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Winegrape Growing in Texas by Andrew Labay, TPWD

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Presentation on Viticulture in Texas - winegrape growing by Andrew Labay, Viticulture Specialist, Texas A&M AgriLife Extension

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Winegrape Growing in Texas by Andrew Labay, TPWD

  1. 1. Winegrape Growing in Texas Andrew Labay Viticulture Program Specialist Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Fredericksburg, Texas ajlabay@ag.tamu.edu
  2. 2. Texas Wine Industry • Franciscan monks first brought winegrapes to Texas in the 17th century1 • Significant growth during the last 10 – 15 years • 2012 USDA Census: + 7,000 acres3 • 700 growers; 350 wineries4 • Currently estimated to contribute nearly $2 billion to Texas economy2 • Texas Hill Country is #2 Wine destination in the U.S. behind Napa • Growth of wineries outpacing production acreage • Disease, Weather, Labor remain challenges Photo credits: Texas Hill Country Wineries Association William Chris Vineyards Pedernales Cellars
  3. 3. Hill Country Varietal Survey - 2014 • Results from 56 vineyards (estimated 65 – 70 total) • 585 acres (estimated 650-700 total acres) • 80% of acreage is red varieties; 20% white varieties • 29 different red varieties; 20 different whites • Average vineyard size: 10 acres
  4. 4. Hill Country Varietal Survey Variety Acres Number of Vineyards Tempranillo 76 23 Cabernet Sauvignon 71 22 Merlot 59.8 15 Syrah 56.92 18 Sangiovese 30 11 Malbec 22.5 8 Mourvedre 19.45 12 Petite Sirah 18.85 9 Touriga Nacional 17.5 8 Grenache 15.2 11 Tannat 12.3 7 Lenoir (Black Spanish) 11.9 6 Petit Verdot 10.75 5 Aglianico 8.65 6 Montepulciano 6.64 5 Alicante Bouschet 5.25 3 Barbera 4.85 3 Nebbiolo 3.4 2 Others (14.7 acres): Graciano Primativo Nero d’Avola Souzao Tinta cao, Charbano Sagrantino Ruby Cabernet Tinta Amarela Cinsault Dolcetto
  5. 5. Hill Country Varietal Survey Variety Acres Number of Vineyards Chardonnay 19.8 7 Sauvignon Blanc 18.4 4 Pinot Gris 14.92 6 Riesling 11.2 1 Muscat 10.66 7 Viogner 8.35 6 Rousanne 4.95 4 Chenin Blanc 4.75 4 Blanc du Bois 4.4 4 Piquepoul Blanc 4 1 Albarino 3.4 3 Vermentino 3.4 2 Semillon 3.25 3 Arinto 2.3 1 Pinot Blanc 2 1 Gewurztraminer 1.2 1 Marsanne 0.65 1 Scheurebe 0.6 1 Trebbiano Toscono 0.5 1 Muller-Thurgau 0.4 1
  6. 6. Image credit: Dr. Greg Cobb Texas Wineries (2010)
  7. 7. Texas Wine Grape Growing Regions 1. High Plains 2. North Texas 3. Gulf Coast 4. Hill Country
  8. 8. Region 1 - High Plains • Vitis vinifera • Climate and soil: • Dry, windy summers and relatively cool summer nights • Good soil – deep sandy/loam over calcareous fine textured base • Risk of hail and severe freeze/frost injury • Relatively inexpensive land • Abundant farming experience • Lowered disease risks • Not close to wineries Photo credits: Jim Kamas
  9. 9. Region 2 – North Texas • Vitis vinifera and hybrids • Proximity to Dallas/Ft. Worth • Diverse soils – alkaline to acidic, coarse to fine textured • Similar conditions/challenges as compared to Hill Country • Disease, Frost/Freeze, Hail, Salty water • Defining characteristic for the region? • East Texas – high rainfall greatly increases disease risks, though good soil and great water quality Photo credits: Michael Cook
  10. 10. Region 3 – Gulf Coast and South Texas • Climate and soils: • High rainfall • Deep, fertile soils • Warm, humid summer nights • Lower freeze/frost risk • Long growing season • Increased vigor, disease and difficulty ripening certain varieties • High Pierce’s disease risk – only tolerant varieties used • Blanc du Bois (white) • Black Spanish / Lenoir (red) • Tropical rain risk – disease and risk of berry split Photo credit: Lorri Jones
  11. 11. Region 4 - Hill Country • Vitis vinifera and some hybrids • Climate and Soil: • Variable weather – between the humid Gulf Coast and dry West Texas • Shallow, alkaline clay. Limestone • Travel destination - within 1 hour drive of 3 million people • Proximity to wineries • PD and CRR Risk Now Appears Somewhat Manageable • High Cost of Land • Very Limited Labor Pool • Frost & Freeze Still a Risk
  12. 12. Challenges in Grape Growing Photo credit: Jim Kamas Frost Injury Nutrient Deficiencies Pierce’s disease Cotton Root Rot Fruit and Foliar DiseaseFungal Trunk Disease Image source: http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/PMG/r302100611.html
