The 19 Century       th   1800 – 1900  (1850 to 1930)
Eugene DelacroixLiberty leading the People; Painted on 28 July 1830,
Chronology1832 Samuel Morse invents the telegraph1848 The Californian gold rush 1859 The publication ofDarwin’s On the Ori...
903 The Wright brothers make the first flight in an aircraft904 The Russo-Japanese War914 Henry Ford begins mass productio...
Overview of 19th Century ArtNeoclassical - 1750’s to 1800’sRomanticism – 1800’s to 1850’sRealism – 1840’s to Late 1800’sIm...
NaturalismDeStjilAbstractExpressionism
Thomas SullyQueen Victoria, 1838
Queen Victoria’s Movements
Lord LeightonOh for the Wings of a Dove
Henri Moore
Joseph WrightThe Vacuum Pump
Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood1848                     Characteristics of their work:Main artists             Great attention ...
John Everett Millais     Ophelia
Dante Gabriel  Rossetti Lady Lilith,    1867
Sir Edward Coley Burne-Jones The Love Song 1868–?1873
William MorrisLength of  printed  cotton,  19th–20th  century
William Morris"Pink and  Rose"  wallpaper  design, ca.  1890
Biba
Antoine WiertzBuried Alive, 1854
Pierre-Étienne-Théodore RousseauThe Edge of the Woods at Monts-Girard, 1854
Charles-François DaubignyOn the Banks of the Oise, 1864
Claude MonetLa Grenouillère, 1869
Impressionists                       1874Monet                Characteristics of their work:Pissarro             Short, br...
James WhistlerThe Peacock Room, 1876
Alfred SisleyAllée of Chestnut Trees
Kano SansetsuThe Old Plum Edo period (1615–1868), ca. 1645
Hilaire- Germain- Edgar DegasDancers Practicing at the Bar 1877
Hilaire-Germain-Edgar DegasDancers in the Rehearsal Room with a Double Bass, 1882–85
Mary CassattMother and Child (The Oval Mirror), ca. 1889
Kitagawa UtamaroMidnight: The Hours of the Rat; Mother and Sleepy ChildEdo period (1615–1868), ca. 1790
Mary Cassatt Maternal Caress      1891  Dry point and soft- ground etching, thirdstate, printed in colour
Mary CassattMother Playing with Child, ca. 1897
Édouard ManetBoating, 1874
Post Impressionism              Late 1880’sMain artists        Characteristics ofPaul Gauguin        their work:Georges Se...
Vincent Van GoghPortrait de Le Artist sans      Barbe, 1889
Paul GauguinNave Nave Moe, 1894
Maurice DenisSpring Landscape with Figures, 1897
Pierre Bonnard Interieur, 1913
Toshusai SharakuOtani Oniji II1794
Henride Toulouse-Lautrec Moulin Rouge - La    Goulue, 1891
Neo-Impressionists                1886 to 1906Main artists           Characteristics of theirGeorges Seurat         work:P...
Georges SeuratLes Poseuses, 1887
Georges SeuratStudy for A Sunday on La Grande Jatte, 1884–85
Paul SignacGrand Canal, Venice, 1905
Fauvism                      Early 1900’sMain artistsHenri Matisse                    Characteristics of theAndré Derain  ...
Henri MatisseCentre Georges Pompidou, Paris Luxe, calme et volupté, 1904–5
Henri Matisse  The Young   Sailor II,Summer–Winter    1906
Henri MatisseSan Francisco  Museum of Art  Woman with a Hat,  autumn 1905
Rescan        Andre DerainLa Tamise et Tower Bridge, 1906
Main Artists:                               CubismPablo PicassoGeorges Braque                         Characteristics of t...
Paul CezanneStill Life with Apples, 1893
Georges BraqueVerre et as de Trefle, 1917
Pablo PicassoLes  Demoiselle  s  dAvignon,  1907
Pablo Picasso                     Juan Gris  Girl Reading at a Table, 1934   Violin and Playing Cards, 1913
Marcel DuchampNude Descending a Staircase (No. 2), 1912
Once again…..The End        for now……….
