: Around 75% of the women are satisfied withthe job. Rests 25% are not satisfied with the job.Response Yes NoNo. of Respondents 6 247
  48. 48. WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN INDUSTRY No. of Respondents 6 5 4 No. of Respondents 3 2 1 0 Yes NoFinding: Large portion of women have sufficientearning. Only 2 women feel that they don’t havesufficient earning.Response Yes NoNo. of Respondents 5 348
  49. 49. WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN INDUSTRY No. of Respondents No 38% Yes No Yes 62%Finding: 62% of women think that job providessufficient power. Only 38% of women think that jobdoesn’t provide sufficient power.Response Yes NoNo. of Respondents 8 049
  50. 50. WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN INDUSTRY 8 7 6 5 No. of Respondents 4 3 2 1 0 Yes NoFinding: All the women think that they have Supportfrom family.Response Yes NoNo. of Respondents 6 250
  51. 51. WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN INDUSTRY 8 7 6 No 5 Yes 4 3 2 1 0 No. of RespondentsFinding: Large portion of women can take decision infamily take decision in. Only 2 women feel that they don’ttake decision in family.Response Yes NoNo. ofRespondents 7 151
  52. 52. WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN INDUSTRY No. of Respondents 8 7 6 5 4 No. of Respondents 3 2 1 0 Yes NoFinding: Large portion of women feel that they have powerin family. Only 1 woman feels that they don’t take power infamily.Response Yes NoNo. of Respondents 3 552
  53. 53. WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN INDUSTRY No. of Respondents Yes 37% No Yes 63% NoFinding: 63% of women think that they are notempowered in the industry as women. Only 37% ofwomen think that they are empowered in the industry aswomen.Quantitative methods are researchtechniques that are used to gather53
  54. 54. WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN INDUSTRYquantitative data — information dealingwith numbers and anything that ismeasurable. Statistics, tables and graphs,are often used to present the results ofthese methods.Qualitative methods produce informationonly on the particular cases studied, andany more general conclusions are onlyhypotheses. Quantitative methods can beused to verify, which of such hypothesesare true. Additionally, it seeks tounderstand a given researchproblem or topic from the54
  55. 55. WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN INDUSTRYperspectives of the localpopulation it involves. It isespecially effective in obtainingculturally specific informationabout the values, opinions,behaviors, and social contextsof particular populations.We are making a project on WOMENEMPOWERMENT IN INDUSTRY. In this project, wehave taken interview of 8 women who fall in thiscategory. aged 46 years, is married and has completedGraduation. She is working in Merchandise Departmentas SENIOR MERCHANDIZER. She has a gap in her career.She is satisfied with her job and thinks that her earningis sufficient. Moreover this job provides sufficient power55
  56. 56. WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN INDUSTRYto her in the society. She has also got support from herfamily. She is also involved in Decision Making. At lastshe feels empowered in the industry as a woman.Aged 32 years, is single and has completed Graduation.She is working in Home Appliances Department as SALESEXECUTIVE. She has a gap in her career. She is satisfiedwith her job and thinks that her earning is NOTsufficient. Moreover this job provides sufficient power toher in the society. She has also got support from herfamily. She is also involved in Decision Making. At lastshe feels that she is not empowered in the industry as awoman.Aged 57 years, is married and has completed Graduation.She is working as MERCHANDISER. She DOESN’T have agap in her career. She is satisfied with her job and thinksthat her earning is sufficient. Moreover this job providessufficient power to her in the society. She has also gotsupport from her family. She is also involved in DecisionMaking. At last she feels empowered in the industry as awoman.56
  58. 58. WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN INDUSTRYI conclude that policies to risewomen’s age at marriageenhance their educations andopen greater employmentopportunities will also help toempower them, at least in somerespects. We choose to focusparticularly on women, becausein every society they struggleagainst gender norms that limittheir resources andopportunities for improvement,and because we know thatwomen’s empowerment is atremendous resource for socialchange and a broader fight58
  59. 59. WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN INDUSTRYagainst global poverty. Our goalis to cause policy, institutionaland individual change that willimprove the lives of women andgirls everywhere.59