December 2010 Towards a better response to Seasonal Internal Migration in India: Key Policy Recommendations for the XIIth Plan
The National Coalition of Organizations for Security of Migrant Workers (henceforth, the Coalition) is a network of organizations working on issues related to internal migration and urban poverty. The Coalition represents 30 plus organizations spread across states of Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Bihar, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, and Gujarat. The Coalition has been working to mainstream concerns of migrant workers at the state and national level and make the existing policies sensitive to the rising incidence and complexity of rural to urban and inter-state migration This document is an outcome of deliberations within the Coalition members and puts forth certain recommendations for the drafting of the XIIth Plan. 28th December, 2010 Convener: Anjali Borhade Co-Convener: Rajiv Khandelwal Email: email@example.com Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Cell: 9650806259 Cell: 09414165851N a t i o n a l C o a l i t i o n o f O r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r S e c u r i t y o f M i g r a n t W o r k e r s [ N C O S M W ]
Key Policy Recommendations for designing a comprehensive institutional response to seasonalinternal migration in India –1. Detailed Mapping of Internal Migration at a Countrywide level: One of the serious constraints in framing an effective policy response to internal migration is lack of credible data on incidence of migration. While the latest 64th round NSS survey puts a figure of 30 m on internal migration, various estimates based on micro-level studies suggest that the figure is close to 100-120 million. Concerted efforts are required to address this knowledge gap on migration. The Planning Commission can approach the mapping in two ways – i. One way is to involve the PRIs to initiate a countrywide documentation of migrant workers moving out of rural areas. The civil society organizations and the labor department can take up a proactive role in supporting this initiative. At the source, the civil society organizations can support PRIs undertake surveys/registrations. The database building as a result of this effort could be computerized and then integrated at successive block, district and state levels. Registration of migrants at destination cities can be done collectively by labour department of the receiving state and civil society organizations. Reference case: Rajasthan Labor department has initiated such registration through an NGO named Aajeevika Bureau in Southern Rajasthan. The NGO registers migrant workers, issues Photo IDs and maintains a database of migrant workers. The database is shared with the Rajasthan labor department on a quarterly basis. The Panchayats being closest link to migrant workers in the whole chain act as the signing and verifying authority on the Photo ID cards. Planning Commission can think of replicating this initiative in other states of the country. Please see attached order of Labour department, Rajasthan authorizing the NGO to lead this process (Annexure I). ii. The second approach could be by way of adapting the Census and NSS methodology to capture seasonal and circular migrant populations. As mentioned earlier, both in the Census and NSS the reported figure of migration are gross underestimates.2. Re-drafting of Inter State Migrant Workmen’s Act, 1979: The ISMWA is the only piece of legislation that aims to address concerns of migrant workers. However, the Act has rarely been called to force and is more or less obsolete. There is a need to re-draft the legislation in keeping with the rising incidence and complexity of inter-state migration. The Ministry of Labour and employment has recently started the process of revising the legislation. In order to contribute to the process, Coalition would like to highlight specific lacunae in the Act, which need to be addressed1 – 1 The recommendations are compiled though members of the coalition, as well during the National Level Consultation to discuss the reform in Interstate Migrant Workmen’s Act. Disha Foundation, Nasik during August 2009, organized it where 20 plus organizations participated.
i. The current legislation puts unrealistic burden on the Labour contractor forcing him to take responsibility of registrations and provision of basic facilities. A greater share of the responsibility needs to be borne by the employer and this needs to be put explicitly in the document. Basic amenities specially housing, toilet, drinking water must be provided to migrants during work by the employer.ii. A heavy emphasis on work permits, as suggested in the proposed revision to the Act [Recruitment of workers only against a specific work permit] may become a tool for rent seeking and needs to be avoided. The emphasis of the Act should be on an efficient documentation of inter-state movement and better provision of social security benefits to migrant workers such as pension, provident fund, dearness allowance etc.iii. CESS collection under the central act should be effectively implemented and the social security benefits made portable across state borders.iv. Basic amenities specially housing, sanitation, drinking water must be provided to migrants during work. There could be processes instituted for greater involvement of urban local bodies in ensuring sheds at Labor Nakas (Traditional Labor Markets) and the basic needs of the migrants such drinking water, shelter etc.v. Women workers must be included in the act. The act’s title signifies that the act is meant only for men workers. Hence title of the act should be revised from ‘workmen’s act’ to ‘workers act’vi. The restriction of ‘contractor’ must be removed from the act, which is the biggest hurdle for labour department to act. If there is no contractor involved, labour department would be able to take action directly against the employer, in case of exploitation of the act.vii. Traveling allowance for family of migrants must be provided.viii. Mobile courts should be instituted for handling migrant’s cases at district level.ix. Work passbook should be given to the migrants, endorsed by contractors/employers.x. ESI benefits should be provided to migrant families.xi. Regulation of employment should be done by registration of migrant & contractors.xii. Minimum 5 laborers criterion should be removed from the interstate migrant workmen’s act 1979.xiii. Compulsory registration of migrant construction workers through the welfare board through trade unions must be done.
