Science Discovery Series Episode1 : From Sandstone to Canyons


Published on

Episode 1: Sandstone: From Sand Dunes to Canyons.

This is the story of how giant sand dunes of an ancient sahara-like desert in Utah were lithified into sandstone, preserved dinosaur tracks, bones, and trees, and then were eroded into the spectacular canyons we see today.

Published in: Travel, Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • This 2000 foot deep canyon was carved by the tiny Paria river into various layers of sedimentary rock, including sandstones, siltstones, and clay layers.
  • Science Discovery Series Episode1 : From Sandstone to Canyons

    1. 1. Science Discovery Series<br />Olympus High School<br />Jeff Taylor<br />Science Instructor<br />
    2. 2. Who is Jeff Taylor?<br />Wadi Gazelle, Sinai, Egypt<br />All Pictures In This Presentation Taken By Jeff Taylor<br />
    3. 3. Mr. Taylor<br />Scientist<br />Explorer<br />Hiker<br />My goal is to know something about everything<br />
    4. 4. Always looking for unique and interesting places to help explain scientific concepts to my students.<br />I always want to know WHY?<br />
    5. 5. Jeff TaylorOlympus High School<br />Courses:<br />All Science at Olympus HS<br />Health and Physical Education too<br />Contact Information<br /><br />602-476-2141<br />Family: Wife Linda and 21-month daughter Hilina<br />Detailing our travels and hikes on our blog:<br />Living out of our 22 ft trailer and spending the <br />next 6 months in Desert Southwest.<br />
    6. 6. Episode 1Sandstone: From Sand Dunes to Canyons<br />Paria Canyon, AZ<br />The Story of Lithification<br />
    7. 7. Grand Staircase-Escalante NM, UT<br />Sandstone<br />Sandstone are layers of sand-sized particles that are cemented together.<br />Sandstone can form from sand dunes, in rivers, lake shores, or former ocean beaches.<br />
    8. 8. Sand Dunes<br />Great Sand Dunes NP, CO<br />Sand Dunes form where sand particles are blown in the wind and then pile up in a place where the wind slows down.<br />In this case, the Rocky Mountains block the winds.<br />
    9. 9. Here, winds slow when they hit those mountains, dropping off the sand<br />That’s me 500 feet above the desert floor<br />Kelso Dunes, Mojave N Pres, CA<br />
    10. 10. Great Sand Dunes NP, CO<br />Over 700 feet tall of pure sand!<br />Climbing the Highest Dunes in North America<br />
    11. 11. The view from the top!This was Utah 75 Million Years Ago<br />Great Sand Dunes NP, CO<br />Sand dunes up to 2000 feet deep!<br />
    12. 12. Lithification<br />Great Sand Dunes NP, CO<br />Lithification means turning sand to stone.<br />As rain trickles through the sand, it cements the pieces together to form stone<br />Think of an example of lithification you might have created or seen!<br />
    13. 13. Cements are Dissolved Minerals<br />Minerals dissolved in water accumulate where water evaporates. <br />As the crystals form, they bind sand grains together like cement.<br />The particular minerals involved decides the cement strength.<br />
    14. 14. Navajo Sandstone, Big Water, UT<br />Fossilized Sand Dunes<br />Can be determined by their cross-bedding.<br />Cross-bedding are alternating layers that are tilted against each other.<br />
    15. 15. Cross-Bedding<br />The angled beds are the result of sand slide down the sides of the dune<br />The angles change when wind direction changes and buries old dunes with new sand<br />Kelso Dunes, Mojave N Pres, CA<br />
