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Bluetooth

Seminar report on bluetooth technology

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ABSTRACT 
Bluetooth is a communication standard for short-distance 
wireless communication. It replaces the many proprietary cables that connect 
one device to another with a single universal short-range radio link. For 
instance Bluetooth radio technology built into both the cellular phone and the 
laptop would replace the cable used today, to connect a laptop to a cellular 
phone. 
Bluetooth radio technology provides a Universal bridge to 
existing data networks, a peripheral interface and a mechanism to form small 
private ad hoc groupings of connected devices away from fixed network 
infrastructures. 
The paper about Bluetooth technology provides description of 
some of the usage models and explains how the Bluetooth architecture is 
optimized to enable them. 
This paper concentrates on how the security is implemented in 
Bluetooth wireless technology. It also deals with applications and future 
developments of the same area as well as how the Bluetooth is positioned 
relative to other wireless technology standards. 
1
S.no. Table of Contents Page no. 
1.0 INTRODUCTION 
1.1 Bluetooth 3 
1.2 History of Bluetooth 5 
2.0 THEORY 
2.1 Bluetooth Topology 6 
2.2 Bluetooth Hardware Architecture 9 
2.3 Application of Bluetooth 11 
3.0 BLUETOOTH ARCHITECTURE 12 
3.1 Security 16 
3.2 Advantages of Bluetooth 18 
3.3 Disadvantages of Bluetooth 18 
4.0 BLUETOOTH IN FUTURE 19 
5.0 LITERATURE SURVEY 20 
6.0 CONCLUSION 23 
7.0 REFERENCE 24 
1.0 INTRODUCTION 
1.1 BLUETOOTH 
2
Bluetooth Technology was first launched in the year 1994. When 
launched, it gave a brilliant surprise to portable lifestyle. It was developed to 
provide a wireless interconnect between small mobile devices and their 
peripherals. This new innovation has given a solution to give cable free computer 
connections, which means real freedom to working environment despite location 
and wire availability. 
Bluetooth wireless allows portable computers, notebooks, mobile 
phones, personal digital assistant and other handy gadgets to make use of ‘short 
range, low power’ radio technology to connect to each other. Bluetooth technology 
gives 400 KBPS data transfer rate and operates in 2.4 GHz frequency band, similar 
to cordless phones and 802.11b wireless LAN technology. It also supports 10-m 
computers connection at 1 MBPS speed. 
Original Bluetooth market requirements dictated integration into small 
handheld devices, low cost, high security, low power and ubiquitous global use of 
Bluetooth technology. The goals of the technology did not include developing 
another wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) technology, for which there was 
already many in the market and many more being developed. While WLAN had 
good ad hoc networking there was no clear market standard to pick. Moreover cost 
was too high for integration, there were no global standards and integration into 
small handheld devices was a problem. As such it was decided to take a different 
approach: replace the cable from the ‘Network Adapters’ with a low cost RF link 
that we now call BLUETOOTH. 
Bluetooth has taken its first step as a basic cable replacement 
technology and is now quickly evolving into more sophisticated applications such 
3
as peer to peer networking and personal area networking for cellular phones, 
PDAs, Computers, Printers and other devices. The market for Bluetooth handsets 
is forecast to increase dramatically reaching a total of 779.7 million devices by the 
year 2006. 
Bluetooth is a global standard for wireless connectivity. Today 
Bluetooth technology is the only specification targeted at this new market of cable 
replacement. Even the IEEE organization has recognized the need for wireless 
cable replacement technology and started the development of the 802.15-working 
group that focuses on this market. 
The Bluetooth technology tries to emulate the cost, security and 
capabilities of common cables carried by mobile travelers. “The technology must 
be secure as a cable; must be manufactured for about the same cost as a cable; 
must connect to variety of devices available to the mobile users and support data 
rates that are consistent with a mobile travelers needs; must support many 
simultaneous and private connections, must support the types of data used by the 
mobile users and must be very low power and compact to support the small 
portable devices into which the technology must be global as the mobile devices 
will travel and must work with devices found in other parts of the world”. 
