Earth’s landmasses nn

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Earth’s landmasses nn

  1. 1. Earth’s Landmasses
  2. 2. <ul><li>Islands – small landmasses completely surrounded by water </li></ul><ul><li>Four – number of major landmasses on Earth; Eurasia and Africa, North and South America, Antarctica (2x the size of the US; first known exploration occurred in 1901) , Australia (only continent that is single country; sometimes referred to as the island continent) </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Continent – landmass that measures millions of square km and rises a considerable distance above sea level; each has at least one large area of very old rock exposed at its surface (this area is called a shield) </li></ul><ul><li>Seven continents on the Earth – Asia, Africa, Europe, Australia, N and S America, and Antarctica </li></ul>
  4. 4. Topography <ul><li>Scientists refer to the shape of the Earth’s surface as its topography </li></ul><ul><li>The Earth’s topography is made up of different kinds of landscapes </li></ul><ul><li>A landscape is the physical features of the Earth’s Surface found in an area </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Each type of landscape has different characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Elevation – height above sea level (high or low) </li></ul><ul><li>Relief – difference in region’s elevation </li></ul>
  6. 6. Three Main Types of Landscape Regions <ul><li>Mountains – natural landforms that reach high elevations </li></ul><ul><li>Have narrow summits or tops, and steep slopes, or sides </li></ul><ul><li>These landscapes have very high relief </li></ul><ul><li>All mountains did not form at the same time </li></ul>
  7. 7. Mountain Formation <ul><li>Fault-block Mountain – result from the folding and breaking of the Earth’s surface </li></ul><ul><li>Volcanic Mountain – created when hot magma from the Earth’s interior breaks through the Earth’s surface </li></ul><ul><li>Mountain Range – roughly parallel series of mountains that have the same general shape and structure </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Mountain System – a group of mountain ranges in one area </li></ul><ul><li>Mountain Belt – a larger group of mountains composed of mountain ranges and systems </li></ul>
  9. 9. Folded Mountains <ul><li>Formed when rock layers are squeezed from opposite sides and rock layers buckle and fold </li></ul><ul><li>Example: The Appalachian Mountains </li></ul>
  10. 10. Unwarped Mountains <ul><li>Formed when rocks are pushed up by forces inside earth </li></ul>
  11. 11. Fault-Block Mountains <ul><li>Made of huge tilted blocks of rocks that are separated from surrounding rock by faults. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Sierra Nevada Mountains in California </li></ul>
  12. 12. Volcanic Mountains <ul><li>Begin when molten material reaches the surface through a weak area of the crust. The materials pile up, one layer on top of another, until one cone-shaped structure forms. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: The Hawaiian Islands </li></ul>
  13. 13. Some of the World’s Famous Mountains
  14. 14. <ul><li>Aconcagua, Andes Argentina </li></ul><ul><li>6569 m, Highest Mountain in Western Hemisphere </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Cotopaxi, Andes in Ecuador </li></ul><ul><li>5897 m, Highest active volcano in the world </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Elbert, Colorado </li></ul><ul><li>4399 m, Highest mountain in Rockies </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Everest, Himalayas (Nepal-Tibet border) </li></ul><ul><li>8848 m, Highest mountain in the world </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>K2, Kashmir </li></ul><ul><li>8611 m, 2nd highest mountain in the world </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Kanchenjunga, Himalayas (Nepal-India border) </li></ul><ul><li>8598 m, 3 rd highest mountain in the world </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Logan, Yukon </li></ul><ul><li>5950 m, Highest mountain in Canada </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Mauna Kea, Volcanic Island in Hawaii </li></ul><ul><li>4205 m, Highest Island Mountain in the world </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Mauna Loa, Volcanic Island in Hawaii </li></ul><ul><li>4169 m </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>McKinley, Alaska </li></ul><ul><li>6194 m, Highest mountain in North America </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Mitchell, North Carolina </li></ul><ul><li>2037 m, Highest mountain in the Appalachians </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Mont Blanc, France </li></ul><ul><li>4807 m, Highest mountain in the Alps </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Mt. St. Helens, Cascades in Washington </li></ul><ul><li>2549 m, Recent active volcano in the US </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Pikes Peak, Colorado </li></ul><ul><li>4301 m, most famous in the Rocky Mountains </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Rainier, Cascades in Washington </li></ul><ul><li>4392 m, Highest mountain in Washington </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Vesuvius, Italy </li></ul><ul><li>1277 m, only active volcano on the mainland of Europe </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Whitney, Sierra Nevada in California </li></ul><ul><li>4418 m, Highest mountain in California </li></ul>
  31. 31. Plains <ul><li>Flat land areas that do not rise far above sea level </li></ul><ul><li>They are areas of low relief </li></ul><ul><li>Characterized by broad rivers and streams </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>Coastal Plains – Low flat areas along the coasts </li></ul><ul><li>Coast – a place where the land meets the ocean </li></ul><ul><li>Interior Plains – low, flat areas found inland on a continent </li></ul>
  33. 33. Plateaus <ul><li>Broad, flat areas of land that rise more than 600 m above sea level </li></ul><ul><li>They are not considered mountains because their surfaces are fairly flat </li></ul><ul><li>Many plateaus of the world are dry, nearly desert areas </li></ul><ul><li>Often used for grazing </li></ul>

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