•The Indian Defence Research and
Development Organisation (DRDO) is
developing a two-tier Ballistic Missile
Defence (BMD) system that provides a
multi-layered shield against ballistic
• India began the development of the ballistic missile defence
system in 1998.
• The development was planned in two stages.
• The first phase was challenging due to the complex technologies
and indigenous mission systems employed in the mission.
• After eight years of development, the first missile test was
conducted in November 2006.
• The Prithvi-II missile was successfully intercepted by the PAD in
the endo-atmosphere at an altitude of 48km.
• PAD is a two stage missile based on the Prithvi missile.
• Also known as Pradyumna, PAD has a maximum
interception altitude of 80km.
• The first stage is liquid fuelled and the second stage is
• The missile is equipped with manoeuvre thrusters for
• It can engage the ballistic missiles (300km-2,000km
range) at a speed of Mach 5.
• Swordfish is a long-range tracking radar developed for the BMD
• It was derived from the Israeli Green Pine long range radar.
• A test conducted in March 2009 validated the long-range
capabilities of the radar.
• Swordfish guides the exo-atmospheric interceptor missile PAD to
engage aerial targets at altitudes over 80km.
• The radar can detect very small targets within the range of
• DRDO plans to upgrade the range of Swordfish to 1,500 km by
• DRDO units involved in the project are Defence Research
and Development Laboratory , Hyderabad (mission
control software); The Research Centre, Imarat,
Hyderabad (navigation and electromechanical actuation
systems); Advanced System Laboratory (motors, jet
vanes and structures) and High Energy Materials Research
Laboratory, Pune (propellants).
• Other contractors include L&T, Bharat Electronics,
Bharat Dynamics, Astra Microwave, Vem Technologies and