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Collective Bargaining by Lisa Hilberg and Lisa Rosenbeck

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Final Copy

  1. 1. <ul><li>Please turn on your sound. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Collective Bargaining Lisa Hilberg Lisa Rosenbeck
  3. 3. This presentation is designed to: <ul><li>Review the laws pertaining to collective bargaining in Michigan schools </li></ul><ul><li>Review the terminology of bargaining </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the collective bargaining process </li></ul>
  4. 4. Do You Know? <ul><li>1. What is PERA? </li></ul><ul><li>2. True or False: School employees can strike. </li></ul><ul><li>3. What subjects are prohibited during negotiations? </li></ul><ul><li>4. What subjects can be negotiated in a contract? </li></ul><ul><li>5. What is an ULP? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Do You Know? <ul><li>6. Which law prohibited subjects in bargaining? </li></ul><ul><li>7. True or False: A job action is always a strike. </li></ul><ul><li>8. True or False: The union is never at an impasse. </li></ul><ul><li>9. True or False: A past practice is as binding as negotiated working conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>10. Can an EA or ESP following MERC or PERA guidelines be be given a FOIA request, ULP or TRO before a TA? </li></ul>
  6. 6. Know the History of Bargaining <ul><li>Public Act 336 of 1947 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More commonly known as the Hutchinson Act of 1947 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Permitted public employees the right to meet and discuss terms and conditions of employment as well as compensation and benefits. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employers had no legal obligation to bargain with employees. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prohibited strikes by employees. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consequences for striking included the following: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Termination of employment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conditions upon re-employment including limiting future compensation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sanctions for inciting a strike including fines and/or imprisonment </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Know the History of Bargaining <ul><li>Public Act 379 of 1965 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More commonly known as Public Employment Relations Act or PERA. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amended the Hutchinson Act by replacing the meet and confer language with the collective bargaining system. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Required public employers and employees to bargain in good faith concerning terms and conditions of employment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The language was similar to the National Labor Relations Act which governs private sector labor relations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retained the ban on strikes, but repealed the penalties by implementing a “discipline-discharge” provision. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Know the History of Bargaining <ul><li>Public Act 112 of 1994 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amended PERA to re-establish penalties for government employee work stoppages. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Created prohibited subjects in bargaining </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Start day </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sub-contracting of non-instructional support services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Policyholder for group insurance programs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Composition of site-based decision-making committees </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use of volunteers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Experimental, pilot programs </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Know the ABCs <ul><li>EA - Education Association </li></ul><ul><li>ESP - Education Support Personnel </li></ul><ul><li>FOIA - Freedom of Information Act </li></ul><ul><li>MERC - Michigan Employment Relations Commission </li></ul><ul><li>PERA - Public Employment Relations Act </li></ul><ul><li>TA - Tentative Agreement </li></ul><ul><li>TRO - Temporary Restraining Order </li></ul><ul><li>ULP - Unfair Labor Practice </li></ul>
  10. 10. Know the Lingo <ul><li>Arbitration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Method of settling contract disputes by having an outside third party hear the grievance and render a decision. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bargaining Team </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Negotiators who are at the bargaining table and actively involved in the negotiation process. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Caucus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A pause in the negotiations which can be called by either party in which the parties separate to discuss an issue or prepare a counter proposal. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Collective Bargaining </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process of negotiating terms and conditions of employment, compensation, and benefits. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Master Agreement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Written contract covering terms and conditions of employment through the negotiation process. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fact-Finding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process following mediation to settle contract disputes. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FOIA Request </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A request for information under the Freedom of Information Act. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Know the Lingo <ul><li>Impasse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Point reached in formal negotiations in which both parties agree that they disagree. At this point the board can impose a contract. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Injunction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Court order in which a party is required to do or not do certain acts. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Job Action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collective actions by a bargaining unit against an employer to show dissatisfaction in the employer’s bargaining behavior. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Last Offer Implementation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An offer by management before fact-finding. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lockout </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A stoppage of work by the employer because of a labor dispute. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mediation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A non-binding process in which an appointed person works between both parties in a contract dispute. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mediator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Person employed by the state and appointed by MERC to help settle contract disputes. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Know the Lingo <ul><li>MERC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>State commission that primarily determines union representation, interprets and applies law concerning unfair labor practices, and offers mediation services. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Negotiations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process by which management and union representatives bargain to set working conditions, compensation, benefits, and can also be used for grievances. