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  1. 1. PROCEDURE FOR VALIDATION OFNON-FORMAL, INFORMAL LEARNING IN SPAIN STUDY VISIT, PARNÜ_ESTONIA 15-19
  2. 2. PROCEDURE FOR VALIDATION OF NON-FORMAL, INFORMAL LEARNING IN SPAIN Authors Mercedes Moreno and Isabel CánovasAuthors are VET teachers in Secondary Schools in the Region of Murcia They are also qualified as Advisors and Evaluators in the procedure of recognition and validation of non-formal, informal learning in Spain STUDY VISIT, PARNÜ_ESTONIA 15-19 OCTOBER, 2012.
  3. 3. PROCEDURE FOR VALIDATION OF NON-FORMAL, INFORMAL LEARNING IN SPAINValidation is seen as an important element of nationalpolicies on education, training and employment. Thereare different ways in which people have developed theirknowledge and skills. Validating non-formal and informallearning makes visible the learning gained outsidelearning institutions and this represents a vast untappedresource of invisible knowledge and skills. Its visibilitycould lead to significant economic and social benefits forindividuals and countries. STUDY VISIT, PARNÜ_ESTONIA 15-19 OCTOBER, 2012.
  4. 4. PROCEDURE FOR VALIDATION OF NON-FORMAL, INFORMAL LEARNING IN SPAINOur aim with this presentation is to contribute to spreadthe current state of validation procedure in Spain, morespecifically in the region of Murcia. Both authors are surethis topic is also very important in most Europeancountries, and due to the complex process involved, toshare knowledge and experiences between countriescan help all of us to improve the procedure itself innational levels. STUDY VISIT, PARNÜ_ESTONIA 15-19 OCTOBER, 2012.
  5. 5. PROCEDURE FOR VALIDATION OF NON-FORMAL, INFORMAL LEARNING IN SPAINIdentification of non-formal and informal learning can bedefined as a process which “records and makes visiblethe individual’s learning outcomes. This could not resultin a formal certificate or diploma, but it may provide thebasis for such formal recognition.” STUDY VISIT, PARNÜ_ESTONIA 15-19 OCTOBER, 2012.
  6. 6. PROCEDURE FOR VALIDATION OF NON-FORMAL, INFORMAL LEARNING IN SPAINValidation is not the exclusive concern of education andtraining institutions, it involves also enterprises and otherorganizations. Validating non-formal and informallearning is increasingly seen as a way to improve lifelongand life wide learning. A growing number of countriesemphasize the importance of making visible and valuinglearning taking place outside formal education: at work,in the home and during leisure time activities. For thatreason, a cluster from European countries was workingto support the process of validation by identifying themain challenges and pointing some ways to respond. STUDY VISIT, PARNÜ_ESTONIA 15-19 OCTOBER, 2012.
  7. 7. PROCEDURE FOR VALIDATION OF NON-FORMAL, INFORMAL LEARNING IN SPAIN A set of common European principles were adopted by the European Council in May 2004:• Identifying and validating non-formal and informal learning should be a voluntary matter for individual.• Stakeholders should establish systems for identifying and validating non-formal and informal learning with quality mechanisms. Stakeholders should provide guidance, counseling and information about these systems to individuals. STUDY VISIT, PARNÜ_ESTONIA 15-19 OCTOBER, 2012.
  8. 8. PROCEDURE FOR VALIDATION OF NON-FORMAL, INFORMAL LEARNING IN SPAIN• The processes, procedures and criteria for identifying and validating non-formal and informal learning must be fair and transparent.• All systems and approaches for identifying and validating non-formal and informal learning should respect the interests and ensure the balanced participation of the relevant stakeholders. STUDY VISIT, PARNÜ_ESTONIA 15-19 OCTOBER, 2012.
  9. 9. PROCEDURE FOR VALIDATION OF NON-FORMAL, INFORMAL LEARNING IN SPAIN The European Guidelines are needed to support different development processes in countries, regions and sectors, and respect the different models for validation. In a conference on valuing learning in November 2007, conference delegates agreed that:• Individuals are central to the validation process. STUDY VISIT, PARNÜ_ESTONIA 15-19 OCTOBER, 2012.
