Pacific Islands Network Geospatial Services


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The Inventory and Monitoring Program is a major component of the National Park Service’s strategy to improve park management through greater reliance on scientific information. The Pacific Island Network (PACN) is one of 32 National Park Service Inventory & Monitoring networks of national parks linked by geography and shared natural resource characteristics.

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  • Introduction, we are here!
  • Background on the I&M program created by a congressional mandate in 1998 Primary goal is to inventory natural resources and monitor ecos.ystems. The Pacific Island Network is within the Pacific West Region.
  • Well you cant have a proper GIS presentation without a map. You can see the extent of the area in this map
  • The parks in the Pacific Islands network. Forgive my pronunciations. We use 4 letter codes for all our parks and I used to calling the parks by those codes.
  • What do we or I do for geospatial services? I use that term because really most folks in natural resources use GIS, but now the GIS specialist is more a coordinator and maintainer of GIS activities. But here is the outline of the PACN services.
  • The Inventories and Monitoring we do at PACN. Most of the inventories are complete with the exception of the vegetation inventory. The monitoring protocols are in various stages of status.
  • Next lets overview the Internet Mapping Services. This is a basic outline of the workflow of how the data and maps get published on our NPS intranet, but as noted, I am redesigning the services in the public domain as well.
  • This is the launch page and also the default web page for my server. It is broken up into map service in the middle, links to pertinent web sites on the left bar and links to spot weather forecasts on the right bar. Many of our specialists and scientists travel, this was a way they can easily check forecasts for planning.
  • This is the silverlight viewer. It really has a standard GIS feel with toolbars, table of contents and a map view. Data can be turned on and off easily by the checkbox and transparency adjust by the sliders.
  • These are some of the Areas of Interests chosen for the parks on the Island of Hawaii
  • So the Protocol is developing a series of data metrics through the standard SOPS and then analyze the interaction of these metrics.
  • One of the metrics id developing roadless classification. This will analyzed for areas inside the parks, the island that the park resides and in some cases, watershed areas. In this example we see the Island of Hawaii.
    NPScape designed the classification parameters so that consistent map products and statistics could be created.
  • The park statistics will be compared to the Island statistics and any other area of interests designated by the protocol. You can see that Hawaii Volcanoes has quite a bit of roadless areas. This will also help park managers decide where they may designate wilderness areas.
  • GPS data collection is very unique in the Pacific Islands. We span such a large area that we go across many time zone, the other side of the international dateline and even the southern hemisphere. We really need to ensure that our GPS data is processed to the correct datums and the pacific plate is very dynamic.
  • Technical information but critical to our variable processing for GPS collections and how we process that data into GIS data.
  • So any data we collect with Trimble devices can be post processed to CORS stations Continuous Operating Receiving stations, but what about real time corrections for Trimble and for Garmin units we may use?
  • Satellite based augmentation is what most Natural Resource based GPS users acquire for real time correction. This works great on the mainland as our WAAS system hovers above North America. There seems to be dispute whether it is reliable on the Hawaiian Islands, but I have found it accurate in my testing and in field use. Folks like to use Garmins for ease of navigation, but we are requiring them to use Trimbles for the actual collection of the data. We can defend this data and can log its correction statistics.
  • I manage over 24 different SDE geodatabases, replicating the data aback to San Francisco at the regional headquarters. The PACN employees have their duty stations in many different parks throughout the network. They all interact with the host parks natural resource specialists and managers. I will outreach to those folks as there really is no official GIS Specialists at any of the parks, so I help whenever possible. We also have several contracts in place and one of them is finishing up the vegetation inventory.
  • This is primarily the last inventory that needs completion. It was started by one contractor who had his own field crew and was then taken over by another contractor and we wanted to keep the field work isolated from the mapping contractor so we created another contract with RCUH to do the AA, database management and final report editing
  • Here is the status of the veg inventory at this time
  • Pacific Islands Network Geospatial Services

    1. 1. Pacific Islands Network Geospatial Services Scott Kichman GIS Specialist PACN Inventory and Monitoring Program Department of the Interior, National Park Service
    2. 2. Pacific Island Network Inventory and Monitoring Program The Inventory and Monitoring Program is a major component of the National Park Service’s strategy to improve park management through greater reliance on scientific information. The Pacific Island Network (PACN) is one of 32 National Park Service Inventory & Monitoring networks of national parks linked by geography and shared natural resource characteristics. Spanning islands in American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana archipelago, and Hawaii, the Pacific Island Network encompasses an area as large as the continental United States. The islands and near-shore marine areas within the National Park System protect a wealth of the planet's aquatic, and terrestrial biodiversity, unique geologic features, and historic and cultural sites. Isolated from the continental land-masses, these federally protected areas share similarities, including threats from invasive species, limited land area, and finite resources inherent on islands.