1.2 HISTORY OF BLUETOOTH 
The idea that resulted in the Bluetooth wireless technology was born in 1994 when 
4
Ericsson decided to investigate the feasibility of a low-power, low-cost radio interface 
between mobile phones and their accessories (www.bluetooth.com). The idea was that 
a small radio built into both the cellular telephone and the laptop would replace the 
cumbersome cable used today to connect the two devices.Today, the Bluetooth wireless 
technology is supported by the Bluetooth SIG (Special Interest Group). The main 
players in this group include 3Com Corporation, Ericsson Technology Licensing AB, 
IBM Corporation, Intel Corporation, Agere Systems, Inc., Microsoft Corporation, 
Motorola Inc., Nokia Corporation, and the Toshiba Corporation.In February of 2000, 
Bluetooth SIG membership exceeded 1525 companies.The backing and support from 
these companies insures that Bluetooth will receive a chance to gain acceptance in today’s 
wireless market. 
Bluetooth operates in the unlicensed ISM band at 2.4 GHZ frequency band and use 
frequency hopping spread spectrum technique. A typical Blue tooth device has a range of 
about 10 meters and can be extended to 100meters. Communication channels supports 
total bandwidth of 1 Mb / sec. A single connection supports a maximum asymmetric data 
transfer rate of 721 KBPS maximum of three channels. 
The engineers who designed Bluetooth are: J.Haarsten and S.Mattisson 
2.0 THEORY 
2.1 BLUETOOTH TOPOLOGY 
5
Depending upon the type of connection established between the various bluetooth 
devices,there are two main topologies : 
1.PICONET TOPOLOGY 
2.SCATTERNET TOPOLOGY 
To any topology there are two main devices: 
1.Master device 
2.Slave device 
PICONET TOPOLOGY: 
In bluetooth, a Piconet is a collection of up to 8 devices that frequency hop 
together. Each Piconet has one master usually a device that initiated establishment 
of the Piconet, and up to 7 slave devices. Master’s Blue tooth address is used for 
definition of the frequency hopping sequence. Slave devices use the master’s clock 
to synchronize their clocks to be able to hop simultaneously. 
When a device wants to establish a Piconet it has to perform inquiry to discover 
other Blue tooth devices in the range. Inquiry procedure is defined in such a way to 
ensure that two devices will after some time, visit the same frequency same time 
when that happens, required information is exchanged and devices can use paging 
procedure to establish connection. 
6

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S. Kim, NeurIPS 2023, MLILAB, KAISTAI
 

Bluetooth

  • 1. ABSTRACT Bluetooth is a communication standard for short-distance wireless communication. It replaces the many proprietary cables that connect one device to another with a single universal short-range radio link. For instance Bluetooth radio technology built into both the cellular phone and the laptop would replace the cable used today, to connect a laptop to a cellular phone. Bluetooth radio technology provides a Universal bridge to existing data networks, a peripheral interface and a mechanism to form small private ad hoc groupings of connected devices away from fixed network infrastructures. The paper about Bluetooth technology provides description of some of the usage models and explains how the Bluetooth architecture is optimized to enable them. This paper concentrates on how the security is implemented in Bluetooth wireless technology. It also deals with applications and future developments of the same area as well as how the Bluetooth is positioned relative to other wireless technology standards. 1
  • 2. S.no. Table of Contents Page no. 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Bluetooth 3 1.2 History of Bluetooth 5 2.0 THEORY 2.1 Bluetooth Topology 6 2.2 Bluetooth Hardware Architecture 9 2.3 Application of Bluetooth 11 3.0 BLUETOOTH ARCHITECTURE 12 3.1 Security 16 3.2 Advantages of Bluetooth 18 3.3 Disadvantages of Bluetooth 18 4.0 BLUETOOTH IN FUTURE 19 5.0 LITERATURE SURVEY 20 6.0 CONCLUSION 23 7.0 REFERENCE 24 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 BLUETOOTH 2
  • 3. Bluetooth Technology was first launched in the year 1994. When launched, it gave a brilliant surprise to portable lifestyle. It was developed to provide a wireless interconnect between small mobile devices and their peripherals. This new innovation has given a solution to give cable free computer connections, which means real freedom to working environment despite location and wire availability. Bluetooth wireless allows portable computers, notebooks, mobile phones, personal digital assistant and other handy gadgets to make use of ‘short range, low power’ radio technology to connect to each other. Bluetooth technology gives 400 KBPS data transfer rate and operates in 2.4 GHz frequency band, similar to cordless phones and 802.11b wireless LAN technology. It also supports 10-m computers connection at 1 MBPS speed. Original Bluetooth market requirements dictated integration into small handheld devices, low cost, high security, low power and ubiquitous global use of Bluetooth technology. The goals of the technology did not include developing another wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) technology, for which there was already many in the market and many more being developed. While WLAN had good ad hoc networking there was no clear market standard to pick. Moreover cost was too high for integration, there were no global standards and integration into small handheld devices was a problem. As such it was decided to take a different approach: replace the cable from the ‘Network Adapters’ with a low cost RF link that we now call BLUETOOTH. Bluetooth has taken its first step as a basic cable replacement technology and is now quickly evolving into more sophisticated applications such 3