  10. 10. PROCEDURE FOR VALIDATION OF NON-FORMAL, INFORMAL LEARNING IN SPAIN• It is necessary to create systems in which the results of validation are transferable to the formal qualifications system if desired by individuals.• Use common standards with the formal recognition system.• Validation can be used for both formative and summative purposes. STUDY VISIT, PARNÜ_ESTONIA 15-19 OCTOBER, 2012.
  11. 11. PROCEDURE FOR VALIDATION OF NON-FORMAL, INFORMAL LEARNING IN SPAIN• Data should be protected, since validation touches personal attitudes.• Guidance and training for those who manage and carry out the validation process are essential for the professionalization of practitioners and transparency of the validation process. STUDY VISIT, PARNÜ_ESTONIA 15-19 OCTOBER, 2012.
  12. 12. PROCEDURE FOR VALIDATION OF NON-FORMAL, INFORMAL LEARNING IN SPAINValidation is organized differently across Europe: insome countries it operates in parallel with the formalsystem, but it can also be a totally separate process. Wecan also say that not all forms of validation of non-formal, informal learning result in a qualification. Theassessment process can have a “formative approach”without the aim for formal certification or a “summativeapproach”, in which a certification is linked. STUDY VISIT, PARNÜ_ESTONIA 15-19 OCTOBER, 2012.
  13. 13. PROCEDURE FOR VALIDATION OF NON-FORMAL, INFORMAL LEARNING IN SPAIN In Spain we have the summative approach, sovalidation leads to certification, which means that theprocess needs to consider national standards andimplies that it must be strongly linked or integrated intonational qualifications systems. About the summative approach, it is important to base iton the same standards as the formal learning system,which provides consistency and comparability ofoutcomes. STUDY VISIT, PARNÜ_ESTONIA 15-19 OCTOBER, 2012.
  14. 14. PROCEDURE FOR VALIDATION OF NON-FORMAL, INFORMAL LEARNING IN SPAIN The final success of the validation process will depend on different aspects in each country, but we can find some common important factors:• Sufficient financial resources.• Sufficient human resources.• The use of standards and qualification levels. STUDY VISIT, PARNÜ_ESTONIA 15-19 OCTOBER, 2012.
  15. 15. PROCEDURE FOR VALIDATION OF NON-FORMAL, INFORMAL LEARNING IN SPAIN• The development of proper methodologies based in making outcomes evident.• Adequate training for responsible staff.• To share experiences.• Quality of the whole process.• To ensure fairness.• To build confidence in the whole process.• To make an agile-flexible process.• Collaboration of stakeholders groups. STUDY VISIT, PARNÜ_ESTONIA 15-19 OCTOBER, 2012.
  16. 16. PROCEDURE FOR VALIDATION OF NON-FORMAL, INFORMAL LEARNING IN SPAIN• Understand the lengthy and complex procedure for validation.• To create an adequate, good expectation about the process in candidates, above all if candidates are low- skilled.• To face employers’ fear of higher salary demands.• To face the distrust of the formal educational system about non-traditional qualifications.• To build a legal framework for the validation process. STUDY VISIT, PARNÜ_ESTONIA 15-19 OCTOBER, 2012.
  17. 17. PROCEDURE FOR VALIDATION OF NON-FORMAL, INFORMAL LEARNING IN SPAIN• To achieve validation being accepted as relevant for reaching lifelong learning employability and social inclusion.• To achieve that validation will be integrated as part of qualifications systems in all levels.• To have feedback mechanisms for improving the process.• International, national and regional initiatives must be coordinated.• To cover all levels and fields in education and training systems. STUDY VISIT, PARNÜ_ESTONIA 15-19 OCTOBER, 2012.
