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Week 2 history of journalism


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This presentation expresses my belief of newspapers being the heart of journalism. Focusing on trends and growth, the presentation shows us how newspapers developed the art of being a journalist

Published in: Education, News & Politics
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Week 2 history of journalism

  2. 2. Introduction     The history of journalism, spans the growth of technology and trade. Journalism is marked by the advent of specialized techniques for gathering and disseminating information on a regular basis. Journalism has caused the steady increase of ‘the scope of news available to us and the speed with which it is transmitted’. Newspapers have always been the primary medium of journalists since 1700, with magazines added in the 18th century, radio and television in the 20th century, and the Internet in the 21st century.
  3. 3. Early beginnings      1400: businessmen in Italian and German cities were compiling hand written stories of important news events. These were then circulated to their business connections. The idea of using a printing press for printing material first appeared in Germany around 1600. A few decades later, the national governments in Paris and London began printing official newsletters. A semi-yearly news chronicle, in Latin, the Mercurius Gallobelgicus, was published at Cologne between 1594 and 1635.
  4. 4. 17th Century     In 1622 the first English-language weekly magazine, "A current of General News" was published and distributed in England. The rise of political pamphleteering saw each party sought to garner maximum public support by the distribution of pamphlets in the coffeehouses where people would gather. The Oxford Gazette was printed in 1665 by Muddiman in the middle of the turmoil of the Great Plague of London and was, strictly speaking, the first periodical to meet all the qualifications of a true newspaper. Oxford Gazette was printed twice a week by royal authority and was soon renamed the London Gazette.
  5. 5.       The Licensing Order of 1643 put in place by the Stuart kings was withdrawn in 1694. This saw an end to heavy handed censorship. The order had previously tried to suppress the flow of free speech and ideas across society The end of the order allowed writers to criticize the government freely. From 1694 to the Stamp Act of 1712 the only censure laws forbade treason, seditious libel and the reporting of Parliamentary proceedings. Journalism was a risky line of work.
  6. 6.      Benjamin Harris, was convicted for defaming the King's authority. Unable to pay the large fine that was imposed on him he was put in prison. He eventually made his way to America where he founded one of the first newspapers there. William III, who had been installed by Parliament, was wary of public opinion and did not try to interfere with the growing press. The growth in journalism and the increasing freedom the press enjoyed was a symptom of the development of the party system of government.
  7. 7.   As the concept of a parliamentary opposition became acceptable, newspapers and editors began to adopt critical and partisan stances. They soon became an important force in the political and social affairs of Britain.
  8. 8. 18th Century    Britain was an increasingly stable and prosperous country with an expanding empire, technological progress in industry and agriculture and burgeoning trade and commerce. A new middle class consisting of merchants, traders, entrepreneurs and bankers was rapidly emerging educated, literate and increasingly willing to enter the political discussion and participate in the governance of the country. The result was a boom in journalism, in periodicals, newspapers and magazines.
  9. 9.     Writers who had been dependent on a rich patron in the past were now able to become self-employed by hiring out their services to the newspapers. The values expressed in this new press were overwhelmingly consistent with the bourgeois middle class. Emphasis was given to the importance of property rights, religious toleration and liberty from Continental absolutism. Journalism in the first half of the 18th century produced many great journalists
  10. 10.     Daniel Defoe (Robinson Crusoe), Jonathan Swift, (Gulliver’s Travels) Joseph Addison, Richard Steele (founders of The Spectator Magazine), and Samuel Johnson (founder of the English Dictionary). They edited newspapers, or wrote essays for popular press at one time or another. Although their material was not news in the modern sense of the word, the material was entertaining and informative and was met with an insatiable demand. Ordinary citizens also began to participate in the flow of ideas and news, as readers were able to contribute their thoughts for newspaper content.
  11. 11.     The newspaper was becoming so popular that publishers began to print daily issues. The first daily newspaper in England was the Daily Courant, established by Samuel Buckley in 1702 on the streets of London. The newspaper strictly restricted itself to the publication of news and facts without opinion pieces. It pioneered the use of advertising in its columns for revenue.
  12. 12. Daniel Defoe     Daniel Defoe is regarded as a pioneer of modern journalism with his publication ‘The Storm’ in 1704. It has been called the first substantial work of modern journalism, as well as the first account of a hurricane in Britain. It details the events of a terrible week-long storm that hit London starting Nov 24, 1703, known as the Great Storm of 1703, Defoe described it as "The Greatest, the Longest in Duration, the widest in Extent, of all the Tempests and Storms that History gives any Account of since the Beginning of Time."
  13. 13.      Defoe used eyewitness accounts by placing newspaper ads asking readers to submit personal accounts. 60 were selected and edited by Defoe for the book. This was an innovative method for the time before journalism that relied on first-hand reports was commonplace. Defoe considered the accounts reliable because "most of our Relators have not only given us their Names, and sign'd the Accounts they have sent, but have also given us Leave to hand their Names down to Posterity.’’ ‘The Storm’ has been called the first substantial work
