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1. Administrative history
  a. Established – by Congress in Public Law 80-242 on 25 Jul 1947 in the Department of
     Interior as an interagency board.
  b. Predecessor agencies:
     i.   U.S. Board on Geographic Names (1890-1906) - created when President
          Benjamin Harrison signed an Executive Order establishing the Board and giving it
          authority to resolve unsettled geographic names questions.
     ii. U.S. Geographic Board (1906-1934)
  c. In the Department of the Interior:
     i.   Division of Geographic Names (1934-35)
     ii. Advisory Committee on Geographic Names (1934-35)
     iii. U.S. Board on Geographic Names (1935-47)




                                                                                             4
2. Reason for creation – address the complex issues of domestic geographic feature names
   during the surge of exploration, mining, and settlement of western territories after the
   American Civil War. Inconsistencies and contradictions among many names, spellings,
   and applications became a serious problem to surveyors, map makers, and scientists who
   required uniform, non-conflicting geographic nomenclature.

3. Purpose - Standardizes and maintains geographic name usage throughout the Federal
   Government by making decisions on name conflicts and on proposals for new names, in
   cooperation with State, local, and foreign governments.

  a. Usefulness – The USBGN serves the Federal Government and the public as a central
     authority to which name problems, name inquiries, name changes, and new name
     proposals can be directed. In partnership with Federal, State, and local agencies, the
     Board provides a conduit through which uniform geographic name usage is applied
     and current names data is promulgated.

  b. Decisions of the Board were accepted as binding by all departments and agencies of
     the Federal Government.




                                                                                              5
3. Purpose - Standardizes and maintains geographic name usage throughout the Federal
   Government by making decisions on name conflicts and on proposals for new names, in
   cooperation with State, local, and foreign governments.

  a. Usefulness – The USBGN serves the Federal Government and the public as a central
     authority to which name problems, name inquiries, name changes, and new name
     proposals can be directed. In partnership with Federal, State, and local agencies, the
     Board provides a conduit through which uniform geographic name usage is applied
     and current names data is promulgated.

  b. Decisions of the Board were accepted as binding by all departments and agencies of
     the Federal Government.




                                                                                              6
7
1. Origin - Developed by USGS for the U.S. Board on Geographic Names as
  a. the official repository of domestic geographic names data;
  b. the official vehicle for geographic names use by all departments of the Federal
     Government; and
  c. the source for applying geographic names to Federal electronic and printed products.




                                                                                            8
2. What is it?
  a. It is a database that contains information about physical and cultural geographic
     features of all types in the United States, associated areas, and Antarctica, current and
     historical, but not including roads and highways.
  b.
  b Composed of 5 separate databases - originally
     i.   The National Geographic Names Database (aka GNIS)
     ii. The USGS Topographic Map Names Database
     iii. Generic Database – Feature types (63)
     iv. National Atlas Database - Gazateer
     v.
     v USBGN Database – GNIS associated information
3. What does it do?
  a. Holds the Federally recognized name of each feature and defines the feature location
     by state, county, USGS topographic map, and geographic coordinates. Other attributes
     include names or spellings other than the official name, feature designations, feature
     classification, historical and descriptive information, and for some categories the
     g
     geometric boundaries.
  b. Assigns a unique, permanent feature identifier, the Feature ID, as the only standard
     Federal key for accessing, integrating, or reconciling feature data from multiple data
     sets.

  c. Maintains data from a broad program of partnerships with Federal, State, and local
     government agencies and other authorized contributors, and provides data to all levels
     of government, to the public, and to numerous applications through a web query site,
        government         public                                                     site
     web map and feature services, file download services, and customized files upon
     request.




                                                                                                 9
10
1. Origin - created by Act 50 (Chapter 4E, Hawaii Revised Statutes) of the 1974
   Hawaii State Legislature.




                                                                                  11
2.   Purpose – “..to assure uniformity in the use and spelling of the names of
     geographic features within the State..”




                                                                                 12
3.      Membership
     a. Chairperson of the Board of Land and Natural Resources or their representative
        – Holly McEldowney
     b. Chairperson of the Office of Hawaiian Affairs or their representative – Haunani
        Apoliona,
        Apoliona
     c. Chairperson of the Hawaiian Homes Commission or their representative –
        William K. Mills
     d. Director of the Office of Planning or their representative – Craig Tasaka
     e. President of the University of Hawai‘i or their representative – Naomi Losch
     f. State Land Surveyor or their representative – Gerald Goo
     g. Bernice P. Bishop Museum – Betty Kam




