The Biosphere

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The Biosphere

  1. 1. The Biosphere Earth's Diverse Environments C.Hill 10/26/2009
  2. 2. Tropical Rain Forest <ul><ul><li>Rain is abundant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large trees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Closed canopy </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Tropical Rain Forest <ul><ul><li>Found in very humid equatorial areas such as: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indonesia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amazon River basin </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Savanna <ul><ul><li>Dominated by grasses and scattered trees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequent fires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid growing grass, good food source </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Savanna <ul><ul><li>tropics in central South America  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>central and South Africa; home to giraffes, zebras, antelopes, baboons, lions, and cheetahs. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Deserts <ul><ul><li>Sparse rainfall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid evaporation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No perennial vegetation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scattered shrubs and cacti </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Deserts <ul><ul><li>Desert plants and animals adapt to drought and extreme temperatures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only active during cooler nights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conserve water and seed-eaters such as: ants, birds, rodents, lizards, snakes and hawks </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Chaparral <ul><ul><li>Dense, spiny shrubs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tough evergreen leaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mild, rainy winters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long, hot, dry summers </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Chaparral <ul><ul><li>Require occasional fires for long-term maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plants regenerate quickly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animal browsers such as: deer, fruit-eating birds, seed-eating rodents, lizards, and snakes </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Temperate Grasslands <ul><ul><li>Mostly treeless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relatively cold winter temperatures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seasonal drought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large mammal grazing </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Temperate Grasslands <ul><ul><li>pampas in Argentina and Uruguay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>steppes in Asia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>prairies in North America though little remain due to intensive farming and agriculture. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Temperate Deciduous Forests <ul><ul><li>Sufficient moisture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large trees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oak, Hickory, Beech, and Maple  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experience each season </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Temperate Deciduous Forests <ul><ul><li>Dominates most of the eastern United States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil rich in inorganic and organic nutrients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support speices such as: arthropods, birds, small mammals, bobcats, foxes, black bears, and mountain lions </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Coniferous Forests <ul><ul><li>Cone-bearers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spruce, Pine, Fir, and Hemlock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Harsh winters, short summers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thin, acidic soil </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Coniferous Forests Taiga, the most extensive, stretchs across North America and Eurasia reaching the southern border of the artic tundra.
  16. 16. Alpine Tundra <ul><ul><li>Found in Andes Mountains in Ecuador </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elevation high enough to produce very cold climate </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Arctic Tundra <ul><ul><li>Permafrost, continuously frozen ground </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large mammals with good insulation that include: musk oxen and caribou </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller animals include: lemmings, arctic fox, and snowy owl. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  18. 18. Tundra <ul><li>Northernmost limits of plant growth </li></ul><ul><li>High altitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Little precipitation </li></ul><ul><li>Extremely cold winter air temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Alaska, Canada, Scandinavia, and Russia </li></ul>
  19. 19. Biomes <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The major terrestrial ecosystems are called Biomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cover the land surface of the Earth </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Biosphere Solar energy Water Temperature Wind        Physical and chemical factors that influence                                       life in the biosphere

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