  13. 13. Challenges to Growing Grapes in Texas 1974 - A Feasibility Study for Grape Production in Texas Photo credit: Jim Kamas • Risks • Disease: • Pierce’s disease - #1 limitation • Cotton root rot • Foliar and trunk fungal disease • Soil variability • Climate variability • Freeze/Hail Probability • Water Quantity & Quality Ron Perry, Instructor & Research Associate in Hort. Sciences Department
  14. 14. Pierce’s Disease • Causative agent: Xylella fastidiosa, a gram negative xylem-limited bacteria • Endemic to the South Eastern U.S. • Vectored by xylem sap feeding insects (i.e. sharpshooter, leafhopper insects) • Pathogen forms biofilms and occludes vascular tissue • In order to manage PD in Texas vineyards: • Understand the pathogen and disease cycle • Know your risk of PD • Follow recommended practices per region (discussed in the following slides) Photos: Electron Mircroscopy Laboratory, U.C. Berkley
  15. 15. Cuerna costalis 10 mm Oncometopia orbona 12 mm Over 36 species of competent vectors identified in Texas, though the number varies by area of the state Homalodisca vitripennis 12 mm Paraulacizes irrorata 10mm Proconiini Graphocephala coccinea 10 mm Draeculacephala navicula 8 mm Cicadellini Xyphon flaviceps 6 mm 4 mm Ciminius harti Photos: L. Lauziere Pierce’s Disease Vectors
  16. 16. Pierce’s Disease Cycle Overview Acquisition and Transmission via xylem sap feeding insect vectors Colonization of X. fastidiosa via cell-to- cell movement within xylem tissue Xylem occlusion in susceptible plants via biofilm formation and/or tyloses Photo credit: Jim Medley Concepts and diagram from: Chatterjee (2008)
  17. 17. Marginal Scorching of Leaves Leaf blade abscission while petioles retained: ‘matchsticks’ Photo credit (bottom left and right): Jim Kamas Irregular Periderm Formation: ‘green islands’ Late season collapse of clusters/shoots Confirmation via laboratory testing: plantclinic.tamu.edu Pierce’s Disease Symptoms
  18. 18. July 05 August 04 July 03 Maps of Disease Progress in a Viognier Vineyard During 2003 -2005 David Appel, 2006 Texas PD Symposium
  19. 19. Pierce’s Disease Risk Image source: R. Perry (1974) A Feasibility Study for Grape Production in Texas and Kamas et. al. (2012) Pierce’s Disease Overview and Management Guide
  20. 20. • Susceptible – V. labrusca, V. vinifera, Certain French/American Hybrids • Resistant – M. rotundifolia , V. arizonica… • Tolerant – ‘Black Spanish’, ‘Blanc du Bois’, ‘Victoria Red’, ‘Miss Blanc’, ‘Herbemont’, certain Munson varieties, and wild Vitis species native to the southeastern United States Grape Variety Selection In areas of extremely high PD probability, the use of disease tolerant/resistant varieties is strongly recommended Pierce’s Disease
  21. 21. • Site selection – choose sites without perennial vegetation and away from riparian zones • Create a buffer zone and remove supplemental hosts • Monitor for insect vectors • Use neonicotinoid insecticides (Imidacloprid) • Have excellent vineyard floor management • Learn PD symptoms and use laboratory testing for confirmation (plantclinic.tamu.edu) • Rouge infected vines Reference: Pierce’s Disease Overview & Management Guide (http://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/fruit- nut/files/2010/10/Texas-Grape-Growers-PD-Management-Guide.pdf) Pierce’s Disease has been effectively managed in areas of moderate to low disease probability by following recommended practices: Pierce’s Disease Management
  22. 22. Pierce’s disease has become manageable and Vitis vinifera is the dominant grape grown from the Hill Country to the High Plains, but…
  23. 23. Now, the But….. • Pierce’s disease is a cyclic disease • How much do environmental factors affect the decrease in PD • Neonicotinoid insecticides implicated in colony collapse • Have we found the long- term solution??? Figure 12: Mean number of insects caught per year for vineyards which did not use Imidacloprid insecticide versus those that did. Error bars represent the 95% confidence interval. 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Mean#Insects/TrapDay Insecticide No Insecticide
  24. 24. Grape Breeding as a Long-term Strategy Thomas Volney Munson • 1843 - 1913 • Classification of American grapevine species • +300 grape cultivars • Supplied France with phylloxera tolerant rootstock material
  25. 25. Grape Breeding as a Long-term Strategy From: T.V. Munson (1909). Foundations of American Grape Culture. Pg. 6.