  • 4. as peer to peer networking and personal area networking for cellular phones, PDAs, Computers, Printers and other devices. The market for Bluetooth handsets is forecast to increase dramatically reaching a total of 779.7 million devices by the year 2006. Bluetooth is a global standard for wireless connectivity. Today Bluetooth technology is the only specification targeted at this new market of cable replacement. Even the IEEE organization has recognized the need for wireless cable replacement technology and started the development of the 802.15-working group that focuses on this market. The Bluetooth technology tries to emulate the cost, security and capabilities of common cables carried by mobile travelers. “The technology must be secure as a cable; must be manufactured for about the same cost as a cable; must connect to variety of devices available to the mobile users and support data rates that are consistent with a mobile travelers needs; must support many simultaneous and private connections, must support the types of data used by the mobile users and must be very low power and compact to support the small portable devices into which the technology must be global as the mobile devices will travel and must work with devices found in other parts of the world”. 1.2 HISTORY OF BLUETOOTH The idea that resulted in the Bluetooth wireless technology was born in 1994 when 4
  • 5. Ericsson decided to investigate the feasibility of a low-power, low-cost radio interface between mobile phones and their accessories (www.bluetooth.com). The idea was that a small radio built into both the cellular telephone and the laptop would replace the cumbersome cable used today to connect the two devices.Today, the Bluetooth wireless technology is supported by the Bluetooth SIG (Special Interest Group). The main players in this group include 3Com Corporation, Ericsson Technology Licensing AB, IBM Corporation, Intel Corporation, Agere Systems, Inc., Microsoft Corporation, Motorola Inc., Nokia Corporation, and the Toshiba Corporation.In February of 2000, Bluetooth SIG membership exceeded 1525 companies.The backing and support from these companies insures that Bluetooth will receive a chance to gain acceptance in today’s wireless market. Bluetooth operates in the unlicensed ISM band at 2.4 GHZ frequency band and use frequency hopping spread spectrum technique. A typical Blue tooth device has a range of about 10 meters and can be extended to 100meters. Communication channels supports total bandwidth of 1 Mb / sec. A single connection supports a maximum asymmetric data transfer rate of 721 KBPS maximum of three channels. The engineers who designed Bluetooth are: J.Haarsten and S.Mattisson 2.0 THEORY 2.1 BLUETOOTH TOPOLOGY 5
  • 6. Depending upon the type of connection established between the various bluetooth devices,there are two main topologies : 1.PICONET TOPOLOGY 2.SCATTERNET TOPOLOGY To any topology there are two main devices: 1.Master device 2.Slave device PICONET TOPOLOGY: In bluetooth, a Piconet is a collection of up to 8 devices that frequency hop together. Each Piconet has one master usually a device that initiated establishment of the Piconet, and up to 7 slave devices. Master’s Blue tooth address is used for definition of the frequency hopping sequence. Slave devices use the master’s clock to synchronize their clocks to be able to hop simultaneously. When a device wants to establish a Piconet it has to perform inquiry to discover other Blue tooth devices in the range. Inquiry procedure is defined in such a way to ensure that two devices will after some time, visit the same frequency same time when that happens, required information is exchanged and devices can use paging procedure to establish connection. 6
  • 7. When more than 7 devices needs to communicate, there are two options.The first one is to put one or more devices into the park state. Blue tooth defines three low power modes sniff, hold and park. When a device is in the park mode then it disassociates from and Piconet, but still maintains timing synchronization with it. The master of the Piconet periodically broadcasts beacons (Warning) to invite the slave to rejoin the Piconet or to allow the slave to request to rejoin. The slave can rejoin the Piconet only if there are less than seven slaves already in the Piconet. If not so, the master has to ‘park’ one of the active slaves first. All these actions cause delay and for some applications it can be unacceptable for eg: process control applications, that requires immediate response from the commandcentre (central control room). 7
