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1. The Nature of Leadership
2. Types of Leadership in
Administration & Supervision
Authoritarian / Task Centered
Democratic / People Centered
Educational and professional leadership enhances
learner’s outcomes through the creation of an
environment where learning permeates the
The educational leader is able to
Shared community vision
lead curriculum and pedagogical
reflect critically on all practice.
There is probably no topic more
important to success today than
leadership occurs among people
involves the use of influence
is used to attain goals
The ability to influence people toward the
attainment of organizational goals.
Leadership is dynamic and involves the use
builds a sense of community
creates a sense of ownership
establishes shared vision and values
to provide insights, identify strengths and
areas for growth
The crowd will follow a leader who marches
twenty steps in advance; but if he is a thousand
steps in front of them, they do not see and do
not follow him.
~ George Brandes
Autocratic leadership refers to a style of leadership
where the leader has complete authority over decision
making and the employees obey the leader without
Manager retains power (classical approach)
Manager is decision-making authority
Manager does not consult employees for
Subordinates expected to obey orders without
Motivation provided through structured
rewards and punishments
The employee has low motivatation or little desire
to achieve, often passing their work
responsibilities onto others.
Group members are reluctant to take
Collective or participative decision making causes
delays and a project needs to be keep on schedule
Group members are inexperienced or unfamiliar
with their role and trial and error needs to be avoided.
Low skilled or unskilled workforce
Characteristics of Autocratic Leadership
Some of the primary
characteristics of autocratic
Little or no input from
Leaders make the
Group leaders dictate all
the work methods and
Group members are rarely
trusted with decisions or
The autocratic leader retains all power,
authority, and control, and reserves the right
to make all decisions.
Autocratic leaders distrust their
subordinate’s ability, and closely supervise
and control people under them.
Autocratic leaders involve themselves in
detailed day-to-day activities, and rarely
delegate or empower subordinates.
leader adopts one-
They do not consult
with subordinates or
give them a chance
to provide their
opinions, no matter
the potential benefit
of such inputs
Advantages of Autocratic Leadership Style
Getting things done
Disadvantages of Autocratic Leadership
Autocratic leaders usually remain unpopular and
damage working relationships with colleagues.
The one sided communication flow in an autocratic
leadership style restricts the creative and leadership
skills of the employees and prevents their development.
The leader reserving the right to make all decisions
leads to subordinates becoming heavily dependent on
the leader. The team thereby becomes useless in running
operations if they lose contact with their leader, and
absence of the leader leads to total collapse and
shutdown of operations.
The heavily centralized command of autocratic leadership style ensures
that the system depends entirely on the leader. If the leader is strong,
capable, competent, and just, the organization functions smoothly, and if
the leader is weak, incompetent, or has low ethical and moral standards,
the entire organization suffers for the sake of a single leader.
Lack of involvement from the employee in the decision making process
leads to employees not assuming ownership of their work, contributing to
low morale, lack of commitment, and manifesting in high turnover,
absenteeism, and work stoppage.
Democratic Style of Leadership
Democratic leadership, also known as
participative leadership, is a type of
leadership style in which members of the
group take a more participative role in
the decision-making process.
Involves a team guided by a leader where all
individuals are involved in the decision-making
process to determine what needs to be done and how
it should be done.
Encourages decision making
from different perspectives – leadership may
be emphasised throughout
Consultative: process of consultation before
decisions are taken
Persuasive: Leader takes decision and seeks to
persuade others that the decision
Individuals are not simply
hired hands but bring along
with them their heads and
May help motivation and
Workers feel ownership of the firm
and its ideas
Improves the sharing of ideas
and experiences within the
Delegation of tasks to other employees and
subordinates along with full responsibility makes
them accountable for their actions and tasks.
The manager or leader in-charge is always open
to feedback (initiatives and otherwise) and it
forms the basis of future assignments.
Encouragement by the leader to inspire the
employees to become leaders and develop in this
area. The manager seeks consultation on all issues
and decisions but remains the final authority on
which ones to be put into use.
Office politics that can threaten the growth and development of a
working environment can be reduced with the help of a democratic
style of leadership. All the people involved use their skills together for
the completion of a certain task and hence, almost all ideas are taken
into consideration and carefully debated.
Communication gap is reduced. Tension between the leader and
team members is decreased as a result of which fear of rejection and
denial also reduces – this makes all sorts of issues addressable.
A positive work environment is created. This means that a culture of
junior workers getting a fair amount of responsibility and challenges is
encouraged. When there are the right vibes among employees, work
becomes more pleasurable.
Some managers adopt democratic leadership to
please their subordinates but fail to follow the
technique in its entirety. They might simply take in
all the ideas and end up never implementing them.
The decision making process might be a long
drawn one since every team member needs to
be consulted. No one has a scarcity of ideas but to
put them all in place requires a great deal of
patience and understanding. Missing
opportunities and being stuck in the middle of a
hazard can be some of the drawbacks of this
Leadership Styles Autocratic Leadership Democratic Leadership
Other Terms Task Oriented
Michigan Studies Job – centered Employee - centered
Concern for production Concern for people
Transactional Leadership Transformational