  18. 18. PROCEDURE FOR VALIDATION OF NON-FORMAL, INFORMAL LEARNING IN SPAIN And finally,• To include regular, external evaluation of the process. STUDY VISIT, PARNÜ_ESTONIA 15-19 OCTOBER, 2012.
  19. 19. PROCEDURE FOR VALIDATION OF NON-FORMAL, INFORMAL LEARNING IN SPAIN If we talk about the expected benefit from the validation procedure, we can point:• Sustain mobility within education-training and labor market.• Promote equality of opportunities for people to get recognition of their skills and competences. STUDY VISIT, PARNÜ_ESTONIA 15-19 OCTOBER, 2012.
  20. 20. PROCEDURE FOR VALIDATION OF NON-FORMAL, INFORMAL LEARNING IN SPAIN• Support disadvantaged groups: unemployed, older workers etc.• Support lifelong learning.• Support coherence within European countries.• To support the response to demographic changes.• To sort out the qualifications deficits. STUDY VISIT, PARNÜ_ESTONIA 15-19 OCTOBER, 2012.
  21. 21. PROCEDURE FOR VALIDATION OF NON-FORMAL, INFORMAL LEARNING IN SPAINFocusing in Spanish case: Vocational training, non formal and informal learning have been mainly a topic of specific trades and industries with their own qualifications and even their own schools. Formal vocational education was offered in specific schools, so students were completely separated of the rest of students in the country. STUDY VISIT, PARNÜ_ESTONIA 15-19 OCTOBER, 2012.
  22. 22. PROCEDURE FOR VALIDATION OF NON-FORMAL, INFORMAL LEARNING IN SPAINThe gap between formal education and vocationaltraining has been the reason why formal vocationallearning was a secondary option for low income classesor for bad students (mainly boys).The Law 1/1990, LOGSE, was the first step to regulatetraining processes: vocational levels were related toformal learning, and secondary schools started to offernot only secondary education but also vocationaleducation options. Students could be together for thefirst time. STUDY VISIT, PARNÜ_ESTONIA 15-19 OCTOBER, 2012.
  23. 23. PROCEDURE FOR VALIDATION OF NON-FORMAL, INFORMAL LEARNING IN SPAINAfter LOGSE other Laws contributed to improve VETsystem in Spain, and some European programs such asSocrates or Leonardo da Vinci granted students toreinforce the European dimension of vocational training,which were regulated by National government with thecollaboration of the Autonomous Communities. STUDY VISIT, PARNÜ_ESTONIA 15-19 OCTOBER, 2012.
  24. 24. PROCEDURE FOR VALIDATION OF NON-FORMAL, INFORMAL LEARNING IN SPAINThere was also a process to create strong links betweenvocational training and the labor market. Educationauthorities and labor experts were working together forhaving a catalogue with national qualifications and within-company training modules. STUDY VISIT, PARNÜ_ESTONIA 15-19 OCTOBER, 2012.
  25. 25. PROCEDURE FOR VALIDATION OF NON-FORMAL, INFORMAL LEARNING IN SPAIN In Spain there is a Tripartite Foundation for Training in Employment, managed by:• Representative Business.• Union Organizations.• Public Administration (represented by the Ministry of Work). The Tripartite Agreements describe training plans and complementary training. STUDY VISIT, PARNÜ_ESTONIA 15-19 OCTOBER, 2012.
  26. 26. PROCEDURE FOR VALIDATION OF NON-FORMAL, INFORMAL LEARNING IN SPAIN The Organic Law 2002 refers to vocational training in Spain as integrating part of the National System of Qualifications and Vocational Training (SNCFP, in Spanish), aimed to help lifelong learning process. The SNCFP is based in four pillars:1. The National Catalogue of Qualifications (CNCP, in Spanish), in correspondence with a Modular VET Catalogue. STUDY VISIT, PARNÜ_ESTONIA 15-19 OCTOBER, 2012.