3. Formation of inter-state migration management bodies in 5 major corridors: Given thehigh rate of migration across certain corridors such as eastern UP - Mumbai, Bihar - NCR,Western Orissa – Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan-Gujarat, Orissa-Gujarat etc. there is a need toinstitute processes involving labor departments of both source and destination states – i. A migrant worker cell can be established within each state labor department which specifically addresses issues concerning migrant workers ii. A labor officer from the source state can be deputed at the destination to look into matters concerning migrant workers and work collectively with labor officers at the destination. Bihar has experimented with deputing a Jt. Labor Commissioner at Bihar Bhavan in Delhi. That experience can be looked at and build on.4. Setting up of Migrant Resource/Assistance Centers at the major source and destinationlocations which provide information, counseling and respond in case of emergencies. TheCoalition members have set up such assistance centers by the name of Shramik Sahayata evamSandarbha Kendras which provide such services to migrant workers both at source anddestination. These centers are being run in 5 states including UP, Orissa, Maharashtra,Rajasthan, and Gujarat by 23 organizations. The Planning Commission may want to study themodel and replicate it to other high migration corridors.5. Fast track legal response for cases of minimum wage violation, accidents at workplace andabuse: The present legal machinery is not sensitive to the nature of legal disputes in theunorganized sector where labour has little documentary proof of his/her employment. It is seenthat many disputes never make their way to the court or keep languishing for lack of proof. Thejurisdiction of the Labour Courts, which is mandated to look at labour disputes, is also limitedwithin a state. There is a need to establish fast track legal response systems to expedite caseresolution. Planning Commission can activate the Gram Nyalayas/Gram Kachaharis to take amore proactive role in this regard.6. Low cost food options for migrant workers: Food expenses account for a significant shareof living expenses for daily wageworkers in cities. A study done on migrant works inAhmedabad suggests that on an average 41% of their income is spent on food. There is a needto create provisions for low cost and good quality food options for migrant workers. i. Portability of PDS for migrant workers across state borders – A national roaming (mobile) Temporary ration card for such migrants can be provided to migrant workers. Reference Case: Disha Foundation has worked with PDS, Maharashtra towards activation of available GR for temporary ration card for migrant workers. According to this GR the intrastate migrants should be able to get temporary ration card at the destination city, and can avail up to 35 kg of food grain during the migration period. This is applicable for BPL families. It is working successfully in Nasik. Detailed case
study is attached in Annexure II. This GR can be replicated in other states of India, and a system can be set up within PDS to make the temporary ration cards available to inter and intra state migrants. ii. Upscaling of Community kitchens in cities – HPCL has been trying to set up community kitchens in cities, which offers access to cooking stoves run on gas cylinders at a subsided rate of Rs. 4 per hour. In Ahmedabad, Aajeevika Bureau has partnered with HPCL to link migrant workers to the initiative. There is merit in studying this model and replicating it at other key destination cities where access to cheap fuel is a concern for low-income migrant workers. iii. ‘Ram roti’ program of Bhopal Municipal Corporation for migrants staying in their rein Basera’s is another model worth a study. (Annexure III)7. Inclusion of migrant construction workers in welfare boards of receiving states: Few states have formed the welfare boards for construction workers namely Delhi, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan etc. Special emphasis must be given to sensitize the welfare boards in all states to the needs of migrant workers. The largest numbers of migrant workers are employed with the construction sector. One estimate puts the figure around 40 million. However, the existing rules, which require a worker to produce a certificate of 90 days work with an employer, exclude large numbers of migrant workers from accessing benefits of the welfare board. In most cases the person bestowed with the authority to giving this certificate, especially the contractor and the employer, do not have direct interest in participating in the process. The welfare boards should make this arrangement more migrants friendly by instituting processes, which are cognizant of migrant’s inability to produce such documents. The welfare boards should consider the option of self-certification by the migrant himself/herself. This could be subjected to verification by the labor department of the destination state.8. Night shelters, short-stay homes and seasonal accommodation for migrant workers in cities: Temporary accommodation in cities is another significant need for migrant workers. In large cities such as Mumbai it has also become a political issue. Recently, the Supreme Court of India gave an order requiring state governments to create a night shelter for every 1 lakh of homeless population. However, in many cases the shelters have not been created or are in an abysmal shape. The Planning Commission should enable systems and resources for a better and stricter enforcement of this order. Reference Case 1:Disha Foundation, Nasik has set up transit camp facility for migrants in Nasik city with support of the District administration. The District Collector has allocated land for the construction of such shelters. Disha’ experience says that while access to land can be facilitated through linkups with the district administration, there is a need to allocate special funding for construction of such centers. Disha is still under negotiation with Nasik