Expressionism
Edvard MunchThe Scream, 1893
Edvard MunchMadonna, 1893
Mikhail Vrubel Lilacs, 1900
Henri RousseauThe Merry Jesters,      1906
Wassily KandinskyCouple Riding a Horse 1907
Gustav KlimtThe Kiss, 1907
Egon SchieleLiegender Halbakt mit Rolem, 1910
Amedeo ModiglianiBeatrice Hastings Assise,          1915
Theo Van DoesburgVetrata Konpositie V in Lood,           1918
Paul KleeMoonshine, 1919
Wassily KandinskyShip and Red Sun,      1925
Joseph SimaMidday, 1928
Surrealism
Giorgio de ChiricoThe Song of Love,       1914
Rene Margritte Untitled, 1926
Salvador DaliAn Average Atmospherocephalic, 1933     The Enigma of Desire, 1929
1933 Hitler becomes the German Chancellor1937 The Japanese invasion of China1939 The outbreak of World War II1942 Nuclear ...
Art 1850 to 1930
Art 1850 to 1930
Art 1850 to 1930
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Art 1850 to 1930

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  • to commemorate the July Revolution that had just brought Louis-Philippe to the French throne • 1830 The July Revolution, an uprising stirred by and among the middle classes, reaction against attempts by King Charles X (r. 1824–30) to return to the absolutist monarchy Charles abdicates and flees; despite the citizens' clamor for a republic, the duc d'Orléans is proclaimed limited constitutional monarch as Louis-Philippe. Delacroix combinds realism and allegory in a depiction of the personification of Liberty bearing a tricolor and leading combatants through a corpse-littered barricade. Louis-Philippe himself acquires the work when it is shown at the Salon of 1831.
  • Took the throne in 1837 Albert great collector of art and encourages her patronage 1838 The National Gallery opens in Trafalgar Square
  • In 1848, revolutions swept continental Europe seven rebellious young artists in London formed a secret society with the aim of creating a new British art . They called themselves the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood , nevertheless indicates the chief source of their inspiration . colleagues at the Royal Academy of Art and famously disparaged the Academy's founding president, Sir Joshua Reynolds (1723–1792), as "Sir Sloshua"— Brotherhood instead emulated the art of late medieval and early Renaissance Europe until the time of Raphael , characterized by minute description of detail , bright colours that recalls the tempera paint used by medieval artists, and subject matter of a noble, religious, or moralizing nature . In mid-nineteenth-century England, a period marked by political upheaval, mass industrialization, and social ills , the Brotherhood at its inception strove to transmit a message of artistic renewal and moral reform by imbuing their art with seriousness, sincerity, and truth to nature. Met with criticism They had, however, several important champions. writer John Ruskin (1819–1900), an ardent supporter of painting from nature and a leading exponent of the Gothic Revival in England. Ruskin particularly admired the Pre-Raphaelites' significant innovations to English landscape painting : their dedication to working en plein air , strict botanical accuracy , and minute detail . he later wrote that they "may, as they gain experience, lay in our England the foundation of a school of art nobler than the world has seen for three hundred years."
  • In 1853, Edward Burne-Jones (1833–1898) and William Morris (1834–1896)—two divinity students beginning their studies at Exeter College, Oxford— forged a friendship rooted in common interests: theology, art, and medieval literature . Two years later, they decided to pursue careers in art; mentored by Rossetti , whom they met at Oxford in 1856 , they became the second generation of Pre-Raphaelites
  • Pre-Raphaelites works became more decorative, the were increasingly interested in the decorative arts . In 1861, Burne-Jones and Rossetti joined Morris' new design firm of Morris, Marshall, Faulkner & Co. (reorganized as Morris & Co. in 1875), producing murals, stained glass, furniture, textiles, jewelry, and wall coverings inspired by botanical motifs . The firm responded to the rift between fine and applied arts caused by the Industrial Revolution and mass production by reviving the workshop practices of medieval Europe, considered a paragon of spirituality and artistic integrity. By the m id-1880s , a movement to unify the arts, known as Arts and Crafts, took root in England and by century's end was flourishing throughout the British Isles.
  • Daubigny constructed a floating studio on a small boat which he sailed along the Seine and Oise rivers in order to capture unrivalled views of their banks
  • Such images of suburban and rural leisure outside of Paris were a popular subject for the Impressionists, notably Monet and Pierre-Auguste Renoir. Several of them lived in the country for part or all of the year. New railway lines radiating out from the city made travel so convenient that Parisians virtually flooded into the countryside every weekend. While some of the Impressionists, such as Pissarro, focused on the daily life of local villagers in Pontoise, most preferred to depict the vacationers' rural pastimes. The boating and bathing establishments that flourished in these regions became favorite motifs. In his 1869 La Grenouillère ( 29.100.112 ), for example, Monet's characteristically loose painting style complements the leisure activities he portrays.