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Past Practice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Practices that are not specifically identified or written in a contract, but are accepted by both parties over a period of time and establish working conditions that are binding. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ratification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process by which both sides meet with their members to review, discuss, and vote on a new contract. The new contract can only become effective if ratified by both parties. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reopening Clause </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A clause that allows either party to reopen a multi-year contract and negotiate specifically stated items or provisions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sidebar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An unofficial conference between the chief negotiators out of the presence of the the bargaining teams. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Know the Lingo <ul><li>Strike </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A work stoppage for the purpose of influencing contract negotiations. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Temporary Restraining Order (TRO) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A court order for limited time frame that forbids an action such as striking or imposition. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unfair Labor Practice (ULP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Practices defined by PERA as illegal including bargaining in bad faith. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Uniserv Director </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Person assigned by the union to assist with contract and employment issues. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Work to Rule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A job action by a bargaining unit against an employer in which the members of the bargaining unit show their dissatisfaction by working only to the level prescribed in the contract. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Know the Process <ul><li>Harvard Law School’s Program on Negotiation describes the actual collective bargaining process as comprising five core phases: </li></ul><ul><li>&quot; I. Preparation and Framing . In this phase both the school board and the union examine their own situation in order to develop the issues that they believe will be most important, including assessing ‘your interests as well as the interests of the other side’; </li></ul><ul><li>&quot; II. Bargaining Over How to Bargain . Here, the parties decide the ground rules that will guide the negotiations. This is where the logistics are determined, such as the rules for secrecy and the frequency of negotiating meetings; </li></ul><ul><li>&quot; III. Opening and Exploring . This phase involves the initial opening statements and the possible options that exist to resolve them. In a word, this phase could be described as ‘brainstorming’; </li></ul><ul><li>&quot; IV. Focusing and Agreeing . This stage comprises the time when ‘what ifs’ and ‘supposals’ are set forth and the drafting of agreements take place; and </li></ul><ul><li>&quot; V. Implementation and Administration . This stage is described as consisting of ‘effective joint implementation through shared visions, strategic planning and negotiated change.’” 1 </li></ul>
  15. 15. Know the Questions to Prepare <ul><li>Who bargains? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Board selects their designees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Union elects/appoints their negotiating team </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is bargained? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Working conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compensation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Where does bargaining take place? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine the bargaining sites for both teams </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When does bargaining start? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contract usually stipulates dates and procedures for bargaining the next contract. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MERC requires notice of contract end dates which is sent by the Uniserv Director. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How is bargaining done? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine the type of bargaining style to be used </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Know the Types of Bargaining Styles <ul><li>Traditional </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Both sides make, exchange, and counter proposals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Personality-Based Negotiations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One person from each side meets with a complete or almost complete proposal which has been informally agreed upon by both sides. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Collaborative Methods of Bargaining </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interest-Based Bargaining or Target-Specific Bargaining </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Both sides agree to process and receive training from outside facilitators. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis placed on issues that both parties must agree upon. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data-driven, both sides work to find solutions to the issues TOGETHER. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Hybrid Methods (drawing from both Traditional and Collaborative) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Both sides agree to process and receive training from outside facilitators on use of brainstorming and consensus decision-making. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expedited process (less than a week), prepare and exchange proposals before bargaining </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Know What Can & Cannot Be Negotiated <ul><li>Prohibited topics in bargaining </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First day of school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Policyholder for group health insurance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subcontracting of non-instructional support services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Composition of site-based decision-making committees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of volunteers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pilot or experimental programs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Acceptable topics in bargaining </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wages, hours, working conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Layoff and recall language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insurance carrier, administrator, and level of benefits </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Know What To Do During Negotiations <ul><li>Preparation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assemble negotiating team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review prior negotiation files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review grievance files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Survey board members/union members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gather/develop economic and insurance data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop an internal and external communications plan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ground Rules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify spokespersons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish bargaining style </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schedule meeting times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish communications/public relations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Discussions/Negotiations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exchange of proposals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dialogue of issues </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Caucuses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use as a break in negotiating for discussion amongst your bargaining team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use to prepare a counter proposal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sidebars </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use for prodding, face-saving, off-the-record positioning, clarifying, and testing the waters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid abuse or it loses its effectiveness </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Know What To Do When Things Go Wrong <ul><li>Unfair Labor Practice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Claim that one of the parties in negotiations has violated a provision of PERA. