Listening and Speaking
The active process of
receiving and responding
to spoken messages.
Difference between Listening and Hearing
Hearing is simply
the act of perceiving
sound by the ear.
Hearing occurs with
or without your
Listening is an action
where you choose
concentrate on what
you hear and your
brain processes the
Global and Discrete
There are two ways of listening:
known as extensive listening
means wide or general
the reader only wishes to get the main
point of a conversation
frequently done by native speakers
known as intensive listening
more widely used form of listening
instructions or important
Definition of Speaking:
"Speaking" is the delivery of language
through the mouth.
Stress in English
In linguistics, stress is the relative
emphasis that may be given to certain
syllables in a word, or to certain words in
a phrase or sentence.
TWO TYPES OF STRESS
1. Word Stress
2. Sentence Stress
In single words, stress is placed on
Stress is a characteristic of speech
It is comparatively a greater amount of
force that is used in the pronunciation of
a particular syllable.
STRESS IN SENTENCES
In sentences, we place the stress on
words. Sentence stress is accent on
certain words within a sentence.
INTONATION IN ENLISH
The rise and fall of the voice in
Structure of Intonation:
Falling tones are used for statements or
for questions which are usually not
answerable by ‘yes’ or ‘no’.
Rising tones are used for questions that
can be answered with ‘yes’ or ‘no’ and
for tagged questions.
3. Fall-Rise Tones:
These tones are usually used to show
4. Rise-Fall Tones:
These tones are used for being
Discrete means individually distinct more wid
Use of extra force in uttering some syllable or syllables in a word is called stress.
In nouns, stress the first syllable while in verbs, stress is on the second syllable
Two classes of words: content words as in words carrying the meaning e.g main verbs, nouns, adjectives, adverbs and all question words are stressed.. However, structure words showing grammatical relationship are not stressed. E.g pronouns, prepositions, conjuctions, auxiliary verbs are not stressed.
He is an old man. Where do you live? Rising tones.. Have you cleaned the cupboard? He is an old man. Isn’t he?
She has got a new car. Really! Rise fall tones.. Really, she is very lucky