Municipal Corporation and Tribal development department for bearing of the construction cost of shelters. The planning commission can initiate specific policy or programme to set up facilities for migrants under urban development programs. Reference Case 2: Bhopal Municipal Corporation has renovated the 4 night shelters in Bhopal and are open for migrants, persons staying at these Rein Baseras are to be provided with food and cool water under Ram Roti Yojana. It is highly recommended to planning commission to study this program, and make all possible arrangements with municipal corporations to provide such services to migrants in major destination cities of India. (Detail information is attached in annexure)9. Education for migrant: Migration is a leading cause for high drop out rate of children fromschools. Few NGOs have initiated good education system for migrant children’s especially forsugarcane cutters, and brick line workers. Some models which are worth looking into areLAMPS program promoted by America India Foundation in western Orissa throughorganizations such as Lokadrusti for children of brick kiln workers, SETU in Gujarat forchildren or migrants working in salt pans and Disha foundation in Nasik. It is recommended toPlanning Commission to review these models promoted and the prospects of their replication inother high migration pockets of the country.10. Creation of a national labor helpline: In cases of long distance inter-state migration, casesof harassment, abuse and cheating in transit are frequently reported. Interaction with migrantworkers from eastern UP travelling to Mumbai or migrants from Bihar travelling to Delhireveals that harassments in trains are one of their biggest problems. At the destination too,migrant workers frequently get into trouble with police for inability to produce a valid identity,get paid less wages or abused. It would be useful to set up a national labour helpline supportedby a network of migration resource/assistance centers set up in major source and destinationlocations (mentioned earlier). This labour helpline can be managed collectively by the labourdepartments and civil society organizations working on the issue of labour and migration.11. Financial inclusion of the mobile population: Formal banking structures in India are illequipped to service financing needs of mobile labor. The KYC norms, which make it necessaryfor customers to produce identity and address proof, keep a large segment of population awayfrom accessing basic facilities such as savings, credit and remittances. The recent NSS 64thround report on migration reports that only 30% of the domestic remittances in India arechanneled through the formal channels. There is a need to make the financial systems friendly tomigrant workers and create mechanisms for their inclusion in the mainstream – i. Strengthening linkages to banks for migrant workers – There is a need to bring some flexibility around the KYC norms in cognizance of the constraints facing migrant workers in producing address proof documents. Banks also need to set up creative measures to reach out to migrant workers through no-frills account, by having special banking hours
etc. ii. Inclusion and mainstreaming of informal remittance service providers – As mentioned earlier, the remittance service market is currently dominated by informal service providers. While a large number of informal remittance service providers charge premium amounts there are certain models started by some civil society organizations which are trying to service the remittance needs of low income clients. However, they are mired by questions of legality. The current financial system in the country needs to wake up to the presence and large outreach of the informal systems and devise mechanisms which help in its better regulation and increase its effectiveness and not stifle its functioning. It is recommended that the Planning Commission study the efficacy of some of these informal remittance models and look at the prospects of their better regulation. Reference case: Adhikar has taken an initiative to address the remittance needs of migrant workers of Orissa working in the far flung areas of Gujarat & Maharashtra through its unique/innovation intervention like ”Shramik Sahajog”(SS) / Money Remittance system. The remittance product is linked to compulsory saving accounts. It ensures the hard earned money from these workers reaches their dependants in rural pockets of Orissa within 24-48 hours. The objective of Adhikar’s remittance programme is to provide safe, time bound and cost effective service for transferring money from the migrant workers to their families and dependants in Orissa. 12. Universalization of social security for migrant workers: There are number of socialsecurity provisions which need to be made sensitive to the realities in which migrant workersoperate. Discussion on creation of a universal social security card for unorganized sectorworkers in currently underway. The Coalition would like to reaffirm the case of certain specialcategory workers and certain issues, which need special attention when the provisions are beingdrafted – i. Special initiatives for high risk migrant workers such as brick kiln workers, migrant agricultural workers which are the most invisible and also highly vulnerable among all migrant workers ii. Rehabilitation of early retirees who come back suffering from serious illness or loss of limbs iii. Proper and timely compensation for the migrant workers or their dependants in case of unfortunate accidents - Building and other construction regulation act 1996 should be enforced effectively to prevent accident. Immediate help and compensation should be provided to the victims. The Bihar Migrant Labour Accident Program is a good scheme started by a source state government and can be replicated.