                                                                                          13
4.      Responsibilities
     a. Designation the official names and spellings of geographic features in Hawai‘i.
     b. In its deliberations, the Board solicits and considers the advice and
        recommendations of the appropriate County government officials and, as
        appropriate,
        appropriate other knowledgeable persons.
                                            persons
     c. Upon approval, the Board informs appropriate State and other agencies of
        relevant name changes or decisions.
     d. As appropriate, the Board’s name recommendations, together with information
        regarding location, the original and meaning of names and alternative names
        and spellings for the features named are sent to the U. S. Board on Geographic
        Names (USBGN) for their review and consideration.
                 (        )




                                                                                          14
1.   Origin – In 1999 the U.S. Geological Survey provided the HBGN and
     opportunity to add diacritical marks to those place names currently on the
     1:24,000 topographic quadrangle maps.




                                                                                  15
2.   Why is it important? - Diacritical marks are crucial to pronunciation and
     meaning of Hawaiian place names. The place names ‘corrections’ will be
     added to the official federal database known as the Geographic Names
     Information System (GNIS). The names in GNIS are considered the ‘authority’
     for all Federal Government publications including USGS topographic maps.
                                                                            maps
     This means that eventually all maps published by the Federal government will
     include the Hawaiian orthography (diacritical marks) that reflect the meaning
     the place names.




                                                                                     16
17
18
Inspired by Coeur d`Alene (CDA) Native Names Project
Workshop Aug 19, 2007
a. Morning was background on the project
     i.      CDA Native Names Purpose – to preserve the place names, language, and history
             of those locations
     ii. In the 1960’s one of the last CDA elders, Filipe Aripa, recognized they were losing
         their language. So he began writing down some of the place names and their
         meanings in a booklet for the schools and community members.
     iii. Frank Roberts, the GIS coordinator, had a college student needing a GIS project to
          videotape Filipe talking about the significance of the places in the actual locations
          and use a GPS to record the latitude and longitude
                                                   longitude.
     iv. The data was further processed by one of Franks staff members and incorporated
         into their GIS.
     v. CDA worked out an agreement with the USGS to provide Native Names to the
        National Map. When you check ‘Native Names’ on the National Map, you are
        getting ‘data’ directly from CDA’s servers.
     vi.
     vi CDA Native Names Funding – U S Geologic S r e (USGS), ESRI, CDA Tribe,
                                        U.S.Geologic Survey (USGS) ESRI Tribe
         National Park Service (NPS), Foundation Northwest


b.    Afternoon was review of project components
      i.         Editing tips for audio/video/database project components,
        .
      ii.        Input our own d
                   pu ou ow data
      iii. National Map data push before we the workshop ended


c.    CDA Native Names Project Distribution
            a.      National Map
            b.      Google Earth
            c.      ArcIMS Webserver




                                                                                                  19
National Map – Small Scale w/Hawaii place names


     Themes –> Geographic Names –> Native Names




                                                  20
National Map – Large Scale w/CDA place names


     Themes –> Geographic Names –> Native Names




                                                  21
CDA GIS Web page – Small Scale w/ Hawaiian Place Names




                                                         22
CDA GIS Web page – LargeScale w/ Hawaiian Place Names


Note – some correction is needed (diacriticals not input properly)




                                                                     23
Google Earth – Large Scale w/ Hawaiian Place Names




                                                     24
Google Earth – Small Scale w/ CDA Place Names
See http://gis.cdatribe-nsn.gov/NativeNames/SearchNativePull.aspx




                                                                    25
Project scope –

a. Using as a model the good work that has been done by the Coeur d'Alene Tribe, we intend to emulate and
   build upon their efforts to be applicable to the similar, yet different Hawaiian situation.

b.
b To provide outreach assistance to the Native Hawaiian community by documenting the proper spellings
   and pronunciations of Hawaiian place names.

c. To provide The National Map with Native Hawaiian ‘geographic names’ that are significant to the
   Native Hawaiian community living in or with genealogical ties to the geographic region.

Project deliverables –

a. Phonetic digital audio clip (for pronunciation) with phonetic script - Source information is considered
   integral and thus we will INCLUDE the name and other pertinent information of the person whose voice is
   on the phonetic audio clip. Can sources choose to be anonymous?
b. Photo folder – photos will include metadata in captions. Can we create an interactive 3D landscape photo
   ‘framing’ where geocoded camera pushpins indicate photo direction and date taken?
c. Video presentation – digital video of knowledgeable, respected community members sharing their
   knowledge of place name meaning, legends, etc. Again source information is considered integral since
   different people relate to the cultural landscape according to their personal experiences. For example,
   fishermen and women will have more intimate knowledge of place names in coastal and near shore
   locations whereas farmer and cattle ranchers may have more detailed knowledge of inland place names.
   Thus we will INCLUDE the name and other pertinent information of the person(s) sharing their knowledge
   of place name meanings and legends.
d. Possible BONUS features -
   i. Associated genealogies
   ii. Associated gods/guardians/guides
   iii. Video animation - Step back in time re-creation and animation of historic landscapes (VNS 2)
   iv. Associated mele (songs – not a downloadable feature)
   v. Associated oli (chants – not a downloadable feature)
                     (                                   )
   vi. Associated hula (dances – not a downloadable feature)




