Introduction to the Geography of
Travel & Tourism
• Distinguish between the different
forms of tourism, and the
relationship of different types of
tourist with the environment.
• Identify the three major
geographical components of
• Explain the push and pull factors
that give rise to tourist flow.
• Appreciate the main methods
used to measure tourist flows and
be aware of their problems.
Leisure, Recreation &
• Leisure is often seen as a
measure of time and is usually
used to mean the time left over
after work, sleep, and personal
household chores have been
completed. Leisure is free time
for individuals spend as they
Leisure, Recreation &
• Recreation is variety of activities
taken during leisure time. It
refreshes a person’s strength and
spirit and can include activities as
diverse as watching television or
Leisure, Recreation &
• Tourism is “the activities of
persons travelling to and staying
in places outside their usual
environment for not more than
one consecutive year for leisure,
business and other purposes.”
Geography & Tourism
• Spatial Scale
• the human activities, focusing on
both tourist-generating and
tourist-receiving areas as well as
the links between them.
• The spatial study can be
undertaken at a variety of
• world distribution of
• regional assessment of
• the local landscapes of
• The geographical components of
the tourism system
• The places of origin of tourists –
the tourist-generating areas.
• Represent the homes of tourists,
where journey begin and end.
• Examine the features that stimulate
demand for tourism, include the
geographical location of an area; its
socioeconomic and demographic
• These areas represent the main
tourist markets in the world.
• Major marketing functions of tourist
industry are found here, such as tour
operation, and travel retailing.
• The tourist destinations – the receiving
• Places that attract tourist to stay
temporarily and will have features and
attractions that may not be found in the
• comprise of the accommodation, retailing,
and service functions, entertainment, and
• most important part of the tourism
system, which attract the tourists and
energizing the system.
• recognized as the impacts recipient of the
tourism industry, and therefore where the
planning and management of tourism is so
• The routes travelled between tourist-
generating areas and the receiving
• Link the tourist-generating area and the
tourist destination area.
• As the key element in the system as their
effectiveness and characteristics shape the
size and direction of tourist flows.
• It represents the location of the main
transportation component of the tourist
• Spatial interaction between the
components of the tourist system
• Tourist flows
• tourist flows between regions is the
fundamental to the geography of tourism
• between two areas with the destination
area containing a surplus of a commodity
(ex. tourist attraction) and the generating
area having a deficit, or demand for that
• The regular patterns of tourist flows, which
do not occur randomly but follow certain
rules and are influenced by a variety of push
and pull factors.
• Push factors
• Mainly concerned with
the stage of economic
development in the
including the factors as
levels of affluence,
mobility and holiday
• Economic development
may cause the pressure
of life will provide the
“push” to engage in
• An unfavourable climate
will also provide a
strong impetus to
• Pull factors
• Include accessibility, and
the attractions and
amenities of the
• The relative cost of the
visit is important, as is
the marketing and
promotion of the
• Explaining tourist flows
• A number of attempts have
been made to explain the
factors that affect tourist flows
and to provide rules governing
the magnitude of flows between
1. Williams and Zelinsky (1970)
• Selected 14 countries that had
relatively stable tourist flows
over a few years, which
accounted for the bulk of the
world’s tourist traffic.
• A number of factors that helped
to explain these flows:
• Distances between countries (the
greater the distance, the smaller
the volume of flow).
• International connectivity
(shared business or cultural ties
• The general attractiveness of one
country for another.
2. The gravity model
• It based on two main factors that
• a) The push and pull factors
which generate flows, and the
model states that the larger the
“mass” of the pushing or pulling
regions, the greater the flow
• b) The restraining factor, which
based on the distance between
the origin and the destination of
• The time and cost involved in
travel act to reduce the flows
• Known as the friction of distance.
• Measuring tourist flows
• The measurement of both international
and domestic flows has been
introduced by the national
governments and international
• reasons why this statistical of flows is
• To evaluate the magnitude of
tourist flows and to monitor any
change. This allows projection of
future flows and the identification
of market trends to be made.
• Act as a base of hard fact to allow
tourism planners and developers to
operate effectively and plan for the
future of tourism.
• Both public and private sectors use
it as a basis for their marketing.
• Measurement of tourist flows can be
divided into three main types:
• Statistics of volume
• Give the number of tourists
leaving an area or visiting a
destination in a given period
• Provide basic count of the
volume of tourist traffic.
• It also includes the length of
stay of the visitors at their
• Tourist characteristics.
• Measure the quality of
• Include information on types
of tourist (sex, age,
socioeconomic group) and
their behaviour (structure of
the trip, attitudes to the
• Expenditure statistics.
• Tourist flows have important
economic significance for the
destination, the generating
region, and the transport
• Tourism represents a flow of
money that is earned in one
place and spends in another.
Forms of Tourism
• Type of destination
• the important distinction is between
international and domestic tourism.
• Domestic tourism embraces those
travelling within their own country.
• International tourism comprises those
who travel to a country other than that
in which they normally live.
• Inbound tourism – non-
residents travelling in a given
• Outbound tourism – involving
residents of a particular
country travelling abroad to
• use another currency and
encounter a different language.
• Larger countries have a variety of
tourist attractions and resorts, and
greater physical distances.
• Classifying tourists according to
their relationship with the
• The characteristics of the tourism
• forms of tourism based dominantly on
the destination visited.
• the destination visited influence the
other components of the tourism
• (the market and its motivation
to travel, and the means and
form of transport used.
• The tourism product determine the
nature of the tourism system
• Rural tourism
• Urban tourism
• Heritage tourism
• Cultural tourism
• The market
• Forms of tourism based on its
market, in terms of the purpose of
visit of the tourist;
• Holiday tourism (Holloway, 1989).
• can be divided into “sun, sea,
and sand” type where good
weather and beach-related
activities are important.
• the “touring, sightseeing, and
culture” type where new
destinations, and different life
styles are sought.
• Common-interest tourism;
• those travelling with a
purpose common to those
visited at the destination
• visiting friends and relatives
[VFR], religion, health or
• make little or no demand
upon accommodation or
other tourist facilities at the
• Business and professional tourism;
• includes all those who are
attending the trade fairs and
conferences or participating in
incentive travel schemes.
• The business travellers use the
same facilities as those travelling
for pleasure and they are not
permanent employees or
residents of the host destination
• Therefore they must be included
in any definition of tourist. They
are constrained in terms of
where and when to travel.
Other market-based approach is to
• The nature of the tourist
themselves; the youth tourism,
grey tourism, and gay tourism.
• The type of travel arrangement
• inclusive tour where two or
more components of the
tour are purchased together
and one price is paid.
• independent travel
arrangements where the
traveller purchases the
various elements of the trip
• tailor-made which is a
combination of the two.
• The Distance Travelled
• Long-haul tourism; taken to be
journeys of over 3000 kilometres
• Short-haul tourism; comprises
journeys below that distance
• The distinction is important in terms of
aircraft operation and for marketing.
• It is important to recognise that each
particular form of tourism involve all of
the geographical components.