iv. Better enforcement of health safeguards on work sites to reduce occupational health hazards such as lung infections, skin infections for exposed migrant workers v. A better enforcement of proposed provident fund, pension should be done. A good example of pension scheme for unorganized sector workers in the Vishwakarma Pension Yojana being run by the Rajasthan state government. This initiative can be studied by the Planning Commission and replicated in other states.13. ICDS services for migrants: Mother and child health care is genuine concern in case ofmigrants due to their mobility status. According to Supreme’s Court’s guideline (Annexure IV)the migrants family should get receipt from their source area, which can be submitted to ICDSanganwadi at destination level. According to this guideline, all migrant children should avail ofnutritional supplementation under the ICDS scheme irrespective of whether or not they areregistered in the area. As a result, all migrant children can benefit from anganwadi services atthe destination. Pregnant women can also be able to avail of antenatal and post-partum carethrough these anganwadis, which will be linked to government health services. Adolescent girlscan be given treatment for anemia at these anganwadis; in addition, they will be provided lifeskills and sex education through the ICDS programme. It is highly recommended to PlanningCommission to make special emphasis for its strict implementation, as none of the states areimplementing this program. 14. Adapting Skill Up-gradation Programs to needs of Migrant Workers: Lately, there is aheavy emphasis on skilling up of the large pool of young unorganized sector workers. It is alsowell known that a significant part of the unorganized sector is constituted by migrant workerswho are in many cases barely equipped to enroll or benefit from the existing skill up-gradationprograms because of various reasons – no or less education, already in labor market with notime to spare for long duration (6months – year long) courses etc. A number of civil societyorganizations and some corporate bodies have been making efforts in this regard but sufferfrom problems of certification.Industrial Training Institute (ITI), Nasik along with Disha Foundation has done pilot trainingon plumbing for migrants, at their halt point suiting to their time during 6 -9 pm. It was asuccess, nearly 30 migrants are trained through this training with ITI certification, and most ofthem have reported remarkable increase in their wages. It is recommended to PlanningCommission to allocate special budget for such programs, to be implemented by respective ITIs.It will be important for bodies such as NSDC to adapt its activities/training packages to reachout to the large young migrant worker pool. Working in partnership with organizations having afair amount of experience in training and placement of youth in the informal sector should beconsidered.15. Creating Mechanisms to Enable Voting by migrant workers: Lately, there is a spate ofarticles and news in media on how a large section of Indian population are unable to vote as
they are out in cities in search of work when elections are being held at home. In areas withhigh incidence of migration this problem can become really acute. A small study on extent ofpolitical exclusion in a village Bela Navada, Darbhanga, Bihar suggested that out of 871 votersin one polling booth, only 300 (34%) were able to vote in the 2010 Vidhan Sabha elections.This is a section of population, which is not able to access postal ballots. The Coalition wouldlike to highlight the large extent of political exclusion that is happening currently and requestthe Planning Commission to undertake a study on the issue and plan for corrective measures. 16. More resource support to State Labour Departments: Much of the execution of existingprovisions depends on the human resource capacity available with the labour departments andthe total fund allocation made to them. The experience of many of the Coalition memberssuggests that the Labour department needs an urgent infusion of resources both human andcapital. The importance of labor department in a growing economy cannot be understated andthe Planning Commission needs to take serious cognizance of the resource and capacityneeds of labour departments.17. Resources for Research on Internal Migration: Reiterating the need to establish numbersand address the knowledge gap on internal migration, there is a need to make provisions forresearch. State level research institutions should be encouraged to develop state migrationprofiles which feed into the policy making process. This research could look into the nature,trends of migration and problems associated with access to benefits for migrants both at thesource and destination. The Planning Commission should fund policy research on migrationand labour issues in a serious and concerted fashion as part of the next Plan. **************************
Annexure I: Rajasthan Labour Department Order for Registration of Inter-State Migrant Workers