  27. 27. PROCEDURE FOR VALIDATION OF NON-FORMAL, INFORMAL LEARNING IN SPAIN2. A procedure of recognition, evaluation, accreditation and registration of Vocational Qualifications.3. Information and guidance about employment and training.4. The evolution and improvement of the quality of the system. STUDY VISIT, PARNÜ_ESTONIA 15-19 OCTOBER, 2012.
  28. 28. PROCEDURE FOR VALIDATION OF NON-FORMAL, INFORMAL LEARNING IN SPAINThe National Catalogue of Qualifications (CNCP) isbased on a modular structure included in The ModularCatalogue of Vocational Training. More than 650vocational qualifications have been published; they areclassified in 26 professional families and 5 levels ofqualification and they are accredited through diplomasand vocational certificates. STUDY VISIT, PARNÜ_ESTONIA 15-19 OCTOBER, 2012.
  29. 29. PROCEDURE FOR VALIDATION OF NON-FORMAL, INFORMAL LEARNING IN SPAINThe National Institute of Qualifications (INCUAL, inSpanish) has the responsibility for defining, preparingand keeping this catalogue updated.In each Autonomous Community we have also aRegional Institute of Qualifications (called ICUAM in theregion of Murcia, where we are working). STUDY VISIT, PARNÜ_ESTONIA 15-19 OCTOBER, 2012.
  30. 30. PROCEDURE FOR VALIDATION OF NON-FORMAL, INFORMAL LEARNING IN SPAIN The vocational offer within the CNCP can be credited by:• Vocational training titles (issued by the Ministry of Education).• Certificates of professionalism (issued by the Ministry of Work). STUDY VISIT, PARNÜ_ESTONIA 15-19 OCTOBER, 2012.
  31. 31. PROCEDURE FOR VALIDATION OF NON-FORMAL, INFORMAL LEARNING IN SPAINBoth procedures to get the qualification are developedby the Royal Decree 395/2007: “when evaluation andaccreditation of professional competences exclusivelytakes into account working experience or non formalpaths, accreditation will have the CNCP as a referent; ifthe recognition of professional competences does notcomplete the qualifications of the training title orcertification, an accumulative partial accreditation couldbe issued”…. “Evaluation Committees may includequalified professionals in an advisory capacity”. STUDY VISIT, PARNÜ_ESTONIA 15-19 OCTOBER, 2012.
  32. 32. PROCEDURE FOR VALIDATION OF NON-FORMAL, INFORMAL LEARNING IN SPAINIn the procedure of recognition, evaluation, accreditationand registration of vocational qualifications theparticipation of the Autonomous Communities is alsoimportant in our country: they decide which qualificationswill be offered in this procedure, according to the needsof qualified people in the sector, and they also areresponsible of having qualified staff from the educationsector and from social agents to act as advisors andevaluators. Specific requirements to these agents areregulated in a national level, but developed in a regionallevel. STUDY VISIT, PARNÜ_ESTONIA 15-19 OCTOBER, 2012.
  33. 33. PROCEDURE FOR VALIDATION OF NON-FORMAL, INFORMAL LEARNING IN SPAINIn Spain, a large proportion of the population is notprofessionally qualified, as many young people wholeave school early. The target group for the recognitionof non-formal and informal learning outcomes is:unemployed, young people, the handicapped, women,persons aged over 45 and those in social exclusion risk. STUDY VISIT, PARNÜ_ESTONIA 15-19 OCTOBER, 2012.
  34. 34. PROCEDURE FOR VALIDATION OF NON-FORMAL, INFORMAL LEARNING IN SPAINA national qualifications framework is a value element indeveloping the recognition of non-formal and informallearning outcomes. In Spain we have it, but still theprocedure can be described as not fast enough forsatisfying the requirements of labor market. In ourcountry, more specifically in Murcia, the procedure forthe validation is: STUDY VISIT, PARNÜ_ESTONIA 15-19 OCTOBER, 2012.