    16. 16. Beverly Dunes, Vantage, WA<br />Vegetation can also stabilize dunes <br />Roots hold water and stabilize the dunes. <br />Then sand blows over and buries the dune, preserving it<br />
    17. 17. The Dive, Grand Staircase-Escalante, UT<br />Navajo Sandstone<br />These fossilized dunes formed in an ancient Sahara-like Desert some 75 million years ago<br />
    18. 18. Today<br />
    19. 19. How Was The World Different?<br />
    20. 20. 90 Million Years Ago<br />Area of Navajo Sandstone<br />
    21. 21. 75 Million Years Ago<br />Area of Navajo Sandstone<br />
    22. 22. 65 Million Years Ago<br />Area of Navajo Sandstone<br />
    23. 23. On The Search For Dinosaur Tracks<br />
    24. 24. Dinosaur Tracks<br />Grand-Staircase-Escalante NM, UT<br />Click Check Mark If You See It<br />
    25. 25. Theropod<br />Dinosaurs stepped in wet sand and then sand blew over and filled the impression<br />
    26. 26. More Dinosaur Tracks<br />
    27. 27.
    28. 28. Dinosaur National Monument<br />
    29. 29. Dinosaur Bones<br />Dinosaur NM, CO<br />
    30. 30. Bones Left in Place By National Park Service<br />
    31. 31. Grand Staircase-Escalante NM, UT<br />Fossilized Palm Trees<br />
    32. 32. Here Is How It Could Happen<br />Buried Palms in Sudan, Image courtesy of the UN Environmental Programme<br />
    33. 33. Escalante Petrified Forest State Park, UT<br />Petrified Wood<br />Fallen trees that were buried by sand ended up being preserved as these petrified tree trunks.<br />
    34. 34. Vermillion Cliffs Wilderness, UT<br />Water Deposited Sandstones<br />Sandstone layers that are completely horizontal are usually formed at the bottom of lakes or the ocean.<br />
    35. 35. Banff NP, Alberta<br />Water Deposition<br />When sediment flowing down a river meet a lake, they drop out and settle to the bottom to form a flat layer.<br />
    36. 36. Lake Sediments<br />Lake Powell, UT<br />Here, changing lake levels leave horizontal beds of sediments.<br />When buried, they will compact into stone.<br />
    37. 37. Half Moon Bay, CA<br />Ocean Beaches<br />
    38. 38. Wahweap Creek, Glen Canyon NRA, UT<br />River Deposited Sandstones<br />
    39. 39. Ripple Marks<br />Vermillion Cliffs Wilderness, UT<br />Ripple marks are a sign on an ancient stream or lake shore<br />
    40. 40. Grand Staircase-Escalante NM, UT<br />Red Sandstones<br />Stained by iron oxide (rust) minerals<br />
    41. 41. Blue Sandstones Stained by Copper<br />Blue Basin, John Day NM, OR<br />
    42. 42. Erosion<br />Canyonlands NP, UT<br />Rivers, rain, ice, and wind erode the sandstone and free the sand to form dunes once again.<br />
    43. 43. Zion Canyon<br />2000 feet deep sand dunes cut by the river<br />
    44. 44. Dinosaur NM, CO<br />Does anyone want to guess the rate of erosion?<br />Green River cutting into sand stone<br />
    45. 45. Grand Staircase-Escalante NM, UT<br />Soft Sandstones<br />Some sandstones are so weakly cemented, that they “melt” when it rains and fall apart in your hands.<br />
    46. 46. Wahweap Hoodoos, Grand Staircase-Escalante NM, UT<br />Hoodoos<br />When more resistant rock protects weaker rock below, columns can form.<br />When the cap falls off, the towers “melt” away.<br />
    47. 47. Buckskin Gulch, Grand Staircase-Escalante NM, UT<br />Flash floods carve deep narrow canyons into sandstone.<br />Some storms will flood this canyon with water 80 feet high!<br />Slot Canyons <br />
    48. 48. Slot Canyon<br />Spooky Gulch, Grand-Staircase Escalante NM, UT<br />
    49. 49. Wind erosion is primarily responsible for natural arches. <br />Arches<br />Cobra Arch, Vermillion Cliffs Wilderness, UT<br />