Annexure II: Case Study on Disha’s Temporary Ration Card InitiativeAddressing the food security needs of seasonal migrants in Maharashtra: Option oftemporary ration cardsIntroduction:Migrants are generally defined as those observed (in a census or survey) as residing outside their placeof origin and intending to remain in their place of destination for a long period of time. Mobility or ∗temporary migration, in contrast, is characterised by greater circulation of people (some seasonal) andmore continuous contact between origins and destinations. Compared with long-term migrants,temporary migrants reside in destinations for a short period of time, and are hence not as likely to becaptured in censuses and surveys; they include, for example, seasonal daily wage workers.Short-term livelihood movement between villages and from villages to urban settings is observed to beassociated with considerable social vulnerability, exhibited most acutely by its link with HIV risk, forexample in Southeast Asia (Skeldon, 2000). The vulnerability of this mobile population of seasonalmigrants has been attributed to a number of factors. This group tends to be young (in many cases lessthan 50% of all migrants are aged 15-24), relatively poorly educated, unskilled and with few economicresources. These short-term migrants often move out of traditional family and other social networks, andexperience a breakdown in social controls and sources of support in the new environment, conditionslinked to casual or sex worker relations and heightened risk behaviour with non-sex workers. They oftenremain socially excluded in the destination cities and have considerably less access, in practice, to IECprogrammes, public services including health and education, and even to such basic facilities as housing,water and food security (see for example, Guest, 2002).Seasonal migrant populations are observed in urban areas in India, and face all the vulnerabilities notedabove. However, despite being a vulnerable and marginalised group in need of social protection, ourunderstanding of the full range of the needs of and strategies required to address the vulnerabilities ofthe mobile populations in destination cities is limited. Key issues include identifying the options andopportunities available to intervene, and the components required to make interventions effective,acceptable and sustainable.The objective of this report is to highlight the experiences of an innovative project launched by the PDS,Nasik and an NGO, Disha Foundation, to address the social vulnerabilities of homeless seasonalmigrants in an urban setting in India, namely Nashik, Maharashtra. More generally, the objective of thispaper is to use the project experience as a case study to provide a blueprint for those interested inenabling seasonal migrants to access basic food security services in areas of destination and to exercisetheir rights to access available services. ∗ Acknowledgements: Efforts of Addl. Dist Collector, PDS, Nasik Mr. Shekhar Gaikawad are gratefully acknowledged.
Situation and needs of seasonal migrants:Compared to other states in India, Maharashtra reports the largest number of net migrants (2.3 million;RGI, 2001) in the 1991-2001 decade. While Mumbai is the leading destination area for rural-urbanmigrants, other cities in Maharashtra, such as Nashik, have also attracted large rural populations.Nashik, with a population of 1,152,048 (www.censusofindia.net), has an estimated population ofapproximately 15,000 migrants at peak times. However, these figures are only estimates becausemigrants are a mobile and floating population, and it is difficult to accurately assess their numbers.Migrants to Nashik are both intra-and inter-state, coming from other districts and regions ofMaharashtra (Dhule, Jalgaon, districts of Marathwada and Vidarbha), and other states (for example,Bihar, Gujarat, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh). Migrants also belong to a largenumber of tribal groups. As in other urban sites, a large proportion of Nashik’s migrants are seasonaldaily wage labourers who have distinct needs and face greater vulnerabilities than other migrants to thecity.Seasonal migrants in Nashik typically seek work in the city for 8-10 months of the year, between Octoberand June. The pattern of migration corresponds with the agricultural seasons; they stay on the nakaduring the lean season and return to their own villages during the monsoon or at other peak periods.Seasonal migrants generally seek employment at nakas, or established points in the city approached bycontractors and others seeking to recruit daily wage workers. A total of nine such nakas dot the city.Temporary and unauthorised dwelling areas are set up in close proximity to these nine nakas – in vacantareas in parks (maidans), footpaths and so on. Dwelling units are generally makeshift and open,comprising no more than an open space in which the migrant family’s belongings and cookingequipment are deposited and where the family cooks, eats and sleeps. Only rarely are these dwellingspaces covered by canvas or plastic or tin sheets. These unauthorised dwelling areas are poorly serviced,without the provision of basic facilities such as water and sanitation. Moreover, there is no security forthe family’s belongings or physical security for migrant women.This project is ongoing among the populations of six of the nine naka areas of the city -- Satpur, PethPhata, Old & New Gangapur, Gangaghat, and Civil. Estimates suggest that at peak times the six nakashoused approximately 7,000 temporary migrants and their families. However, as noted earlier, it isdifficult to accurately estimate the number of seasonal migrants as most migrants are very mobile theyreside in the nakas, or in the workplace of the temporary employer, and return to their own village forshort durations during their stay in Nashik.Food Insecurity among migrants:An informal assessment of the situation of migrants in the six nakas undertaken at the initial stages ofproject implementation highlighted a host of needs, and required a major reorientation of projectactivities and strategies. As can be seen from the following narratives from informal discussions,seasonal migrants lack access to basic amenities, including water and toilet facilities, shelter andelectricity. Irregular employment and the casual nature of work results in economic and food insecurityas well as economic exploitation as wages are unregulated, promised wages are not always paid orpayments can be unnecessarily delayed.