  • 8. SCATTERNET TOPOLOGY: Scatternet consists of several Piconets connected by devices participating in multiple Piconet. These devices can be slaves in all Piconets or master in one Piconet and slave in other Piconets. Using scatternets higher throughput is available and multi-hop connections between devices in different Piconets are possible. i.e., The unit can communicate in one Piconet at time so they jump from pioneer to another depending upon the channel parameter. 8
  • 9. 2.2 BLUETOOTH HARDWARE ARCHITECTURE A blue tooth module consists primarily of three functional blocks – an analog 2.4 GHz., Blue tooth RF transceiver unit, and a support unit for link management and host controller interface functions.The host controller has a hardware digital signal processing part- the Link Controller (LC), a CPU core, and it interfaces to the host environment. The link controller consists of hardware and software parts that perform blue tooth based band processing, and physical layer protocols. The link controller performs lowlevel digital-signal processing to establish connections, assemble or disassemble, packets, control frequency hopping, correct errors and encrypt data. 9
  • 10. The CPU core allows the blue tooth module to handle inquiries and filter page request without involving the host device. The host controller can be programmed to answer certain page messages and authenticate remote links. The link manager(LM) software runs on the CPU core. The LM discovers other remote LMs and communicates with them via the link manager protocol (LMP) to perform its service provider role using the services of the underlying LC. The link manager is a software function that uses the services of the link controller to perform link setup, authentication, link configuration, and other protocols. Depending on the implementation, the link controller and link manager functions may not reside in the same processor. Another function component is of course, the antenna, which may be integrated on the PCB or come as a standalone item. A fully implemented bluetooth module also incorporates higher-level software protocols, which govern the functionality and interoperability with other modules. Gate way plays the role of the Piconet’s master in the sensor network. 10
  • 11. 2.3 APPLICATION OF BLUETOOTH: · Consumer Electronics e.g. Bluetooth headphones, speakers, keyboard, mouse. · Medical devices With the help of these divices various data can be collected and can be sent directly to the computer to keep a daily track of patients heart beat,blood sugar levels etc. 11
  • 12. · Sports devices like GPS,Heartbeat monitor,speedometer etc also use Bluetooth sensor. 3.0 BLUETOOTH ARCHITECTURE The Bluetooth technology is divided into two specifications. The Core and the Profile specifications. The Core specification discusses how the technology works while the profile specification focuses on how to build inter operating devices using the core technologies. Here the data transmission is a series of protocols within the Bluetooth system that possesses the data for suitable transmission and receipt. A good representation of General Bluetooth Architecture is provided as 12
  • 13. Device 1 Bluetooth System Device 2 Hierarchy Data Transfers Data Transfers HCI HCI Bluetooth Link 13 High level Applications WAP,UDC/TCP,PPP,IP Connects to RFCOMM,SDP,TCS Connects to L2CAP High level Applications WAP,UDC/TCP,PPP,IP Connects to RFCOMM,SDP,TCS Connects to L2CAP RFCOMM Emulates a serial port and allows transfer of data and form L2CAP RFCOMM Emulates a serial port and allows transfer of data and form L2CAP L2CAP Perform segmentation, Reassembly and multiplexing of high level applications L2CAP Perform segmentation, Reassembly and multiplexing of high level applications LINK MANAGER PROTOCOL AND BASEBAND CONTROLLER Baseband Controller performs the low level processing of packet composition and decomposition. Link manager handles Link setup and Control LINK MANAGER PROTOCOL AND BASEBAND CONTROLLER Baseband Controller performs the low level processing of packet composition and decomposition. Link manager handles Link setup and Control
  • 14. At the highest architecture level lies the different communication and data information protocols that can communicate over the Bluetooth link, including Wireless Application Protocol(WAP), User Diagram Protocol (UDP), Transport Control Protocol(TCP), Internet Protocol(IP), and Point to Point Protocol(PPP). While all of these are standalone communication protocols, they can be adapted for transmission over a Bluetooth link. To support these different types of Communication protocols, the Bluetooth system architecture must capable of differentiating and converting data associated with these protocols into data packets that the Bluetooth baseband controller and RF transceiver can send. One of the protocols within the Bluetooth architecture that is responsible for this adaptation is RFCOMM, which emulates a serial port and can be used by applications that use the serial ports on a Bluetooth device. RFCOMM can take the data from some of the higher level protocols mentioned previously and adapt it so it can be sent down to the baseband and converted into Bluetooth data packets and subsequently sent over a Bluetooth link. Below RFCOMM lies the logical link control and adaptation protocol (L2CAP) that further supports the adaptation of other communication protocols such as Telephony Control Specification binary (TCS-binary) and the Bluetooth established Service Discovery Protocols (SDP) as well as performing the multiplexing between all incoming upper level protocols (RFCOMM, TCS, SDP). 14