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By statute a claim must be filed six months from the date of the incident. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management ULP’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Failing to process grievances or arbitrate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Refusal to bargain with union representatives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interfering with employee organization or an employee’s PERA rights </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Locking out employees </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Union ULP’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Restricting an employee’s PERA rights </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forcing an employer to commit a ULP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Failure to represent members </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Refusing to bargain with the employer </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Know What To Do When Things Go Wrong <ul><li>Mediation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must file a petition for mediation with MERC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MERC appoints a state mediator to the case </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mediator assists in reaching an agreement through compromise </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fact-Finding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must file for fact-finding with MERC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MERC appoints a fact-finder to the case to hear the issues, find the facts, and write a non-binding report with recommendations for settlement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each party prepares information for the fact-finder to support their positions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each side presents their position during a fact-finding session </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After the fact-finder’s report is returned, both parties return to negotiations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impasse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deadlock in formal negotiations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Union is never at impasse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management can impose changes in the contract after impasse </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Imposition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The employer can impose changes in the terms and conditions of employment only after impasse. If it occurs prior to, it can be challenged by MERC. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The union can file for an injunction to halt the imposition. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Know What To Do When Things Go Right <ul><li>Ratification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process by which both sides meet with their members to review, discuss, and vote on a new contract. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ratification by Union </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ratification by Board </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The new contract can only become effective if ratified by both parties. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New Contract </li></ul>
  22. 22. Now You Know <ul><li>1. What is PERA? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public Employment Relations Act </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. True or False: School employees can strike. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>False. P.A. 112 prohibits school employees from striking. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3. What subjects are prohibited during negotiations? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First day of school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Policyholder for group health insurance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subcontracting of non-instructional support services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Composition of site-based decision-making committees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of volunteers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pilot or experimental programs </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Now You Know <ul><li>4. What subjects can be negotiated in a contract? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wages, hours, working conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Layoff and recall language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insurance carrier, administrator, and level of benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>5. What is ULP? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unfair Labor Practice. It is an action by the management or union that violates state or federal labor laws. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>6. Which law prohibits certain subjects in bargaining? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>P.A. 112 of 1994 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>7. True or False: A job action is always a strike. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>False. All strikes are job actions, but not all job actions are strikes. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Now You Know <ul><li>8. True or False: The union is never at impasse. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>True. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>9. True or False: A past practice is as binding as negotiated working conditions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>True. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>10. Can an EA or ESP following MERC or PERA guidelines be given a FOIA request, ULP, or TRO before a TA? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yes. An Education Association or Education Support Personnel following the Michigan Employment Relations Commission or Public Employment Relations Act guidelines can be given a Freedom of Information Act request, an Unfair Labor Practice, or a Temporary Restraining Order before a Tentative Agreement. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Resources <ul><li>Harvard Law School Program on Negotiation, Brochure entitled: Negotiating Labor Agreements (Cambridge, MA: Program on Negotiation at Harvard Law School, 2006), pp. 5-6. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.crcmich.org/PUBLICAT/1980s/1988/rpt290.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.mea.org </li></ul><ul><li>MASB The Bargaining Toolkit. </li></ul><ul><li>MEA Bargaining: How You Want To Do It. </li></ul><ul><li>Najita, Joyce M. and James L. Stern, Collective Bargaining in the Public Sector: The Experience of Eight States. </li></ul>

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