  35. 35. PROCEDURE FOR VALIDATION OF NON-FORMAL, INFORMAL LEARNING IN SPAIN1. Each Autonomous Community develops an institution similar to The National Institute of Qualifications (INCUAL, created in 1999) working at a regional level. (In Murcia is called ICUAM and was created in 2007). STUDY VISIT, PARNÜ_ESTONIA 15-19 OCTOBER, 2012.
  36. 36. PROCEDURE FOR VALIDATION OF NON-FORMAL, INFORMAL LEARNING IN SPAIN2. Each regional institution organizes courses to train teachers and professionals to become qualified for being advisors and evaluators in the procedure of recognition and validation of non-formal, informal learning. In Murcia we have a first common course that you need to pass to be able to attend another one to get the “advisor diploma” and another one if you like also to get the “evaluator diploma”. STUDY VISIT, PARNÜ_ESTONIA 15-19 OCTOBER, 2012.
  37. 37. PROCEDURE FOR VALIDATION OF NON-FORMAL, INFORMAL LEARNING IN SPAINEach regional institution decides to make calls foraccreditation of qualifications considered preferred ormore needed to meet labor market demand. In Murciathere was a call for 3 qualifications and the procedurefinished after more or less 9 months. We are waiting newqualifications procedures. STUDY VISIT, PARNÜ_ESTONIA 15-19 OCTOBER, 2012.
  38. 38. PROCEDURE FOR VALIDATION OF NON-FORMAL, INFORMAL LEARNING IN SPAIN3. Candidates interested in taking part in this process apply for it.4. The institution can select a maximum number of candidates for each qualification.5. The selected candidates are required to take part in the advisory phase STUDY VISIT, PARNÜ_ESTONIA 15-19 OCTOBER, 2012.
  39. 39. PROCEDURE FOR VALIDATION OF NON-FORMAL, INFORMAL LEARNING IN SPAIN6. After the advisory phase, the candidates get a report about the convenience or not to continue to the next phase: evaluation. But the candidates can freely decide if they continue or not.7. If the candidates go into the evaluation phase, the Evaluation Commission decides whether it recognizes and accredits the Professional Qualification required by the applicant. If the report is positive, that recognition is recorded nationally. STUDY VISIT, PARNÜ_ESTONIA 15-19 OCTOBER, 2012.
  40. 40. PROCEDURE FOR VALIDATION OF NON-FORMAL, INFORMAL LEARNING IN SPAIN The regional situation in Spain is really different depending on the Autonomous Community and its labor market needs. We will see now the convened qualifications in some regions:In Andalucia: Childhood education. Geriatric care for dependent people in social institutions. Geriatric care for people at home. Medical transport. Health care to multiple victims and disasters. STUDY VISIT, PARNÜ_ESTONIA 15-19 OCTOBER, 2012.
  41. 41. PROCEDURE FOR VALIDATION OF NON-FORMAL, INFORMAL LEARNING IN SPAINIn Aragon: Geriatric care for people at home. Electricity. Cooking. Pharmacy.In Extremadura: Childhood education. Geriatric care for dependent people in social institutions. Geriatric care for people at home.In Valencia: Health emergencies. Geriatric care for dependent people in social institutions. STUDY VISIT, PARNÜ_ESTONIA 15-19 OCTOBER, 2012.
  42. 42. PROCEDURE FOR VALIDATION OF NON-FORMAL, INFORMAL LEARNING IN SPAINIn Cataluña: Agriculture and farming. Gardening. Sports and physical activities in nature. Shipping. Ocean-going transport. Administration. Cooking. Restaurant and bar service. Electronics. Computer systems. Cooling and heating facilities. Pharmacy. Manufacture of pharmaceutical products. Nursing assistants. Secretarial. Geriatric care for dependent people in social institutions. Geriatric care for people at home. Management and marketing. Prevention of occupational hazards. Chemical industry. Laboratory and clinical diagnosis. Childhood education. Auditory prosthesis. Computer applications. STUDY VISIT, PARNÜ_ESTONIA 15-19 OCTOBER, 2012.