    3. 3. Extent of the PACN Monitoring Area
    4. 4. Hawaii Parks Ala Kahakai - ALKA National Historic Trail, Hawaiʻi Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park HAVO, Hawaiʻi Kaloko-Honokōhau - KAHO National Historical Park, Hawaiʻi Puʻuhonua o Hōnaunau - PUHO National Historical Park, Hawaiʻi Puʻukoholā Heiau - PUHE National Historic Site, Hawaiʻi Haleakalā National Park , Maui HALE Kalaupapa - KALA National Historical Park, Molokaʻi National Parks and Historical Parks and Sites in the PACN Network Also in Hawaii (Oahu) - World War II Valor in the Pacific VALR National Monument, but no current monitoring here South and Western Pacific Parks National Park of American Samoa, NPSA American Samoa American Memorial Park - AMME Saipan War in the Pacific - WAPA National Historical Park, Guam
    5. 5. Geospatial Services for PACN Network and Outreach to PACN Parks • Inventory and Monitoring GIS Support • Internet Mapping Services - ArcGIS Server • Landscape Dynamics Monitoring Protocol • GPS Support • Maintenance of Geospatial Databases I&M SDE and PACN SDE • GIS Support Services for all PACN Parks • GIS Support Services for Outside Agencies and Organizations, • Partners and Contractors (e.g. RCUH, Guest Lectures at UHH) • Climate Station Data Maintenance
    6. 6. Inventory and Monitoring Inventories Inventory Links to Reports and/or Data Completion Status Natural Resource Bibliography IRMA Portal - online NPS tool to find and download documents & reports, GIS maps, etc. Complete Species Lists NPSpecies Search Complete Species Status and Abundance PACN Biological Inventory Reports Page Complete Vegetation Inventory PACN Biological Inventory Reports Page Partially complete / In progress Base Cartography GIS Data Store Search Complete Geologic Resources NPS Geologic Inventory Reports AMME in progress. All other parks complete. Soils Resources NPS Soil Survey Data Complete Water Body Location and Classification USGS National Hydrography Dataset Complete Baseline Water Quality NPS Baseline Water Quality Data & Analysis Reports Complete Air Quality NPS Air Resources Website Complete Air Quality Related Values NPS Air Resources Website Complete Climate PACN Weather & Climate Inventory Report Complete Monitoring Vital Sign Protocol Status Anchialine Pools Under Development Benthic Marine Complete Climate Complete Early Detection of Invasive Species Under Development Established Invasive Plant Species Complete Fish Harvest Under Development Focal Terrestrial Plant Communities Complete Focal Terrestrial Plant Species Under Development Groundwater Dynamics Complete Landbirds Complete Landscape Dynamics Under Development Marine Fish Complete Streams Complete Water Quality Complete
    7. 7. Internet Mapping Services Getting the Data and Maps to the Network Using the Geocortex Essentials as a web software base, a framework of highly functional web mapping components are created to publish Internet Mapping Services. This IMS is NPS domain only at this time.* • Map data comes directly from the I&M SDE geodatabase to GIS Map Services • ArcGIS Server – Exposes GIS services to REST (Representational state transfer) services • Geocortex consumes REST and maps are built on the silverlight platform. • Map Services are presented on a web launch page for the PACN Network • Map Services outputs can be printed, emailed, linked and user modified • Data can be downloaded and data can be added to the maps by users * Map Services will be public FY15 on NPMap platform
    8. 8. The Web Launch Page
    9. 9. The Maps Silverlight Viewer Interface Layers are Dynamic from ArcGIS Server REST Selective Layers can be edited
    10. 10. Toolbars
    11. 11. Mapping Invasive Species Transects of Strawberry Guava in Ola’a Thematic Percent Cover
    12. 12. The Web Launch Page
    13. 13. Landscape Dynamics Monitoring Protocol NPScape NPScape is a landscape dynamics monitoring project that provides landscape-level data, tools, and evaluations for natural resource management, planning, and interpretation. The target audience for NPScape spans the range from GIS specialists who will benefit from the geospatial products, to ecologists and natural resource specialists who will be interested in the landscape metrics presented in a local and regional context, to park superintendents and other land managers who can incorporate the maps and graphics into reports or briefings. Each network will process GIS data using Standard Operating Procedures. These SOPS are actually GIS Spatial models scripted to give consistent outputs of data products that can be part of the NPScape project. Analysis and additional SOPS will be developed by network GIS Specialists for specific network interests. Areas of Interests are network designed.
    14. 14. AOIs The Island of Hawaii Park Boundaries and 10km buffers around those parks
    15. 15. Metrics, what data? PACN will develop and process a suite of metrics that are considered integral to understanding natural resource conservation in a landscape context. These metrics fall into seven major measure categories (human population, housing, roads, land cover, pattern, climate, and conservation status) that broadly address the human drivers, natural systems, and conservation context of national parks and other neighboring lands.