  • group of artists called the Anonymous Society of Painters, Sculptors, Printmakers, etc. organized an exhibition in Paris that launched the movement called Impressionism. The group was unified only by its independence from the official annual Salon , for which a jury of artists from the Académie des Beaux-Arts selected artworks and awarded medals. The independent artists, despite their diverse approaches to painting, appeared to contemporaries as a group . Claude Monet's Impression, Sunrise While conservative critics panned their work for its unfinished, sketchlike appearance , more progressive writers praised it for its depiction of modern life .
  • loose brushwork gives an effect of spontaneity and effortlessness that masks their often carefully constructed compositions ,
  • Japanese ports reopened to trade with the West in 1854, a tidal wave of foreign imports flooded European shores. On the crest of that wave were woodcut prints by masters of the ukiyo-e school which transformed Impressionist and Post-Impressionist art by demonstrating that simple, transitory, everyday subjects from "the floating world" could be presented in appealingly decorative ways. Degas avoided staging japoneries that featured models dressed in kimonos and the conspicuous display of oriental props. Instead, he absorbed qualities of the Japanese aesthetic that he found most sympathetic ( 1975.268.48 ): elongated pictorial formats, asymmetrical compositions, aerial perspective, spaces emptied of all but abstract elements of color and line, and a focus on singularly decorative motifs. In the process, he redoubled his originality.
  • Edgar Degas seems never to have reconciled himself to the label of " Impressionist ," preferring to call himself a " Realist " or "Independent." Nevertheless, he was one of the group’s founders, an organizer of its exhibitions, and one of its most important core members. Like the Impressionists, he sought to capture fleeting moments in the flow of modern life, yet he showed little interest in painting plein air landscapes , favoring scenes in theaters and cafés illuminated by artificial light, which he used to clarify the contours of his figures, adhering to his Academic training .
  • The nineteenth century saw the development of synthetic pigments for artists' paints, providing vibrant shades of blue, green, and yellow that painters had never used before. Édouard Manet's 1874 Boating ( 29.100.115 ), for example, features an expanse of the new Cerulean blue and synthetic ultramarine . Before this lapis lazuli Depicted in a radically cropped, Japanese-inspired composition , the fashionable boater and his companion embody modernity in their form, their subject matter, and the very materials used to paint them.
  • independent artistic styles for expressing emotions rather than simply optical impressions , concentrating on themes of deeper symbolism. Through the use of simplified colors and definitive forms, their art was characterized by a renewed aesthetic sense as well as abstract tendencies. followed diverse stylistic paths in search of authentic intellectual and artistic achievements.
  • Experimentation with a wide range of pictorial modes, and with printmaking techniques as well, coincided with the growing popularity of Japanese woodcuts during the 1890s. Toulouse-Lautrec ( 41.12.18 ) adopted the exaggerated colors, contours, and facial expressions found in Kabuki theater prints ( JP2822 ) in order to create his eye-catching posters
  • Neo-Impressionists came to believe that separate touches of interwoven pigment result in a greater vibrancy of colour in the observer's eye than is achieved by the conventional mixing of pigments on the palette . Known as mélange optique (optical mixture), this meticulous paint application would, they felt, realize a pulsating shimmer of light on the canvas . In the words of the artist Paul Signac, Neo-Impressionism's greatest propagandist, " the separated elements will be reconstituted into brilliantly coloured lights." The separation of colour through individual strokes of pigment came to be known as Divisionism, while the application of precise dots of paint came to be called Pointillism.
  • Georges Seurat's powerful presence as the leader of Neo-Impressionism resonated among artists for decades . Henri-Edmond Cross and Hippolyte Petitjean adapted the Divisionist technique to watercolor painting. In Saint-Clair, a village on the Côte d'Azur near Saint-Tropez, Cross painted radiant landscapes in watercolour, using a vivid palette of saturated colour in mosaic-like brush marks In the early twentieth century, Fauve artists turned to Seurat's technique for purity of colour . Even abstract painters Mondrian and Kandinsky practiced Pointillism.
