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Tourism Destination Marketing Part 2


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Tourism Destination Marketing Part 2

  1. 1. Tourism Destination Marketing Part 2
  2. 2. Major Operations <ul><li>Assessing the current market(s) and forecasting future ones </li></ul><ul><li>Auditing the destination and analysing its appeal to the markets </li></ul><ul><li>Developing strategic objectives and a marketing mix </li></ul><ul><li>Creating an organisation for implementing the objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Carrying them out and evaluating the results </li></ul>
  3. 3. Assessing markets <ul><li>Who are the visitors? </li></ul><ul><li>Who will future visitors be? </li></ul><ul><li>Why are they likely to come? </li></ul><ul><li>What will they do? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Research <ul><li>Counts of all individuals entering or leaving the country </li></ul><ul><li>Interviews at frontiers with a sample of those entering and departing </li></ul><ul><li>Self-completion questionnaires </li></ul><ul><li>Sample surveys of population of a country </li></ul><ul><li>Accommodation nights and arrivals recorded by individual accommodation providers </li></ul>
  5. 5. Forecasting <ul><li>Exploratory forecasting: looking at past trends and projecting them into the future </li></ul><ul><li>Speculative forecasting: qualitative approach, based on predictions made by informed experts </li></ul><ul><li>Normative forecasting: tourism organisation sets targets eg. visitor numbers, expected revenue – then works out tactics to meet them </li></ul><ul><li>Integrative forecasting: integrates the results from other forecasting methods </li></ul>
  6. 6. Forecasting <ul><li>Forecasting is more art than science and cannot be relegated to a mechanical data-crunching activity. A forecaster needs to become involved with the data to detect changing patterns. </li></ul><ul><li>Geurts, 1982 </li></ul>
  7. 7. Destination Life Cycle <ul><li>TALC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exploration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consolidation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stagnation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decline or rejuventation </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Destination Auditing <ul><li>In order to ensure the destination capacity will cope with forecast visitors these questions need to be asked: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is there? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is thought to be there? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What has been represented as being there? </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. What is there? <ul><li>Physical attractions </li></ul><ul><li>Socio cultural resources </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Accommodation </li></ul>
  10. 10. What is thought to be there? <ul><li>Destination image </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually stereotyped </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Images are more differentiated and complex to previous visitors than non visitors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Older established destinations images are more affected by non-promotional communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Word of mouth affects image more than most other influences </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Destination Image cont. <ul><li>Well established images are hard to change and require heave investment to do so </li></ul><ul><li>Its is often the media rather than advertising which most influences destination image </li></ul><ul><li>Destination images may vary with different audiences </li></ul><ul><li>Destination images vary inter-regionally </li></ul>
  12. 12. Destination Branding <ul><li>Difficult to do because: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not a homogenous product </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Destination marketers cannot set prices or control the distribution system, branding has to rely totally on promotion or publicity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to make one brand appeal to all </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Marketing Strategy <ul><li>Difficult to position a destination because the destination marketer does not have control over individual tourism businesses and products </li></ul><ul><li>Need to target a variety of groups to a destination to ensure maximum visits </li></ul><ul><li>Destination may mean different things to different groups of visitors </li></ul>
  14. 14. Marketing Mix <ul><li>Difficult as the destination marketer does not have control over the products within the destination nor with the associated prices and distribution </li></ul><ul><li>The majority of destinations marketing input occurs in the promotion of the destination </li></ul>