is a process by which an individual
attempts to satisfy certain needs by
engaging in various behaviors. Motivation
represents those “psychological
processes that cause the arousal,
direction and persistence of voluntary
actions that are goal oriented.”
Content theories of motivation- identify internal
factors influencing motivation like: instincts,
needs, satisfaction and job characteristics that
energize employee motivation.
Process theories of motivation- identify the
process by which internal factors and
cognitions influence employee motivation.
Most content theories of motivation resolve
around the notion that an employee’s needs
influence motivation. Needs are physiological or
psychological deficiencies that arouse behavior.
They can be strong or weak and are influenced by
environmental factors. Thus, human needs vary
over time and place.
1.CONTENT THEORIES OF
Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory
Abraham Maslow, a psychologist proposed that motivation is a function
of five basic needs:
Physiological – basic needs like food, air, and water to survive.
Safety- need to be safe from physical and psychological harm.
Love- the desire to be loved and to love. Contains the needs for
affection and longing.
Esteem- need for reputation, prestige, and recognition from others. Also
contains need for self-confidence and strength.
Self-actualization- desire for fulfillment—to become the best one is
capable of becoming.He believed human needs generally emerge in a
predictable stair-step fashion. When one’s physiological needs are
relatively satisfied, one’s safety needs emerge, and so on up the need
hierarchy, one step at a time. Once a need is satisfied it activates the
next higher need in the hierarchy. This process continues until the need
for self-actualization is activated.
Maslow’s Need Hierarchy
Employees’ Needs and Desires Vary by
TOP FIVE NEEDS AND DESIRES
35 and younger compensation, other benefits,
benefits, job security, flexibility
to balance work life issues
36 to 55 compensation, health care/medical benefits,
Benefits, other benefits, job security
56 and older feeling safe in the work environment, retirement
benefits, other benefits, health
care/medical benefits, meaningfulness of job
Alderfer’s Theory differs from Maslow’s theory in
three major respects:
First, a smaller set of core needs is used to explain behavior, from lowest to highest level
Existence needs (E) - the desire for physiological and materialistic well-being
Relatedness needs(R) - the desire to have meaningful relationships with
Growth needs- the desire to grow as a human being and to use one’s abilities to
their fullest potential
Second, ERG theory does not assume needs. They are related to each other in a stair-step
hierarchy as does Maslow. Alderfer believes that more than one need may be activated at
Finally, ERG theory contains a frustration-regression component.
Ex. Employees may demand higher pay or better benefits when they are
frustrated or dissatisfied with the quality of their interpersonal relationships (relatedness
needs) at work.
1.The Need forAchievement- desire to
accomplish something difficult
-to master, manipulate or
objects, human beings,
Mc Clelland’s Need Theory
Achievement share three common
Preference for working on tasks of moderate
Preference for situations in which performance is
due to their efforts rather that other factors, such as
They desire more feedback on their successes and
failures than low achievers
2. The Need for Affiliation- desire to spend time
in social relationships, joining groups and wanting
to be loved. Individuals high in this need are not
the most effective managers or leaders because
they have hard time making difficult decisions
without worrying about being disliked.
3. The Need for Power- desire to influence, coach,
teach or encourage others to achieve. People with
high need for power like to work and are
concerned with discipline and self-respect. There
is a positive and negative side to this need.
It is characterized by “if I win, you lose” mentality.
Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Theory
Job satisfaction was more frequently
associated with achievement, recognition,
characteristics of work, responsibility, and
advancement. These factors were all related to
outcomes associated with the content of the task
being performed. Herzberg labeled these factors
motivators because each was associated with
strong effort and good performance. He
hypothesized that motivators cause a person to
move from a state of no satisfaction to
job characteristics associated with job
Herzberg found job dissatisfaction to be
associated primarily with factors in the work
context or environment. Like: company policy,
and administration, technical supervision,
salary, interpersonal relations with one’s
supervisor, and working conditions were mostly
frequently mentioned by employees expressing
job dissatisfaction. This second cluster of
factors are hygiene factors.
job characteristics associated with
No satisfaction Satisfaction
Jobs that do not jobs offering
Offer achievement, achievement
Recognition, stimulating recognition, stimu-
Work, responsibility and lating work, respon-
Advancement sibility, and advance-
Dissatisfaction No Dissatisfaction
jobs with poor jobs with good company
company policies and policies and administration
administration, technical supervision, salary,
technical supervision interpersonal relationships
salary, interpersonal with supervisors, and
relationships with working conditions.
supervisors, and working
2.PROCESS THEORIES OF
- identifying the process by which various
internal factors influence motivation
-they are based on the premise that motivation
is a function of employees’ perceptions,
thoughts, and beliefs.