  • 15. In addition to protocol multiplexing L2CAP is responsible for the segmentation of outgoing data packets so they may be transferred to the baseband processor, since the baseband processor cannot handle data packets of great size. L2CAP is also responsible for the reassembly of received data packets, which are subsequently sent to one of the higher level protocols designated to receive this data. Once the original data has been segmented by L2CAP into subsequent L2CAP packets, the packets are then sent to the host controller interface (HCI), which is responsible for sending data and receiving data from the lower level Bluetooth hardware (Baseband Controller) through a physical bus (USB, RS232, PCI). HCI further alters the L2CAP packets so that the data may be transported over one of the physical buses. The link manager and baseband controller that assemble it into packets that are communicating using a Bluetooth link receive this data. At the lowest level lie the link manager and the baseband controller. The baseband controller performs all low level processing, such as Bluetooth packet composition for transmission and packet decomposition upon reception. Running on the baseband controller is firmware implementing the link manager protocol, which handles link control is responsible for placing the device in low power states, and performs any encryption of data transmitted. 15
  • 16. 3.1 SECURITY The way that the Bluetooth radio system is used in mobile devices and the type of data carried on these devices makes security an extremely important factor. While most wireless systems will claim that being a spread spectrum radio provides security, the volumes projected for Bluetooth radios eliminate this barrier. The link layer security architecture is given as At a link layer, the Bluetooth radio system provides Authentication, Encryption and Key management of the various keys involved. Authentication involves the user providing a Personal Identification Number (PIN) that is translated into a 128-bit link key that can be authenticated in a one or two way direction. Once the radios are authenticated the link can be encrypted at various key lengths. 16
  • 17. The link layer security architecture provides a number of authentication schemes and a flexible encryption scheme that allows radios to negotiate for key length. This is important, as radios from different countries will be talking to each other. Security policies in these countries will dictate maximum encryption key lengths. Bluetooth radios will negotiate to the smallest common key length for the link. The Bluetooth architecture also supports authorization of different services to upper software stacks. For example, when two computers have created a Bluetooth link to exchange business cards, authorization must be created to extend these services. The Bluetooth security architecture relies on PIN codes for establishing trusted relationships between devices. While not practical to go through all the combinations of uses of PIN codes, it should be noted that once a trusted pairing is established between devices, these codes could be stored within the device to allow more automatic/ simple connections. The key to Bluetooth simplicity will be establishing the trusted relationship between commonly used devices. For random ad hoc connections that require authenticated connections, PINs would have to be exchanged. 17
  • 18. 3.2 Advantages of Bluetooth 1. Eliminates wires and cables between both stationary and mobile devices. 2. Facilitates both data and voice communication 3. Offers the possibility of ad hoc networks and delivers the ultimate synchronicity between all your personal devices 4. It’s inexpensive. 5. You don't have to think about it, the devices find one another and strike up conversation without any user input at all. 3.3 Disadvantages of Bluetooth 1. Compatibility between Bluetooth products 2. Security 3. Relatively short range 4.Interference with other devices that may use the same frequency, such as baby monitors, garage door openers, cordless phones, microwave ovens, and other wireless technologies which use the same frequency. 5.Mediocre data transfer rate. 18
  • 19. 4.0 BLUETOOTH IN THE FUTURE Future direction of the Bluetooth standard At this time, we anticipate the Bluetooth SIG to evolve the Bluetooth technology to provide greater bandwidth & distances, thus increasing the potential platforms & applications used in the emerging Personal area networking marketplace. Future of Bluetooth Bluetooth is a continually expanding technology. There are plans to add many new application profiles. With over 1800 companies working on Bluetooth, the future could not be brighter. With a strong special interest group behind Bluetooth, the standardization of the application profiles is almost assured. According to market researchers, Cahners In-Stat Group, it is anticipated that as many as 670 million products will have Bluetooth built-in by the year 2005. Will the speed of Bluetooth increase? Some members of the Bluetooth SIG such as Sony & Eastman Kodak are interested in seeing the speed of Bluetooth increasing for applications such as streaming video. Proposals are under Consideration but it is not clear when products based on any of the proposals would be available. 19
