The responses show that the Department has GPS users in every state as well as the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Furthermore, the map clearly shows more responses from western states. This is consistent with the Department’s larger role in the west.
End User (use GPS units, general usage)Technical User – technical GPS user, make recommendations, test units, work with end users & coordinators, etcCoordinator– research GPS units, develop specifications, collaborate within and outside of Bureau, maintain and develop training, provide support to all staff, etc.Manager– approves of purchases, oversees general activity work, etc.
Response percentage is the bureau percentage of the total responses for this survey.
In general, the impact becomes more significant the longer the GPS outage lasts. It is clear, a GPS outage would have an impact; it would be more critical for some applications than others.The survey results show that DOI by and large does not have a back-up plan. Where plans exist, they would result in a more cumbersome work flow for employees and lower accuracy products: “… the back-up plan, if GPS were to go out during planned field reconnaissance, would be to rely on making marks on topographic or bathymetric charts. We use to manually plot our routes and mark locations prior to use of GPS. Could do that again.
GPS Update for USGS Liaisons
GPS Constellation, Modernization Plans and Policy(Bonus: DOI GPS Survey) <br />Milo RobinsonDOI Senior Advisor <br />National Coordination OfficePosition Navigation and Timing<br />for<br />USGS Geospatial Liaisons<br />February, 2011<br />
4<br />Key Points <br />GPS performance is better than ever and will continue to improve<br />Augmentations (WAAS, NDGPS, CORS) enable even higher performance<br />New civil GPS signal available now<br />Many additional upgrades scheduled<br />U.S. policy encourages worldwide use of civil GPS and augmentations<br />International cooperation is a priority<br />Compatibility and interoperability are critical<br />
6<br />The Global Positioning System<br />Baseline 24+3 satellite constellation in medium earth orbit<br />Global coverage, 24 hours a day, all weather conditions<br />Satellites broadcast precise time and orbit information on L-band radio frequencies<br />Two types of signals:<br />Free or Civil<br />U.S. and Allied military<br />Three segments: <br />Space<br />Ground control<br />User equipment<br />
GPS Constellation Status<br />32 Operational Satellites(Baseline Constellation: 24+3)<br />11 Block IIA<br />12 Block IIR<br />8 Block IIR-M<br />Transmitting new second civil signal<br />1 GPS IIR-M in on-orbit testing <br />1 Block IIF<br />In Test and Checkout <br />First of 12 Boeing satellites<br />3 additional satellites in residual status<br />Global GPS civil service performance commitment met continuously since December 1993<br />7<br />
Current GPS Accuracy<br />N/A<br />N/A<br />N/A<br />N/A<br />N/A<br />7<br />Signal-in-Space User Range Error is the difference between a GPS satellite’s navigation data (position and clock) and the truth, projected on the line-of-sight to the user<br />2001 SPS Performance Standard<br />(RMS over all SPS SIS URE) <br />6<br />5<br />2008 SPS Performance Standard<br />(Worst of any SPS SIS URE)<br />4<br />RMS SIS URE (m)<br />RMS Signal-in-Space User Range Error (URE), meters<br />3<br />Decreasing range error<br />2<br />1.6<br />1.2<br />1.1<br />1.0<br />0.9<br />1<br />0<br />9<br />1990<br />1992<br />1994<br />1996<br />1997<br />2001<br />2004<br />2006<br />2009<br />2008<br />Selective Availability (SA)<br />System accuracy exceeds published standard<br />
12<br />Second Civil Signal (L2C)<br />Designed to meet commercial needs<br />Higher accuracy via ionospheric correction<br />Expected to generate over $5 billion in user productivity benefits<br />Available since 2005<br />On 24 satellites by 2016<br />Benefits existing professional receivers<br />Supports miniaturization, possible indoor use<br />Increases accuracyfor consumers<br />
13<br />Third Civil Signal (L5)<br />Designed to meet demanding requirements for transport safety<br />Uses highly protected Aeronautical Radionavigation Service (ARNS) band<br />May also enable global, centimeter-level accuracy using new techniques<br />Opportunity for international interoperability<br />Demonstration signal launched in 2008<br />24 satellites by 2018<br />
14<br />Fourth Civil Signal (L1C)<br />Designed with international partners for interoperability<br />Modernized civil signal at L1 frequency<br />More robust navigation across a broad range of user applications<br />Improved performance in challenged tracking environments<br />Original signal retained for backward compatibility<br />Launches with GPS III in 2014<br />On 24 satellites by ~2021<br />Under trees<br />Inside cities<br />
16<br />U.S. Policy History<br />1978: First GPS satellite launched<br />1983: U.S. President offers free civilian access to GPS<br />1996: U.S. policy establishes joint civil/military GPS management<br /><ul><li>1997: U.S. Congress passes law that civil GPS shall be provided free of direct user fees
2000: U.S. President set Selective Availability to “Zero”
2004: U.S. President issues Space-Based PNT Policy
2007: Selective Availability removed from GPS III satellites
2010: U.S. President issues new National Space Policy</li></li></ul><li>17<br />Latest U.S. Policy<br />Provide continuous worldwide access for peaceful uses, free of direct user charges<br />Encourage compatibility and interoperability with foreign GNSS services<br />Operate and maintain constellation to satisfy civil and national security needs<br />Foreign PNT may be used to strengthen resiliency<br />Invest in domestic capabilities and support international activities to detect, mitigate and increase resiliency to harmful interference<br />
DOI GPS Survey <br />Distributed widely to Department employees<br />During Spring and Summer 2010<br />Over 1450 responses<br />Including over 450 written comments<br />“GPS is so integrated into what I do that everything is GPS related.” <br />Responses span every bureau and every state<br />Caveat: DOI survey not NCO PNT activity <br />
Major Results<br />Estimate 10,000 DOI GPS users <br />Most are part-time users <br />$100-200 million invested on GPS hardware and software<br />$12-24 million spent annually on maintenance <br />Employees need and want GPS training and education<br />58 % feel they need GPS Training <br />GPS meets the broad range of positional accuracies required for DOI<br />GPS coordination is valued<br />The largest use of GPS is for the inventory and management of natural resources<br />
If there is an outage,<br />A majority of users donothave a back-up plan <br />
What did the Comments Say?<br />“I'd like to emphasize the need for GPS coordinators and training,” summarizes the view of many comments. <br />“We would benefit from upgraded technology…,” is another important point made in many comments.<br />
Key actions suggested by the survey<br />Increase training and education (a priority)<br />Prepare for the expanded use of GPS and related Global Navigation Satellite Systems<br />Support field users<br />Improve coordination within Bureaus, within DOI and with other Departments<br />Provide Department level coordination, policies, and guidance on the appropriate use of GPS equipment for typical GPS applications<br />
Recommendations<br />Strategic Plan for GPS<br /> Develop a strategic plan to guide the Department’s GPS activities. The plan, more importantly the planning process, can provide a long term framework and policy support for improving GPS use. <br />Work plan for GPS <br /> Near term actions, one-to two-year time frame, are suggested by the GPS survey and should be used to launch efficiencies in GPS operations and eliminate gaps in capabilities. <br />A work plan for training/education is a priority. <br />