The three most common process
theories of motivation:
Adams’s Equity Theory of
Equity theory is a model of motivation that
explains how people strive for fairness and
justice in social exchanges or give-and-take
The Individual-Organization Exchange
Adams points out that two primary
components are involved in the employee-
employer exchange, inputs and outcomes. An
employee’s inputs, for which he or she expects
in return, include education/training, skills,
creativity, seniority, age, personality traits,
effort expended and personal appearance. On
the outcome side of exchange, the
organization provides such things as
pay/bonuses, fringe benefits, challenging
assignments, job security, promotions, status
symbols and participation in important
Negative and Positive Inequity
On the job, feelings of inequity revolve around
a person’s evaluation of whether he or she
receives adequate rewards to compensate for
his or her contributive inputs. People perform
these evaluations by comparing the perceived
fairness for their employment exchange to that
of relevant others.
The three different equity relationships
Equity sensitivity- an individual’s tolerance for
negative and positive equity
Negative inequity- comparison in which
another person receives greater outcomes for
Positive inequity- comparison in which another
person receives lesser outcomes for similar
reflects the extent to which people perceive
that they are treated fairly at work. The three
diff. components of organizational justice:
Distributive justice- the perceived fairness of
how resources and rewards are distributed or
Procedural justice- the perceived fairness of the
process and procedures used to make
Interactional justice- extent to which people
feel fairly treated when procedures are
Practical lessons fromEquity
First, equity theory provides managers with yet
another explanation of how beliefs and attitudes
affect job performance.
Second, equity theory emphasizes the need for
managers to pay attention to employees’
perceptions of what is fair and equitable.
Managers are encouraged to make hiring
decisions on merit-based, job-related information,
and to make more attempts at providing positive
recognition about employee behavior and
Third, managers benefit by allowing
employees to participate in making decisions
about important work outcomes.
Fourth, employees should be given the
opportunity to appeal decisions that affect their
Fifth, managers are more likely to accept and
support organizational change when they
believe it is implemented fairly and when it
produces equitable outcomes.
Sixth, managers can promote cooperation and
teamwork among group members by treating
Seventh, treating employees inequitably can
lead to litigation and costly court settlements.
Eight, employees‘ perceptions of justice are
strongly influenced by leadership behavior
exhibited by their managers.
Ninth, managers need to pay attention to the
organization’s climate for justice.
holds that people are motivated to behave in
ways that produce desired combinations of
It can be used to predict motivation and
behavior in any situation in which a choice
between two or more alternatives must be
Ex. to predict whether to quit or stay at a job; or
whether to major in management, finance,
marketing, psychology or communication.
3 key concepts within Vroom’s
belief that effort leads to a specific level of
performance. It is an effort performance
The following factors influence an
Previous success at the task
Help received from a supervisor and
Information necessary to complete the task
Good materials and equipment to work with.
is a performance- outcome perception. It
represents a person’s belief that a particular
outcome is contingent on accomplishing a
specific level of performance.
Ex. passing exams is instrumental to graduating
refers to the positive or negative value people
place on outcomes.
Valence mirrors our personal preferences.
Ex. most employees have a positive valence for
receiving additional money or recognition.
in contrast job stress and being laid-off would
likely result in negative valence.
is a process model of motivation that explains
how the simple behavior of setting goals
activates a powerful motivational process that
leads to sustained, high performance.
Goal- is what an individual is trying to
accomplish; it is the object or aim of an action.
4 Motivational Mechanisms of Goal
Goals Direct Attention- goals direct one’s
attention and effort toward goal-relevant
activities and away from goal-irrelevant
Goals Regulate Effort- goals motivate us to
Goals Increase Persistence-within the context
of goal setting, persistence represents the
effort expended on a task over an extended
period of time.
Goals Foster the Development and Application
of Task Strategies and Action Plans –goals
help to encourage people to develop
strategies and action plans that enable them
to achieve their goals.
PRACTICAL LESSONS FROM
GOAL SETTING RESEARCH
Setting performance goals increases
individual, group and organizational
4 practical insights:
Specific high goals lead to greater performance-Goal
specificity pertains to the quantifiability of a goal.
Feedback enhances the effect of specific, difficult
goals-Feedback lets people know if they are headed
toward their goals or if they are off course and
need to redirect their efforts. Goals plus feedback is the
recommended approach. Goals inform people about
performance standards and expectations so that they
can channel their energies accordingly. Feedback
provides the information needed to adjust direction,
effort, and strategies for goal accomplishment.
Participative goals, assigned goals and self-set goals are
equally effective-managers are advised to use a
contingency approach by picking a method that seems
best suited for the individual and situation at hand.
Goal commitment and monetary incentives affect goal-
goal commitment is the extent to which an individual is
personally committed to achieving a goal.
-goal commitment moderates the relationship between the
difficulty of a goal and performance.
-difficult goals lead to higher performance only when
employees are committed to their goals.
Monetary incentive-researches uncovered
some negative consequences when goal
achievement is linked to individual incentives.