  • Were it not for Paul Signac, Neo-Impressionism might have lost all momentum following the early death of Seurat in 1891 . Signac inherited the Divisionist banner and lobbied tirelessly on its behalf. It was Signac who introduced Seurat's system of color harmony to the vanguard critics and writers who would champion it, and it was he who published the influential treatise D'Eugène Delacroix au Néo-Impressionisme (1899 ), an argument for Neo-Impressionism as the logical and legitimate successor to Impressionism. In Signac's own work, the rigor and restraint of his early paintings (1975.1.209) gave way to a bold and luxuriant palette in later years ( Grand Canal, Venice ). His marine watercolors ( 1975.1.718 ), in particular, enabled him to explore the purity and clarity of color, with no more than a pencil and a box of watercolors in his itinerant pocket.
  • colours directly from the tube. The Fauves were a loosely shaped group of artists sharing a similar approach to nature , but they had no definitive program. Their leader was Matisse , who had arrived at the Fauve style after earlier experimenting with the various Post-Impressionist styles of Van Gogh , Gauguin, and Cézanne , and the Neo-Impressionism of Seurat, Cross, and Signac. These influences inspired him to reject traditional three-dimensional space and seek instead a new picture space defined by the movement of colour planes ( 1999.363.38 ; The Young Sailor I ; 1999.363.41 ).
  • His attempt at pointillist’s techniques while on holiday with Cross and Signac Saint-Tropez in the summer of 1904,
  • Their work is recognized today for its modernity, embodied in its rejection of established styles, its incorporation of new technology and ideas, and its depiction of modern life.
  • Cubism was one of the most influential visual art styles of the early twentieth century. It was created by Pablo Picasso (Spanish, 1881–1973) and Georges Braque (French, 1882–1963) in Paris between 1907 and 1914. The French art critic Louis Vauxcelles coined the term Cubism after seeing the landscapes Braque had painted in 1908 at L'Estaque in emulation of Cézanne . Vauxcelles called the geometric forms in the highly abstracted works "cubes." Other influences on early Cubism have been linked to Primitivism and non-Western sources. The stylization and distortion of Picasso's ground-breaking Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (Museum of Modern Art, New York), painted in 1907, came from African art. Picasso had first seen African art when, in May or June 1907, he visited the ethnographic museum in the Palais du Trocadéro in Paris. The Cubist painters rejected the inherited concept that art should copy nature, or that they should adopt the traditional techniques of perspective, modeling, and foreshortening. They wanted instead to emphasize the two-dimensionality of the canvas. So they reduced and fractured objects into geometric forms, and then realigned these within a shallow, relieflike space. They also used multiple or contrasting vantage points. In Cubist work up to 1910, the subject of a picture was usually discernible. Although figures and objects were dissected or "analyzed" into a multitude of small facets, these were then reassembled, after a fashion, to evoke those same figures or objects.
  • While Picasso and Braque are credited with creating this new visual language, it was adopted and further developed by many painters, including Fernand Léger ( 1999.363.35 ), Robert and Sonia Delaunay, Juan Gris ( 1995.403.14 ), Roger de La Fresnaye ( 1991.397 ), Marcel Duchamp , Albert Gleizes, Jean Metzinger ( 59.86 ), and even Diego Rivera ( 49.70.51 ). Though primarily associated with painting, Cubism also exerted a profound influence on twentieth-century sculpture and architecture. The major Cubist sculptors were Alexander Archipenko, Raymond Duchamp-Villon, and Jacques Lipchitz.
  • ca. 1830–70 The Barbizon School of landscape painting flourishes in the region of the French village from which it takes its name. Influenced by seventeenth-century Dutch masters , the Barbizon painters turn away from idealized classical landscapes in favor of direct observation of nature and sketching out-of-doors, en plein air a practice facilitated by the introduction, in 1841, of collapsible metal squeeze tubes of paint). Central figures of this school are Théodore Rousseau (1812–1867) , Jules Dupré (1811–1889), and Charles Daubigny (1817–1878). In 1849, Jean-François Millet (1814–1875) settles in Barbizon, where he paints The Gleaners (1857), The Angelus (1859; both Louvre), and other works that endow peasant life with a monumental dignity.