                                                                                                              26
a. Phase 1 – Assessment
  i. Analyze work done by Coeur d`Alene (CDA) tribe to determine what elements could be used and what
     elements can be added to enhance this project to make it culturally specific to Hawai‘i.
  ii. Attend COGNA annual conference to engage with the USGS Domestic Names Committee (DNC) and
      other State Naming Authorities (SNA) to inform them of the work being done by the Hawai‘i Board on
      Geographic Names (HBGN) and determine other States’ methodology for collecting ‘field data’.
  iii. Attend HBGN and HIGICC meeting to present findings from the CDA native names workshop and the
       COGNA annual conference, propose an area of interest and a webpage design, and garner suggestions
       and identify resources available to their respective membership that can be used in this project.
b. Phase 2 – Methodological development and field work
  i. Conduct community presentations to familiarize community members with the HBGN and this project.
     It is meant to ensure a level of trust between all parties and the research design allowing the community
     to define both those specific cultural elements to be incorporated and identify key community members
     with which to have directed dialogues for further data collection.
  ii. Carry out directed dialogues with key community members to verify and/or correct Hawaiian place
      names, learn the stories or reasons places were given names.
  iii. Collect digital audio and/or digital video clips of the correct pronunciations and any stories or legends
       associated with each place name.
  iv. Record latitude and longitude in NAD83 for any place name not currently in the GNIS that the
      community determines should be shared with the public.
  v. Maintain a detailed metadata record of the dialogues and digital files collected.
c. Phase 3 – Incorporating storied place names
  i. Provide digital data and metadata to the State Office of Planning (OP).
  ii. Assist OP in developing and managing the HBGN website to accommodate the digital data collected.
  iii. Conduct f ll
  iii C d t follow-up community presentations to share data collected and get community support for all
                                it        t ti   t h d t        ll t d d t          it        tf     ll
       names from their community being incorporated into the HBGN website.
d. Phase 4 – Follow through
  i. Assist with future grant requests.
  ii. Conduct follow-up presentations at HBGN and HIGICC meetings to present project progress report.
  iii. Begin submission process for new names identified in the project area.
  iv.
  iv Write final pilot project report.
                               report




                                                                                                                   27
28

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Hawaiian Place Names - Notes