  26. 26. Grape Breeding as a Long-term Strategy Images source: USDA Forest Service “Native species from areas where PD is severe appear to be most resistant to disease…” Jonathan J. Ruel and M. Andrew Walker (2006) Resistance to Pierce’s Disease in Muscadinia rotundifolia and Other Native Grape Species. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 57:2. Vitis mustangensis Vitis arizonica Muscadinia rotundifolia
  27. 27. Biotechnology and Grape Breeding • Identification of resistance gene in Vitis arizonica (accession b43-17) • Genetic mapping and SSR marker development for PdR1a and PdR1b • Marker-assisted selection to backcross resistance gene with V. vinifera • Selections of 88, 94 and 97% V. vinifera expressing PD resistance genes developed • Not GMO, traditionally bred with the aid of molecular techniques for selection Photo credit: Micheal Barnes; http://californiaagriculture.ucanr.org/ Dr. M. Andrew Walker Geneticist, U.C. Davis
  28. 28. Objective: Evaluation of existing and newly-bred PD tolerant grape varieties PD Tolerant Variety Trial Photo credit: Dr. George Ray McEachern • T.V. Munson (Texas): ‘Bailey’, ‘Ben Hur’, ‘Carman’, ‘Delicatessen’, ‘Lomanto’, ‘Nitodal’, ‘Wine King’ • G. Alleweldt (Germany): ‘Phoenix’, ‘Orion’, ‘Sirius’ • J. Moore/J. Clark (Arkansas): ‘Victoria Red’ (Ark. 1475, Ark 1400 • J. Lu (Florida): D16-16-4, D16-13-1,D6-12-4, O44- 6-5, O47-3-7, A14-8-1, A24-6-6, C30-5-1, C30-7-1 • A. Walker (California): U0502-10, U0502-20, U0505-35, U0502-38, U0502-26, U0502-1, U0501- 12
  29. 29. DATA COLLECTION: • PD tolerance: symptoms & bacterial titer • Vigor: pruning weights • Phenology: budbreak, flowering & veraison • Yield: No. clusters, harvest weight • Fruit chemistry: degrees Brix, pH & TA (g/L) • Wine quality: wine sensory panel • Additional observations: other disease sensitivities, viticultural considerations etc. OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of existing and newly-bred PD tolerant grape varieties (32 total) PD Tolerant Variety Trial Industry, TX
  30. 30. • Only minor scorch detected • Molecular testing via ELISA/PCR Dr. Lisa Morano (University of Houston- Downtown) Dr. David Appel (Texas A&M Agrilife Extension) PD Tolerant Variety TrialPD Tolerant Variety Trial PD Tolerance Victoria BDB 35 26 NOR 38 10 20 (-)Control 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 Grape Varieties Absorbance(650nm)
  31. 31. PD Tolerant Variety Trial Wine Quality Small-scale (5 gal) representative lots
  32. 32. PD Tolerant Variety Trial Sensory Assessment • U0502-38, U0502-10, U0502-26, U0505-35 • All 4 varieties have high potential of providing an alternative to Lenoir • All 4 red varieties scored low to moderate hybrid characteristics.
  33. 33. U0505-35 June 15, 2012 Industry, Texas • Breeder: Dr. Andy Walker (UC Davis) • Parentage: A81-138 x ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ U0505-35
  34. 34. Recommended: MicroVinification by Murli R. Dharmadhikhiri Home Winemaking
  35. 35. PD Tolerant Varieties Reds ‘Black Spanish’ (‘Lenoir’, ‘Jacquez’) ‘Favorite’ Whites ‘Blanc du Bois’
  36. 36. • Breeder: Munson (1902) • Parentage: Salado (V. champinii, V. labrusca, V. bourquiniana) x Pense (V. vinifera?) Lomanto
  37. 37. Victoria Red
  38. 38. Thank you! • Jim Kamas • Dr. Justin Scheiner • Dr. Larry Stein • Dr. David Appel • Sheila McBride • Jacy Lewis • Beth McMahon • Yessica Garcia • David Smith Austin County Grape Growers Association

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