  14. 14. After ‘The Storm’      The increasing popularity and influence of newspapers was unappealing to the government of the day. The first bill in parliament advocating a tax on newspapers was proposed in 1711. The duty eventually imposed in 1712 and depended on the physical size of the newspaper. Jonathan Swift expressed in his ‘Journal to Stella’ in August 7, 1712, doubt in the ability of ‘The Spectator’ to hold out against the tax. In December 1712 ‘The Spectator’ went out of print.
  15. 15.    Some of the existing journals continued production and their numbers soon increased. Part of this increase was attributed to corruption and political connections of its owners. Later, toward the middle of the 18th century, the provisions and the penalties of the Stamp Act were made more stringent, yet the number of newspapers continued to rise.
  16. 16. 18th Century U.K Growth in Newspaper Sales 12 10 8 6 Amount sold (millions) 4 2 0 1753 1760 1767
  17. 17. 19th Century      In 1802 and 1815 the tax on newspapers was increased twice. Unable or unwilling to pay this fee, between 1831 and 1835 hundreds of untaxed newspapers made their appearance. The political tone of most of the was fiercely revolutionary. Their publishers were prosecuted but this failed to get rid of them. Milner Gibson and Richard Cobden advocated the case in parliament to first reduce tax in 1836 and in 1855 totally repeal of the tax on newspapers.
  18. 18.     After the drastic reduction of the stamp tax in 1836 the circulation of English newspapers rose This was pushed further by technological improvements in transportation and communication combined with growing literacy. The Daily Universal Register began life in 1785 and was later to become known as The Times from 1788. In1841 under a new editor, the influence of The Times rose to great heights, especially in politics and amongst the City of London.
  19. 19.     The times was the first in the world to reach mass circulation due to its early adoption of the steamdriven rotary printing press. It was also the first properly national newspaper, as it was distributed via the new steam trains to rapidly growing concentrations of urban populations across the country. This helped ensure the profitability of the paper and its growing influence. The Times was also the first newspaper to send war correspondents to cover particular conflicts.
  20. 20.       W. H. Russell, the paper's correspondent with the army in the Crimean War, wrote immensely influential dispatches. For the first time the public could read about the reality of warfare. On September 20, 1854, Russell wrote a story about the battle above the Alma River. Although it was supportive of the British troops, the story paid particular attention to the battlefield surgeons‘ and the lack of ambulance care for wounded troops. Shocked and outraged, the public's backlash from Russell’s report led the Government to re-evaluate the treatment of troops. It also led to Florence Nightingale's involvement in
  21. 21.      The Manchester Guardian was founded in Manchester in 1821 by a group of non-conformist businessmen. Its most famous editor, Charles Prestwich Scott, made the Manchester Guardian into a worldfamous newspaper in the 1890s. The Daily Telegraph was first published on June 29, 1855 It became the organ of the middle class and could claim the largest circulation in the world in 1890. A pioneer of popular journalism for the masses was the Northern Star, first published on 26 May 1838.
  22. 22.       Specialised periodicals of special interest were also set up. The first cheap newspaper was the Daily Telegraph and Courier (1855), later to be known simply as the Daily Telegraph. The Illustrated London News, founded in 1842, was the world's first illustrated weekly newspaper. 1860 - 1910 is considered a 'golden age' of newspaper publication. There were technical advances in printing and communication plus a professionalization of journalism and the prominence of new owners. Newspapers became more partisan and there was the rise of new journalism
  23. 23. William Thomas Stead      A controversial journalist and editor who pioneered the art of investigative journalism. Stead's 'new journalism' paved the way for the modern tabloid. He was influential in demonstrating how the press could be used to influence public opinion and government policy, and advocated "government by journalism". He was also well known for his reportage on child welfare, social legislation and reformation of England's criminal codes. He became assistant editor of the Liberal Pall Mall Gazette in 1880
  24. 24.     He set about revolutionizing a traditionally conservative newspaper "written by gentlemen for gentlemen’’. As editor of the Gazette he was responsible for incorporating maps and diagrams into a newspaper for the first time. He started breaking up longer articles with eyecatching subheadings and blending his own opinions with those of the people he interviewed. He made a feature of the Pall Mall extras, and his enterprise and originality exercised a potent influence on contemporary journalism and politics.
  25. 25.     Stead's first sensational campaign was based on a Nonconformist pamphlet, ‘The Bitter Cry of Outcast London’. His descriptive stories of unpleasant life spurred the government into clearing the slums and building lowcost housing in their place. He also introduced the interview, creating a new dimension in British journalism when he interviewed General Gordon in 1884. His use of sensationalist headlines is exemplified with the death of Gordon in Khartoum in 1885.
  26. 26.      He ran the first 24-point headline in newspaper history, "TOO LATE!“ The headline referred to the relief force's failure to rescue a national hero. He is also credited as originating the modern journalistic technique of creating a news event rather than just reporting it: The Eliza Armstrong case. A major scandal in the UK involving a child supposedly bought for prostitution for the purpose of exposing the evils of white slavery. While it achieved its purpose of helping to enable the passage of the Criminal Law Amendment Act 1885, it also brought unintended consequences Stead.
  27. 27. Reflection Paper    The newspaper has had a long history of its development into what it is today. Newspapers have also played a key role in highlighting different issues in social life. With the Internet and growth of TV and radio, the ‘death of the newspaper’ has been predicted by some experts in the media world. Hundreds of newspapers in the USA have already shut down business. Do you think the newspaper will stand the test of time, or will newspapers eventually become a lost form of media? (250 words)