  • 20. 5.0 LITERATURE SURVEY The literature review starts with a background on Bluetooth technology which include Bluetooth radio, device classes and connection.It then gives a detail explanation about Bluetooth security before comparing it to other wireless technologies. Next, it addresses the importance of cryptography in information security, followed by an outline of basic security services that need to be delivered in order to secure information. Part of the needs of the security services can be fulfilled through cryptographic algorithms.This chapter also highlights current implementations related to digital signature by discussing PGP and SSL.Finally, this chapter identifies the most important security services that need to be delivered in this project. Overview of Bluetooth Bluetooth was originally initiated by Ericsson as a cable replacement technology and personal ad-hoc networks. Together with Intel, IBM, Nokia and Toshiba, they formed the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG) in May 1998 that focuses onspecific areas such as engineering, qualifications and marketing.Later, they were joinedbyother leaders in the telecommunications and computing industry such as Lucent,Microsoft and Motorola. Bluetooth radio and device classes Bluetooth operates in the 2.4GHz Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) band, using the fast frequency-hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) technique. 20
  • 21. FHSS divides the frequency range into 79.1Mhz sub-channels and hops from channel to channel 1600 times per second. Only synchronized transmitters and receivers are able to access the transmitted data. In the ISM band, Bluetooth technology has a maximum theoretical data rate of 1 Mbps. Actual maximum throughput is approximately 400-700kbps depending on the channel configurations (Gehrmann, 2002). Bluetooth devices are divided into 3 classes of power management, that is Class 1, Class 2 and Class 3.Table 2.1 shows the Bluetooth device classes of power management with the corresponding operating range. Establishing a Bluetooth connection Bluetooth supports simultaneous connections between multiple devices in a wireless network called a piconet. A maximum of 8 Bluetooth devices can be active in a piconet. Each piconet has a single master device and at least one slave device. Multiple, overlapping piconets in the same area are referred to as a scatternet. A device can switch role when jumping from one piconet to another. However, a device is not allowed to be a master in more than one piconet at the same time. A typical Bluetooth communication involves three steps: device discovery, service discovery and pairing.In a device discovery, a Bluetooth device detects the presence of any other Bluetooth device that is within its coverage range.The initiating device can only detect devices that are set to “discoverable”. Upon successful detection, the device’s “friendly name” is 21
  • 22. returned. Afterwards, the initiating device starts a service discovery to search for specific services offered in the other device.These services are based on profiles defined in the Bluetooth specification. Profiles implementation in Bluetooth devices is important to ensure interoperability of devices from different manufacturers.Common profiles supported are Service Discovery Application Profile, Serial Port Profile and Dial-Up Networking Profile. This optional pairing procedure initiates a private connection between both devices. Matching PIN or passkey is inserted in both devices before a connection is allowed. 22
  • 23. 6.0 CONCLUSION Bluetooth represents a great chance for sensor-networked architecture.This architecture heralds wireless future for home and also for industrial implementation. With a bluetooth RF link, users only need to bring the devices with in range, and the devices will automatically link up and exchange information.Thus implementation of blue tooth technology for sensor networks not only cuts wiring cost but also integrates the industrial environment to smarter Environment. Today, with a broader specifications and a renewed concentration on interoperability, manufacturers are ready to forge ahead and take bluetooth products to the market place. Embedded design can incorporate the bluetooth wireless technology into a range of new products to meet the growing demand for connected information appliances. 23
  • 24. 7.0 REFERENCES · www.bluetooth.com · www.slideshare.net · www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/buetooth · How Bluetooth Technology Works“Bluetooth SIG.Archived from the original on 17January 2008. Retrieved 2008-02-01. · www.bluetooth.org 24