  • 1. 1
  • 2. 2
  • 3. 3
  • 4. 1. Administrative history a. Established – by Congress in Public Law 80-242 on 25 Jul 1947 in the Department of Interior as an interagency board. b. Predecessor agencies: i. U.S. Board on Geographic Names (1890-1906) - created when President Benjamin Harrison signed an Executive Order establishing the Board and giving it authority to resolve unsettled geographic names questions. ii. U.S. Geographic Board (1906-1934) c. In the Department of the Interior: i. Division of Geographic Names (1934-35) ii. Advisory Committee on Geographic Names (1934-35) iii. U.S. Board on Geographic Names (1935-47) 4
  • 5. 2. Reason for creation – address the complex issues of domestic geographic feature names during the surge of exploration, mining, and settlement of western territories after the American Civil War. Inconsistencies and contradictions among many names, spellings, and applications became a serious problem to surveyors, map makers, and scientists who required uniform, non-conflicting geographic nomenclature. 3. Purpose - Standardizes and maintains geographic name usage throughout the Federal Government by making decisions on name conflicts and on proposals for new names, in cooperation with State, local, and foreign governments. a. Usefulness – The USBGN serves the Federal Government and the public as a central authority to which name problems, name inquiries, name changes, and new name proposals can be directed. In partnership with Federal, State, and local agencies, the Board provides a conduit through which uniform geographic name usage is applied and current names data is promulgated. b. Decisions of the Board were accepted as binding by all departments and agencies of the Federal Government. 5
  • 6. 3. Purpose - Standardizes and maintains geographic name usage throughout the Federal Government by making decisions on name conflicts and on proposals for new names, in cooperation with State, local, and foreign governments. a. Usefulness – The USBGN serves the Federal Government and the public as a central authority to which name problems, name inquiries, name changes, and new name proposals can be directed. In partnership with Federal, State, and local agencies, the Board provides a conduit through which uniform geographic name usage is applied and current names data is promulgated. b. Decisions of the Board were accepted as binding by all departments and agencies of the Federal Government. 6
  • 7. 7
  • 8. 1. Origin - Developed by USGS for the U.S. Board on Geographic Names as a. the official repository of domestic geographic names data; b. the official vehicle for geographic names use by all departments of the Federal Government; and c. the source for applying geographic names to Federal electronic and printed products. 8
  • 9. 2. What is it? a. It is a database that contains information about physical and cultural geographic features of all types in the United States, associated areas, and Antarctica, current and historical, but not including roads and highways. b. b Composed of 5 separate databases - originally i. The National Geographic Names Database (aka GNIS) ii. The USGS Topographic Map Names Database iii. Generic Database – Feature types (63) iv. National Atlas Database - Gazateer v. v USBGN Database – GNIS associated information 3. What does it do? a. Holds the Federally recognized name of each feature and defines the feature location by state, county, USGS topographic map, and geographic coordinates. Other attributes include names or spellings other than the official name, feature designations, feature classification, historical and descriptive information, and for some categories the g geometric boundaries. b. Assigns a unique, permanent feature identifier, the Feature ID, as the only standard Federal key for accessing, integrating, or reconciling feature data from multiple data sets. c. Maintains data from a broad program of partnerships with Federal, State, and local government agencies and other authorized contributors, and provides data to all levels of government, to the public, and to numerous applications through a web query site, government public site web map and feature services, file download services, and customized files upon request. 9
  • 10. 10
  • 11. 1. Origin - created by Act 50 (Chapter 4E, Hawaii Revised Statutes) of the 1974 Hawaii State Legislature. 11
  • 12. 2. Purpose – “..to assure uniformity in the use and spelling of the names of geographic features within the State..” 12
  • 13. 3. Membership a. Chairperson of the Board of Land and Natural Resources or their representative – Holly McEldowney b. Chairperson of the Office of Hawaiian Affairs or their representative – Haunani Apoliona, Apoliona c. Chairperson of the Hawaiian Homes Commission or their representative – William K. Mills d. Director of the Office of Planning or their representative – Craig Tasaka e. President of the University of Hawai‘i or their representative – Naomi Losch f. State Land Surveyor or their representative – Gerald Goo g. Bernice P. Bishop Museum – Betty Kam 13
  • 14. 4. Responsibilities a. Designation the official names and spellings of geographic features in Hawai‘i. b. In its deliberations, the Board solicits and considers the advice and recommendations of the appropriate County government officials and, as appropriate, appropriate other knowledgeable persons. persons c. Upon approval, the Board informs appropriate State and other agencies of relevant name changes or decisions. d. As appropriate, the Board’s name recommendations, together with information regarding location, the original and meaning of names and alternative names and spellings for the features named are sent to the U. S. Board on Geographic Names (USBGN) for their review and consideration. ( ) 14
  • 15. 1. Origin – In 1999 the U.S. Geological Survey provided the HBGN and opportunity to add diacritical marks to those place names currently on the 1:24,000 topographic quadrangle maps. 15
  • 16. 2. Why is it important? - Diacritical marks are crucial to pronunciation and meaning of Hawaiian place names. The place names ‘corrections’ will be added to the official federal database known as the Geographic Names Information System (GNIS). The names in GNIS are considered the ‘authority’ for all Federal Government publications including USGS topographic maps. maps This means that eventually all maps published by the Federal government will include the Hawaiian orthography (diacritical marks) that reflect the meaning the place names. 16
  • 17. 17
  • 18. 18