  43. 43. PROCEDURE FOR VALIDATION OF NON-FORMAL, INFORMAL LEARNING IN SPAIN• In Galicia: Construction. Geriatric care for people at home. Administration. Energy and water. Textile. Mechanical manufacturing. Touring. Geriatric care for dependent people in social institutions. Restaurant and bar service. Wood and furniture. Vehicle maintenance. Industrial facilities. Fishing.• In La Rioja: Childhood education. Geriatric care for dependent people in social institutions. Geriatric care for people at home. Health transport. Cooking. Restaurant and bar service. STUDY VISIT, PARNÜ_ESTONIA 15-19 OCTOBER, 2012.
  44. 44. PROCEDURE FOR VALIDATION OF NON-FORMAL, INFORMAL LEARNING IN SPAIN• In Murcia: Childhood education. Geriatric care for dependent people in social institutions. Geriatric care for people at home.• In Navarra: Masonry. Geriatric care for dependent people in social institutions. Geriatric care for people at home. Cooking. Childhood education. Health emergencies. Soldering.• In Baleares: Building cleaning. Geriatric care for dependent people in social institutions. Geriatric care for people at home. Childhood education. Restaurant and bar service. Car mechanics. Electricity. STUDY VISIT, PARNÜ_ESTONIA 15-19 OCTOBER, 2012.
  45. 45. PROCEDURE FOR VALIDATION OF NON-FORMAL, INFORMAL LEARNING IN SPAINWe don’t have information about all regions in Spain, butit is possible to see the differences between the regionsin the number and fields of qualifications they havecalled. Obviously Cataluña has the procedure ofvalidation more developed than the rest of regions wehave in this report, but we can also add that El PaísVasco was one of the first in implementing thisprocedure and they have a lot of experience about it. STUDY VISIT, PARNÜ_ESTONIA 15-19 OCTOBER, 2012.
  46. 46. PROCEDURE FOR VALIDATION OF NON-FORMAL, INFORMAL LEARNING IN SPAINIn conclusion we opine that the main problem is thateach call lasts long time: the applicant could think that itis easier to attend formal education courses to get thetitle than to get the qualification through the validationprocedure of non-formal, informal learning. STUDY VISIT, PARNÜ_ESTONIA 15-19 OCTOBER, 2012.
  47. 47. PROCEDURE FOR VALIDATION OF NON-FORMAL, INFORMAL LEARNING IN SPAINAnother drawback is that most regional institutions offersmall number of calls and in some specific fields. Thatmeans some professions seams not to be interestingand maybe will lasts long time for some workers to havethe opportunity to join a validation procedure.We cannot forget another problem added by the currentglobal crisis: if we have less financial resources, to affordthe cost of the procedure will be increasingly difficult. STUDY VISIT, PARNÜ_ESTONIA 15-19 OCTOBER, 2012.
  48. 48. PROCEDURE FOR VALIDATION OF NON-FORMAL, INFORMAL LEARNING IN SPAIN From our point of view, as advisors and evaluators inthe process, it is necessary to make some changes inorder to find a method more flexible and faster to allowunqualified people to obtain recognition of their non-formal, informal learning. Otherwise, all the effort and theeconomic financing invested in recent years may lead tominimal results. STUDY VISIT, PARNÜ_ESTONIA 15-19 OCTOBER, 2012.
  49. 49. PROCEDURE FOR VALIDATION OF NON-FORMAL, INFORMAL LEARNING IN SPAINIn this regard we are really interested to know thesituation in other European countries to exchange thoseaspects that can improve the whole procedure. STUDY VISIT, PARNÜ_ESTONIA 15-19 OCTOBER, 2012.
  50. 50. PROCEDURE FOR VALIDATION OF NON-FORMAL, INFORMAL LEARNING IN SPAIN Bibliography:• INCUAL: www.educacion.es/educa/incual• ICUAM: www.icuam.es• European Guidelines for validating non-formal, informal learning: www.cedefop.europa.eu STUDY VISIT, PARNÜ_ESTONIA 15-19 OCTOBER, 2012.

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