Automated Teller Machine
Deepti Aggarwal, Himanshu Zade, Anind K. Dey
Demography and its impact on usability of ATMs
Issues with ATMs in India
Global solutions unsuitable to Indian demography
Proposed software and hardware design
What is Demography?
Study of population composition
Study of the size, structure, and distribution of
Tightly coupled with the culture of that place
Demography: Effect on usability of an
Influences attitude, behavior, actions, values,
cognitive structure, social and perceptual skills.
Follows different signs, symbols, and words.
affects the interaction with designs!
Demography: Impact on consumer products
could not attract Global market but India owing to
its branding as a herbal product.
low acceptance into Indian market due to different
One more consumer product…
Automated Teller Machine
Widely used service by to make cash
withdrawals, check account balances
and many other services.
Began in 1970s in UK.
What is an
Literacy rate of 74.04%.
Second highest population in the
1652 languages and their various
0-14 years: 31.1%
15-64 years: 63.6%
Low technical acquaintance.
Slow adaptation to newer
Emotional attachment to local
terminologies and preferences.
Segmented population results to
Leads to lower usability
45000+ ATM installations in India.
Preferred way of financial transaction to
More than 50% Indians use ATM service
at least once a week.
Experts forecast that the growth rate
(CAGR) is expected to grow 18 percent
up by 2013.
Bank of America
BBVA Inc. in collaboration with IDEO Inc.
… and many more
Apple Inc. for iPhone digital signature
Evolution of ATM since 1970:
Man evolved, ATM did not…
Within group design
Participants: 20 (11 males and 9 females)
Minimum 2 years of experience with ATM
Subjective assessment to identify issues and
evaluate the proposed solutions
3. Software Issue:
… and more
Proposed Design Solution
Dolphin hardware case
Interactive software design
Touch-base screen with 30
System Usability Score = 79 for the proposed design
Demography drives novelty of an idea and influences
Personalization leads to variable process flows
Customization favors diversity
Trade-off: Localization and Centralization
The existing ATMs can be upgraded by involving the
suggested interactivity in a touch-based screen.
Giving control to users for ATM magnetic card,
provide a swipe-in slot that can replace the push-in
pull-out / absorb-in slot.
New ATMs can be built completely as per the
proposed design later.
ATM for specially-abled people
Extension to UID compatibility