  • Art 1850 to 1930

    1. 1. The 19 Century th 1800 – 1900 (1850 to 1930)
    2. 2. Eugene DelacroixLiberty leading the People; Painted on 28 July 1830,
    3. 3. Chronology1832 Samuel Morse invents the telegraph1848 The Californian gold rush 1859 The publication ofDarwin’s On the Origin of Species1861 The outbreak of the American Civil War1861 The serfs freed in Russia1864 Henri Dunant founds the Red Cross1869 The Sues Canal is opened1874 The first Impressionist exhibition is held in Paris1885 Karl Benz builds the first motor car1895 Marconi transmits the first wireless signal
    4. 4. 903 The Wright brothers make the first flight in an aircraft904 The Russo-Japanese War914 Henry Ford begins mass production of the Model ‘T’ Ford car914 Outbreak of World War I917 Start of the Russian Revolution918 End of World War I929 Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia established as new countries924 The death of Lenin926 Television is first successfully demonstrated in Britain929 Alexander Fleming discovers penicillin
    5. 5. Overview of 19th Century ArtNeoclassical - 1750’s to 1800’sRomanticism – 1800’s to 1850’sRealism – 1840’s to Late 1800’sImpressionism – 1870’s to 1890’sNeo-impressionism 1886 - 1906Post Impressionism – 1880’s to early1900’s
    6. 6. NaturalismDeStjilAbstractExpressionism
    7. 7. Thomas SullyQueen Victoria, 1838
    8. 8. Queen Victoria’s Movements
    9. 9. Lord LeightonOh for the Wings of a Dove
    10. 10. Henri Moore
    11. 11. Joseph WrightThe Vacuum Pump
    12. 12. Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood1848 Characteristics of their work:Main artists Great attention to detailWilliam Holman Hunt Bright coloursJohn Everett Millais Subject matterDante Gabriel Rossetti nobleWilliam Morris Religious Moralizing Characteristics of their movement Seriousness Sincerity Truth to nature Intent to raise the standard of British art
    13. 13. John Everett Millais Ophelia
    14. 14. Dante Gabriel Rossetti Lady Lilith, 1867
    15. 15. Sir Edward Coley Burne-Jones The Love Song 1868–?1873
    16. 16. William MorrisLength of printed cotton, 19th–20th century
    17. 17. William Morris"Pink and Rose" wallpaper design, ca. 1890
    18. 18. Biba
    19. 19. Antoine WiertzBuried Alive, 1854
    20. 20. Pierre-Étienne-Théodore RousseauThe Edge of the Woods at Monts-Girard, 1854
    21. 21. Charles-François DaubignyOn the Banks of the Oise, 1864
    22. 22. Claude MonetLa Grenouillère, 1869
    23. 23. Impressionists 1874Monet Characteristics of their work:Pissarro Short, broken brushstrokesClaude Monet Pure unblended coloursEdgar Degas Emphasis on the effects of light.Pierre-Auguste Modern subject matterRenoirBerthe Morisot Characteristics of the movement:Alfred Sisley Embraced modern lifeCamille Pissarro Incorporated new technology and ideas of the time Rejected the established styles of the Academy New clientele
    24. 24. James WhistlerThe Peacock Room, 1876
    25. 25. Alfred SisleyAllée of Chestnut Trees
    26. 26. Kano SansetsuThe Old Plum Edo period (1615–1868), ca. 1645
    27. 27. Hilaire- Germain- Edgar DegasDancers Practicing at the Bar 1877
    28. 28. Hilaire-Germain-Edgar DegasDancers in the Rehearsal Room with a Double Bass, 1882–85
    29. 29. Mary CassattMother and Child (The Oval Mirror), ca. 1889
    30. 30. Kitagawa UtamaroMidnight: The Hours of the Rat; Mother and Sleepy ChildEdo period (1615–1868), ca. 1790
    31. 31. Mary Cassatt Maternal Caress 1891 Dry point and soft- ground etching, thirdstate, printed in colour
    32. 32. Mary CassattMother Playing with Child, ca. 1897
    33. 33. Édouard ManetBoating, 1874
    34. 34. Post Impressionism Late 1880’sMain artists Characteristics ofPaul Gauguin their work:Georges Seurat Simplified coloursVincent van Gogh Definitive forms Abstract tendenciesPaul Cezanne Characteristics of the movement: Breaking free from naturalism Expressing emotions Themes of deeper symbolism