Goal-based bonus incentives produced higher
commitment to easy goals and lower
commitment to difficult goals. People were
reluctant to commit to high goals that were tied
to monetary incentives. People with high goal
commitment also offered less help to their co-
workers when they received goal based bonus
incentives to accomplish difficult individual
Motivation through Job Design
Job design or job redesign- refers to any set of
activities that involve the alteration of specific
jobs or interdependent systems of jobs with
the intent of improving the quality of employee
job experience and their on-the-job
draws from research in industrial engineering
and scientific management.
is kind of management using research and
experimentation to find the most efficient way to
perform job. It involves five steps:
Develop standard methods for performing jobs
by using time and motion studies,
Carefully select employees with the
Train workers to use the standard methods
Support workers and reduce interruption
Provide incentives to reinforce performance
the motivational approaches to job design
attempt to improve employees’ affective and
attitudinal reactions such as absenteeism,
turnover and performance.
Four key motivational
Job Enlargement-involves putting more variety
into a worker’s job by combining specialized tasks
of comparable difficulty. Also called as
horizontally loading the job.
Job rotation-moving of employees from one
specialized job to another
Job enrichment- modifying a job such that an
employee has the opportunity to experience
achievement, recognition, stimulating work,
responsibility and advancement. This is vertical
loading wherein employees take the tasks
normally performed by their supervisors.
Job characteristics model-
Intrinsic motivation- occurs when an
individual is turned on to one’s work because
of the positive internal feelings that are
generated by doing well rather than dependent
on external factors such incentive pay or
compliments from boss for the motivation to
Feedback from job
of the work
outcomes of the work
•Knowledge of the
actual results of the
1.Knowledge and skill
2. Growth need strength
3. Context satisfaction
Core job dimensions
are common job characteristics found to
various degrees in all jobs.
the extent to which the job requires an individual
to perform a variety of tasks that require him/her
to use different skills and abilities.
is when a person works on a product or
project from beginning to end and sees a
the extent to which the job affects the lives of
other people within or outside the organization.
the extent to which the job enables and
individual to experience freedom,
independence, and discretion in both
scheduling and determining the procedures
used in completing the job
the extent to which an individual receives direct
and clear information about how effectively
he/she is performing the job.
Biological and Perceptual Motor
is based on research from biomechanics, work
physiology, and ergonomics and focuses on
designing the work environment to reduce
employees’ physical strain, fatigue, and health
is derived from research that examines human
factors engineering, perceptual and cognitive
skills and information processing. This
approach to job design emphasizes the
reliability of work outcomes by examining error
rates, accidents and workers’ feedback about
facilities and equipment.
involves establishing specific, measurable and
Two types of Goals
Performance outcome goal- targets a specific
Learning goal- encourages learning, creativity
and skill development.
Management by Objectives-
management system incorporating
participation in decision making, goal setting
The three general steps to follow when implementing a goal-
setting program that has to be implemented in a systematic
Step I: Set Goals A number of sources can be used
as input during this goal-setting stage. Time and
motion studies are one source. Goals also may be
based on the average past performance of job holders
goals should be “SMART”. SMART is an acronym that
stands for specific, measurable, attainable, result
oriented, and time bound. There are two additional
recommendations to consider when setting goals.
First, for complex task, managers should train
employees in problem-solving technique and
encourage them to develop a performance action
plan. Action plan specify the strategies or tactics to be
used in order to accomplish goal. Second, because of
individual difference , it may be necessary to establish
different goals for employees performing the same
Guidelines for Writing SMART
Measurable A measurement device is needed to
assess the extent to which a goal is
accomplished. Goals thus need to be measurable.
Attainable Goals should be realistic, challenging,
and attainable. Impossible goals reduce
motivation because people do not like to fail.
Remember, people have different levels of ability
Result Oriented Corporate goals should focus on
desire end-result that support the organization’s
Time Bound Goals specify target dates for
Step 2: Promote Goal Commitment Obtaining
goal commitment is important because
employee are more motivated to pursue goals
they view as reasonable, obtainable, and fair.
Step 3: Provide Support and Feedback Step 3
call for providing employee with the necessary
support elements or resources to get the job
done. This includes ensuring that each
employee has the necessary abilities and
information to reach his or her goals.
is objective information about individual or
Two Functions of Feedback
One is instructional and the other is
motivational. Feedback instructs when it
clarifies roles or teaches new behavior.
Feedback motivates when it serves as a
reward or promises a reward.
360 degree Feedback
Comparison of anonymous feedback from
one’s superior, subordinates, and peers with
self-perception. Even outsiders may be
involved in what is sometimes called full-circle
How to Give FeedbackforCoaching
Purpose and Organizational Effectiveness
Managers need to keep the followings tips in
mind when giving feedback as part of a
comprehensive performance management .
Focus on performance, not personalities
Give specific feedback linked to learning goals
and performance outcomes goals
Channel feedback toward key result areas for the
Give feedback as soon as possible
Give feedback to coach improvement, not just for
Base feedback on accurate and credible
Pair feedback with clear expectations for
Prepared by: Hilaria M. Villaflores