  • 19. Inspired by Coeur d`Alene (CDA) Native Names Project Workshop Aug 19, 2007 a. Morning was background on the project i. CDA Native Names Purpose – to preserve the place names, language, and history of those locations ii. In the 1960’s one of the last CDA elders, Filipe Aripa, recognized they were losing their language. So he began writing down some of the place names and their meanings in a booklet for the schools and community members. iii. Frank Roberts, the GIS coordinator, had a college student needing a GIS project to videotape Filipe talking about the significance of the places in the actual locations and use a GPS to record the latitude and longitude longitude. iv. The data was further processed by one of Franks staff members and incorporated into their GIS. v. CDA worked out an agreement with the USGS to provide Native Names to the National Map. When you check ‘Native Names’ on the National Map, you are getting ‘data’ directly from CDA’s servers. vi. vi CDA Native Names Funding – U S Geologic S r e (USGS), ESRI, CDA Tribe, U.S.Geologic Survey (USGS) ESRI Tribe National Park Service (NPS), Foundation Northwest b. Afternoon was review of project components i. Editing tips for audio/video/database project components, . ii. Input our own d pu ou ow data iii. National Map data push before we the workshop ended c. CDA Native Names Project Distribution a. National Map b. Google Earth c. ArcIMS Webserver 19
  • 20. National Map – Small Scale w/Hawaii place names Themes –> Geographic Names –> Native Names 20
  • 21. National Map – Large Scale w/CDA place names Themes –> Geographic Names –> Native Names 21
  • 22. CDA GIS Web page – Small Scale w/ Hawaiian Place Names 22
  • 23. CDA GIS Web page – LargeScale w/ Hawaiian Place Names Note – some correction is needed (diacriticals not input properly) 23
  • 24. Google Earth – Large Scale w/ Hawaiian Place Names 24
  • 25. Google Earth – Small Scale w/ CDA Place Names See http://gis.cdatribe-nsn.gov/NativeNames/SearchNativePull.aspx 25
  • 26. Project scope – a. Using as a model the good work that has been done by the Coeur d'Alene Tribe, we intend to emulate and build upon their efforts to be applicable to the similar, yet different Hawaiian situation. b. b To provide outreach assistance to the Native Hawaiian community by documenting the proper spellings and pronunciations of Hawaiian place names. c. To provide The National Map with Native Hawaiian ‘geographic names’ that are significant to the Native Hawaiian community living in or with genealogical ties to the geographic region. Project deliverables – a. Phonetic digital audio clip (for pronunciation) with phonetic script - Source information is considered integral and thus we will INCLUDE the name and other pertinent information of the person whose voice is on the phonetic audio clip. Can sources choose to be anonymous? b. Photo folder – photos will include metadata in captions. Can we create an interactive 3D landscape photo ‘framing’ where geocoded camera pushpins indicate photo direction and date taken? c. Video presentation – digital video of knowledgeable, respected community members sharing their knowledge of place name meaning, legends, etc. Again source information is considered integral since different people relate to the cultural landscape according to their personal experiences. For example, fishermen and women will have more intimate knowledge of place names in coastal and near shore locations whereas farmer and cattle ranchers may have more detailed knowledge of inland place names. Thus we will INCLUDE the name and other pertinent information of the person(s) sharing their knowledge of place name meanings and legends. d. Possible BONUS features - i. Associated genealogies ii. Associated gods/guardians/guides iii. Video animation - Step back in time re-creation and animation of historic landscapes (VNS 2) iv. Associated mele (songs – not a downloadable feature) v. Associated oli (chants – not a downloadable feature) ( ) vi. Associated hula (dances – not a downloadable feature) 26
  • 27. a. Phase 1 – Assessment i. Analyze work done by Coeur d`Alene (CDA) tribe to determine what elements could be used and what elements can be added to enhance this project to make it culturally specific to Hawai‘i. ii. Attend COGNA annual conference to engage with the USGS Domestic Names Committee (DNC) and other State Naming Authorities (SNA) to inform them of the work being done by the Hawai‘i Board on Geographic Names (HBGN) and determine other States’ methodology for collecting ‘field data’. iii. Attend HBGN and HIGICC meeting to present findings from the CDA native names workshop and the COGNA annual conference, propose an area of interest and a webpage design, and garner suggestions and identify resources available to their respective membership that can be used in this project. b. Phase 2 – Methodological development and field work i. Conduct community presentations to familiarize community members with the HBGN and this project. It is meant to ensure a level of trust between all parties and the research design allowing the community to define both those specific cultural elements to be incorporated and identify key community members with which to have directed dialogues for further data collection. ii. Carry out directed dialogues with key community members to verify and/or correct Hawaiian place names, learn the stories or reasons places were given names. iii. Collect digital audio and/or digital video clips of the correct pronunciations and any stories or legends associated with each place name. iv. Record latitude and longitude in NAD83 for any place name not currently in the GNIS that the community determines should be shared with the public. v. Maintain a detailed metadata record of the dialogues and digital files collected. c. Phase 3 – Incorporating storied place names i. Provide digital data and metadata to the State Office of Planning (OP). ii. Assist OP in developing and managing the HBGN website to accommodate the digital data collected. iii. Conduct f ll iii C d t follow-up community presentations to share data collected and get community support for all it t ti t h d t ll t d d t it tf ll names from their community being incorporated into the HBGN website. d. Phase 4 – Follow through i. Assist with future grant requests. ii. Conduct follow-up presentations at HBGN and HIGICC meetings to present project progress report. iii. Begin submission process for new names identified in the project area. iv. iv Write final pilot project report. report 27
  • 28. 28