It was very difficult for me to stay in the naka with two daughters; often, we don’t get work for 15-20days a month. Often we don’t have food to eat. (Female migrant, 34 years, Satpur naka)I have not got work for the past 5 days. The food grain that I brought from my village is about to finish.I’m worried about my family; if I don’t get work in the next few days, what we will eat, and how we willgo back to our village? (Man, 32 years, migrated with family, Peth Phata naka) Women’s vulnerability in the nakaExchanging sex for food securitySavitri* had initially migrated to Satpur naka with her husband and children. When her husbanddeserted her and her daughters got married and left home, she stayed on alone in the naka.Savitri could not find work for two months so she started begging. A contractor suggested that they havea sexual relationship, in return for which he would provide her with food grain and rent a room for her.She agreed as she had no other option.She soon realised she was pregnant. Although she did not want to have the child, she could not have anabortion because she was already in the fifth month of pregnancy.Savitri gave birth to a baby boy. As her financial situation was poor, she was concerned about how shewould support the child. She decided to sell her son to a couple in the naka for Rs. 5,000 and 50 kg ofrice. However, when the other women in the naka came to know about this, they insisted that she take herchild back. Savitri finally decided to return the money and to take her son back.*names have been changed.In short, seasonal migrants in the intervention sites had immense food security needs, In case of womenwhen particularly at risk, sex work often becomes a survival strategy.Access to essential food grains: Issue of ration cardsAccess to subsidised food grain was immediate priority identified by migrants. Migrants noted thatunlike permanent residents of Nashik whose family incomes fell below the poverty line, they did not haveaccess to ration cards and therefore to regular supplies of subsidised food grains. At the same time,irregular employment opportunities resulted in acute food scarcity, such that some acknowledged thattheir women and children were made to beg in the streets to supplement the family income. Indeed,anaemia and malnutrition were commonly observed among migrants in all sixr nakas.In researching the rights of seasonal migrants to public distribution services, project representativesbecame aware of a Government Resolution (GR), issued in 2000, that asserted the right of seasonalmigrants to access and use a temporary ration card during their stay in a destination city (see Box 1)and the obligation of each Collector to issue these temporary ration cards.
Box 1 Extract from the State Government Resolution 1000/G.R.399/2000/NP28 issued on 9 November 2000 for providing ration cards to migrant (temporary) and unorganised workers in urban areas…as workers in the unorganised sector migrate in search of employment, do not reside in a fixed placeand do not live in their native place, they do not have documentary proof, such as a birth registrationcertificate or a certificate for school enrolment for their children.It is also very difficult to get documentary proof on migration. Since these families are generally eligiblefor services under the Public Distribution System, the requirements of documentary proof are herebyrelaxed.The normal procedure for getting a ration card-- to complete an application form--should be observedon the basis of this information being given by the applicant, and the Supply Inspector should physicallyverify the living conditions of the family members and then the procedure to issue temporary ration cardsfor a certain period should be adopted.If the family wishes to reside at the same address for a longer period, the ration card should be renewedfor such further period as necessary…(Translated from Marathi)Using this Government Resolution, project representatives again played a mediating role between thePDS state government authorities- immediate Addl. Collector Mr. Shekhar Gaikwad and his officials andthe community. They apprised the authorities -- themselves unaware of the Government Resolution, itsimplications for migrants and their own responsibilities – about their role in providing ration cards tomigrants. Following consultations with the Department of Public Distribution and on-site visits (4) bythe authorities, an order was issued to provide seasonal migrants with temporary ration cards for fourmonths (extendable to 12 months) against their existing ration cards. Migrants must have the cardscancelled by the ration department when they depart for their areas of origin so that they are eligibleonce again for subsidised food grain in their home villages; the cards can be renewed on their return toNashik.It was negotiated by project team with PDS that those should get ration cards who doesn’t have cards attheir villages. In first stage such migrants were selected for providing cards. Certain relaxations weremade by PDS like for income proof, a letter of contractor where the migrant work, a photo with familymembers in front of his luggage where he stay(on naka) was considered a residential proof, arecommendation from neighbour migrant who know him/her, and a letter of recommendation fromDisha. Based on these documents 55 new ration cards were issues to homeless migrants of civil naka.Thus far, project representatives have facilitated the issuance of 55 temporary ration cards andrecipients are eligible to purchase food grain at a concessional rate from ration shops close to theirnaka. These migrants get monthly food grain quote every month. Several have, moreover, been assisted