    16. 16. Updated TIGER/Line® Shapefiles *used for developing Roadless data Hawaii Island Roadless Areas 0 - 10 km^2 10 - 50 km^2 50 - 100 km^2 > 100 km^2 *TIGER = Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing
    17. 17. GPS Data Collection in PACN Network PACN Parks are all located on the Pacific Tectonic Plate They are in 4 different UTM Zones: Hawai’i Island UTM Zone 5N All other Hawaiian Islands UTM Zone 4N American Samoa UTM Zone 2S Guam and Saipan UTM Zone 55N Guam and Saipan are UTC + 10 Hawaiian Islands are UTC -10 American Samoa is UTC -11 Different Datums? A datum is a point of reference from which measurements are made. It is where the coordinate grid is tied to the earth’s surface. Datums are recalculated and updated as technology allows for more precise measurements. These updates are referred to as realizations, flavors or many similar terms.
    18. 18. The new realizations are based on the global reference frame IGS08 epoch 2005.00. Conterminous US, AK, and US Caribbean territories All active controls were NAD83(CORS96) All passive controls were NAD83(NSRS2007) With NA2011, all controls are now NAD83(2011) epoch 2010.00 Pacific Plate: HI, American Samoa, Marshall Islands All active controls were NAD83(PacP00) epoch 2002.00 Passive controls in HI were NAD83(1993) Passive controls in Samoa were NAD83(2002) With NA2011, all controls are now NAD83(PA11) epoch 2010.00 Mariana Plate (Guam and others) All active controls were NAD83(MarP00) epoch 2002.00 All passive controls were NAD83(2002) With NA2011, all controls are now NAD83(MA11) epoch 2010.00
    19. 19. How good is our SBAS?
    20. 20. In Hawai`i, WAAS-enabled GPS receivers are able to receive the WAAS horizontal corrections broadcast from the WAAS satellites but are not within distance of the ground reference stations located on the U.S. West Coast to receive the full WAAS correction. Thus, WAAS-corrected positions in Hawaii are not expected to be as accurate as those corrected with WAAS within the continental U.S.. ( I am not in complete agreement in my testing) According to the WAAS satellite footprint, the horizontally corrected signal reaches American Samoa, but reliable signal reception could not be confirmed. ( I confirmed this) The WAAS signal was not available in Guam or the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. In the U.S. Pacific Islands, the only publicly available network of radio towers transmitting real- time differential correction information is the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG)-operated Maritime Differential GPS (DGPS) Service. This system consists of a network of beacons set up in coastal areas to provide real-time information. Unfortunately, there are currently no DGPS network beacons providing real-time differential correction in Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, or American Samoa. In Hawai`i, real-time differential correction via the USCG DGPS network is only possible on the main eight islands. Real Time GPS Correction
    21. 21. GIS Support Services • Maintenance of Geospatial Databases I&M SDE and PACN SDE • GIS Support for all PACN Parks Help Desk for GIS users throughout the PACN Network • GIS Support for Partners and Contractors (e.g. RCUH) Inventory Vegetation Mapping Projects • Climate Station Data and Station Maintenance RAWS Stations throughout the network
    22. 22. Inventory for Vegetation Mapping Mapping Contactors – Kass Green and Associates, CTI – Cogan Vegetation Mapping Contractors - RCUH The Vegetation Mapping Inventory is an effort by the National Park Service (NPS) to classify, describe, and map detailed vegetation communities in more than 270 national park units across the United States. NPS vegetation mapping follows well-established procedures that are compatible with other agencies and organizations. The inventory uses the National Vegetation Classification Standard (NVCS), a system that is integrated with the major scientific efforts in the taxonomic classification of vegetation, and is a Federal Geographic Data Committee standard. In addition, stringent quality control procedures ensure the reliability of the vegetation data and encourage the use of resulting maps, reports, and databases at multiple scales. Products: Detailed vegetation report Digital vegetation map Vegetation plot data Accuracy assessment data & analysis Dichotomous vegetation key and Photo-interpretation key
    23. 23. In Progress Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park, Hawaiʻi - Draft Haleakalā National Park , Maui - AA Kalaupapa National Historical Park, Molokaʻi - Draft…almost done! National Park of American Samoa, American Samoa – AA/Draft American Memorial Park, Saipan - Draft Finished War in the Pacific National Historical Park, Guam Kaloko-Honokōhau National Historical Park, Hawaiʻi Puʻuhonua o Hōnaunau National Historical Park, Hawaiʻi Puʻukoholā Heiau National Historic Site, Hawaiʻi Status of the PACN Inventory
    24. 24. Pacific Island Network Geospatial Services GIS Specialist PACN Inventory and Monitoring Program Questions? 808 985 6184