    35. 35. Vincent Van GoghPortrait de Le Artist sans Barbe, 1889
    36. 36. Paul GauguinNave Nave Moe, 1894
    37. 37. Maurice DenisSpring Landscape with Figures, 1897
    38. 38. Pierre Bonnard Interieur, 1913
    39. 39. Toshusai SharakuOtani Oniji II1794
    40. 40. Henride Toulouse-Lautrec Moulin Rouge - La Goulue, 1891
    41. 41. Neo-Impressionists 1886 to 1906Main artists Characteristics of theirGeorges Seurat work:Paul Signac Placing dabs of pure colourMaximilien Luce adjacent to one anotherHenri-Edmond Cross Characteristics of the movement: renounced the random spontaneity of Impressionism Favoured more measured technique Influenced by scientific studies of the time
    42. 42. Georges SeuratLes Poseuses, 1887
    43. 43. Georges SeuratStudy for A Sunday on La Grande Jatte, 1884–85
    44. 44. Paul SignacGrand Canal, Venice, 1905
    45. 45. Fauvism Early 1900’sMain artistsHenri Matisse Characteristics of theAndré Derain movement:Maurice de Vlaminck First Avant-garde movement to flourish in FranceCharacteristics of their First to break with Impressionismwork: and with traditional methods of perceptionBold undisguised brushstrokes Subjective response to natureHigh-key vibrant colour reject traditional three-dimensionalUsed coloured planes to define spacespace
    46. 46. Henri MatisseCentre Georges Pompidou, Paris Luxe, calme et volupté, 1904–5
    47. 47. Henri Matisse The Young Sailor II,Summer–Winter 1906
    48. 48. Henri MatisseSan Francisco Museum of Art Woman with a Hat, autumn 1905
    49. 49. Rescan Andre DerainLa Tamise et Tower Bridge, 1906
    50. 50. Main Artists: CubismPablo PicassoGeorges Braque Characteristics of the Movement:Paul Cezanne Rejected the doctrine that theyJuan Gris should copy natureCharacteristics of the work: Rejected traditional perspectiveFlat planes techniquesMultiple viewpointsNo aerial perspective, but multiplevanishing pointsEmphasis on the 2dimensionality ofthe canvasReduced objects into fractured formsSubjects were discernable early onand were further dissected in lateryears.
    51. 51. Paul CezanneStill Life with Apples, 1893
    52. 52. Georges BraqueVerre et as de Trefle, 1917
    53. 53. Pablo PicassoLes Demoiselle s dAvignon, 1907
    54. 54. Pablo Picasso Juan Gris Girl Reading at a Table, 1934 Violin and Playing Cards, 1913
    55. 55. Marcel DuchampNude Descending a Staircase (No. 2), 1912
    56. 56. Once again…..The End for now……….
    57. 57. Expressionism
    58. 58. Edvard MunchThe Scream, 1893
    59. 59. Edvard MunchMadonna, 1893
    60. 60. Mikhail Vrubel Lilacs, 1900
    61. 61. Henri RousseauThe Merry Jesters, 1906
    62. 62. Wassily KandinskyCouple Riding a Horse 1907
    63. 63. Gustav KlimtThe Kiss, 1907
    64. 64. Egon SchieleLiegender Halbakt mit Rolem, 1910
    65. 65. Amedeo ModiglianiBeatrice Hastings Assise, 1915
    66. 66. Theo Van DoesburgVetrata Konpositie V in Lood, 1918
    67. 67. Paul KleeMoonshine, 1919
    68. 68. Wassily KandinskyShip and Red Sun, 1925
    69. 69. Joseph SimaMidday, 1928
    70. 70. Surrealism
    71. 71. Giorgio de ChiricoThe Song of Love, 1914
    72. 72. Rene Margritte Untitled, 1926
    73. 73. Salvador DaliAn Average Atmospherocephalic, 1933 The Enigma of Desire, 1929
    74. 74. 1933 Hitler becomes the German Chancellor1937 The Japanese invasion of China1939 The outbreak of World War II1942 Nuclear chain reaction produced in Chicago by Enrico Fermi1944 The production of the first digital computer1945 End of World War II1947 India and Pakistan become independent republics1956 Soviet forces crush the uprising in Hungary1957 The Treaty of Rome establishes the European Economic Community1966 The Cultural Revolution begins in China

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