to undertake activities required to extend the validity of their ration cards on their own, prepare theirown applications and negotiate with ration office staff members independently of project representatives.Model Replication.:1.Based on this case the PDS issues 250 temporary ration cards to homeless nomadic tribes who residesin Nasik since last 15 years. The facilitation was done by Bhatka Vimukta Mahasangh.2. Second replication of the temporary card was done by PDS in Trymbakeshwar taluka, PDS issued 50such cards to tribal in their village who migrates to Nasik city for employment for 8 months. In this casePDS officials themselves initiated and facilitated the process.Conclusion and lessons learned: As noted earlier, seasonal migrants are a highly vulnerable population as a result of poor awareness oftheir rights and consequently their inability to demand their entitlements. Moreover, they are sociallyisolated in the destination city and their employment uncertain. Recognising their vulnerability, the project sought to make seasonal migrants aware of their rights andentitlements to government services in the destination city, and to establish linkages between migrantsand the authorities to facilitate migrants’ access to these services. Although the number of beneficiariesof ration cards is small, and these efforts affected only 55 out of the 500 families in the six nakas. But theintervention demonstrates that it is possible for migrants to access services to ensure food security.However, efforts are needed to institutionalise the process so that entire communities can benefit.Ways Ahead: • Disha looks forward to upscale this model with other migrants in Nasik and other destination cities. • More intra-state scale up of the temporary ration cards GR collaborations for comprehensive targeting of the migrant population • Advocacy for convergence and mainstreaming. • Strengthening research and building database on migration and food security issues.ReferencesDelor, F. and M. Hubert. 2000. Revisiting the concept of vulnerability. Social Science and Medicine,50:1557-1570.Guest, P. 2002. Migration and the spread of HIV/AIDS. Unpublished paper.Registrar General of India (2001).http://www.censusindia.net/results/dseries/Tables_on_Migration_Census_of_India_2001.htmlSkeldon, R. 2000. Population Mobility and HIV Vulnerability in South East Asia: An Assessment andAnalysis. UNDP, Bangkok
Annexure III: Basic services to Migrants through Rein Baseras An initiative of Bhopal Municipal Corporation for migrants.With a view to implementing the state governments Ram Roti Yojana, all the four ReinBaseras in Bhopal are being spruced up and repaired. The Bhopal Municipal Corporation willspend Rs 9.50 on these works to be undertaken at the Rein Baseras in the state capital.Rein Baseras to be completed by September 22: Mayor Bhopal Municipal Corporation MayorSmt. Krishna Gaur has informed that the renovation and sprucing up of all the four ReinBaseras in Bhopal will be completed by September 22. The state governments Ram Roti Yojanawill be implemented there from September 25. She informed that Rein Baseras are alreadyoperative in New Market and Yadgar-e-Shahjahani Park while new Rein Baseras are beingconstructed at Nadra Bus Stand and DIG Bungalow.The number of Rein Basera has gone up to four after construction of two new Rein Baseras.These night shelters are situated at Nadra Bus Stand, Yadgar-e-Shahjahani Park oppositeSultania Ladies Hospital, New Market and near DIG Bungalow. At these Rein Baseras poorpeople coming from the rural areas and far-off urban areas in search of jobs will be able tomake a safe night halt and get cooler water for just Rs 2. Against this sum, they will be provideda bed-sheet and blanket free of cost for one night. The Rein Baseras will also have lavatoriesand washrooms. About 300 persons will be able to make night halt at these Rein Baseras.From September 25, persons staying at these Rein Baseras will also be provided full food andcool water under Ram Roti Yojana. The meal will include 6 rotis, adequate quantity of cookedvegetables, onion, pickles and green chilly.Construction of attendant room, ramp for handicapped persons and caretaker room are beingconstructed in the Rein Baseras apart from installation of water coolers. The Bhopal MunicipalCorporation will construct Rein Baseras at 14 more places in the city. Every Rein Basera willcost Rs 30 lakh.It may be mentioned that Ram Roti Yojana of the state government is going to be implementedsimultaneously in four major cities of the state including Bhopal, Indore, Gwalior and Jabalpur.The work of renovating the Rein Baseras in these cities is progressing fast with a view to makingthem well-equipped. The Ram Roti Yojana will be launched in all these Rein Baseras fromSeptember 25.
