Hawaii Pacific GIS Conference 2012: Participatory and Place-Based GIS - Using Participatory Mapping Techniques to Characterize Coastal Uses in West Maui
Participatory GIS in Action Jamie Carter, Kalisi Mausio, and Christine Feinholz
Participatory MappingMany synonyms:• Public Participation GIS (PPGIS)• Participatory GIS (P-GIS)• Community-based mapping• Collaborative mappingGeneral definition:“Gathering and mapping spatial information to helpcommunities learn, discuss, build consensus, and makedecisions about their communities and associatedresources.”
How P-GIS is Used• To create maps that represent resources, hazards, community values, usage, perceptions, or alternative scenarios• To gather traditional knowledge and practices• To identify data gaps• To inform other data collection methods• To evaluate existing programs, plans, and activities• To facilitate the decision-making process• To assist with data gathering for research• To empower stakeholders• To conduct trends analysis• To educate stakeholders about issues and interrelationships of resources outside their immediate areas of concern
P-GIS Technology PackageGIS Software and Data:• ArcGIS and preconfigured map documents• Preconfigured geodatabase schemas• Ancillary data (e.g. imagery, boundaries, place names)Hardware:• Laptops, hard drives, projectors, video, etc.Interactive Tools:• Digital whiteboard• Tablet or pen display
NOAA PSC P-GIS in the Pacific• Community Resilience Mapping (Waipio)• Restoration Planning (He’eia)• Coastal Use Mapping (Hawai’i, Maui)
Hawaii Coral Program “Reduce key anthropogenic threats to two priority near-shore coral reef sites.”For effective management to take place, we mustunderstand:• How the area is used• Who uses the area• Where the different uses take place• How uses overlap• Potential impacts of management activitiesGeospatial data and decision-support tools requiredto inform and improve future management actions
West Maui Project GoalsData and tools to better visualize and understand:• Types of human activities taking place within the region• Spatial distribution of human use• Intensity of human uses in different locations• Overlap of different uses• Seasonal elements of activities• Potential use impacts and/or conflicts• Other aspects of human coastal and watershed activities
West Maui Project Area• Focus on human uses and activities from Honolua to Wahikuli, from the coast to 3 miles off- shore• Afterwards, combine coastal and marine information with relevant watershed information to understand links
West Maui Coastal UsesNON-EXTRACTIVE: EXTRACTIVE:Commercial diving and snorkeling Free diving and scuba-basedCommercial boating and mammal harvestingwatching Pole and line fishing from shoreThrill craft and high speed activities Pole and line fishing from boatRecreational diving and snorkeling Aquarium collectingSurfing Bait nettingCamping Throw netsNon-motorized, non-commercial Net fishing from boatboating Net fishing from shore or nearshoreSwimming Shoreline and nearshore gleaning and gathering
Use LevelsGeneral Use Footprint :Areas where the use is known to occur with some regularity regardlessof its frequency or intensity. Does not include areas where the use mayoccur once or twice or might occur in the future.Dominant Use Areas:Areas routinely used by most users most of the time. Dominant useareas must be drawn within the general use footprint.Supplemental Use Information:Relevant non-spatial information about each use (seasonal patterns,specific events relating to the activity, day vs. night activity, etc.). Some ofthis information will be shown on the mapbook.
Workshop Participant Summary• 47 participants over 3 days• 5 mapping groups • 31 resource stewards • 14 fishermen • 12 tourism industry experts • 9 watermen / women • 7 managers • 7 educators • 6 cultural practitioners • 4 scientists • 5 local business owners (with ties to marine resources)
Coastal Uses Post-ProcessingRecreational Diving and Snorkeling General Original Drawings Dominant Simple overlay shows greater inter-group agreement where colors are more opaque
Coastal Uses Post-ProcessingRecreational Diving and Snorkeling General Dominant Original Drawings Drawing artifacts Remove land
Coastal Uses Post-Processing Post-processed maps • Removed land areas • Cleaned drawing artifacts • Extended and trimmed areas based on participant notes In this example, one workshop mapped this use as occurring out to 150 ft. depth.
Coastal Uses Post-Processing Mesh Overlay • 100 meter hexagons • Hexagons are better than squares for mapping curves, like coastlines
Coastal Uses Post-Processing Final Maps - General • All workshops mapped
Coastal Uses Post-ProcessingRecreational DivingMapped Number of Workshops and Snorkeling 11 DOMINANT AREAS 22 Final Maps – Dominant 33 44 55 • Thresholding – the sum of the number of workshops that identified an area within each hexagon. • 50% or more workshops must have agreed on areas.