Annexure IV:Box 1: ICDS guideline for migrant women, children and adolescent in India ICDS guidelinesOffice of the CommissionerIntegrated Child Development ServicesRaigarh Bhawan, Rear Wing, First FloorCBD, Belapur22 May 2006 Sub: Central Government directive regarding nutritional supplementationRef:1. Central Government letter no. 1-5/92-Cd-2 dated 6.11.19922. Central Government letter no. 19-5/2003-Cd (PT) dated 7.3.20063. Central Government letter no. 1-2/2006-CDI dated 8.3.20064. Department of Women and Child Development letter no. ABV -2006/ No. 80/ dated 15.4.2006With reference to Central Government letter no. 1, all pregnant and lactating mothers and theirchildren should be eligible under ICDS for nutritional supplementation and should be allowedto take advantage of all other services of ICDS. All pregnant and lactating mothers and theirchildren (6 months to 6 years) who are not registered with ICDS anganwadis are also eligible toreceive nutritional services under ICDS.All beneficiaries who migrate should be provided a certificate from the anganwadi in theirvillage of origin. When they migrate to other villages/ towns, they should carry the originalcertificate with them and should submit it in the anganwadi at the destination so that they canavail of uninterrupted services. A copy of the certificate is annexed.Central Government letter no. 19-5/2003-Cd (PT) dated 7.3.06 has the following clarificationson nutritional supplementation: The Government has not fixed a precise number of beneficiariesfor each anganwadi for the distribution of nutritional supplementation. There is no upper orlower limitfor beneficiaries but the number of beneficiaries is expected to vary according to thepopulation.All anganwadis should register all children below the age of 6 years and all pregnant andlactating mothers for the purpose of nutritional supplementation. It is mandatory to providenutritional supplementation to all children below 6 years. ICDS services are applicable not justto malnourished children but to all children in this age group as well as pregnant and lactatingmothers. The ICDS scheme is open to all and not just to children and women below the povertyline. The scheme is in no way linked to income category or the nutritional status of thebeneficiary. TheCommissioner
Integrated ChildDevelopment Services StateGovernment of MaharashtraCopy:1. Dy. Chief Executive Officer, Zilla Parishad, 2. Child Development Project Officer, Urban(Nashik)Copy submitted for information: Secretary, Department of Women and Child Development,Mantralaya, MumbaiCopy of Certificate for Mothers and ChildrenCopy of certificate for beneficiaries who migrate to other villages/towns to allow them to availof ICDS servicesName of Name of Beneficiary’s If beneficiary Name of Remarksbeneficiary ICDS current is ICDS project nutritional malnourished project to In status and , degree of which village/town illness if any malnutrition beneficiary at place of is origin migratingSignature of ICDS Project Officer in village/town/anganwadi at place of originSignature of ICDS teacher/worker in village/town/anganwadi at place of origin
Annexure V: National Coalition of Organizations for Security of Migrant Workers – List ofOrganizations/Individuals Organization State Organization State 1 Arthik Anusandhan Kendra UP 18 Jai Bhim Vikas Sikshan Rajasthan Sansthan [JBVSS] 2 Grameen Development UP 19 Lok Kalyan Samiti [LKS] Rajasthan Services [GDS] 3 PEPUS UP 20 Kotda Aadivasi Sansthan [KAS] Rajasthan 4 Sahbhagi Sikshan Kendra [SSK] UP 21 Shiv Siksha Samiti Rajasthan 5 PANI UP 22 Jandaksha Rajasthan 6 Darbar Sahitya Sansad Orissa 23 Laxmi Murthy (Individual) Rajasthan 7 Madhyam Orissa 24 Samarthan Madhya Pradesh 8 YCDA Orissa 25 YUVA Maharashtra 9 Pratikar Orissa 26 Mumbai Mobile Creches [MMC] Maharashtra 10 Gramutthan Orissa 27 Disha Maharashtra 11 AHEAD Orissa 28 Sugandhi Baliga (Individual) Maharashtra 12 Adhikar Orissa 29 Edulever NCR 13 BASIX Bihar 30 PRAYAS Gujarat 14 Aajeevika Bureau Rajasthan 15 GSVS Rajasthan 16 Urmul Khejri Sansthan [UKS] Rajasthan 17 JATAN Rajasthan