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GPS Constellation, Modernization Plans and Policy(Bonus: DOI GPS Survey) <br />Milo RobinsonDOI Senior Advisor <br />Natio...
GPS enables a diverse array of applications<br />Satellite<br />Operations<br />Power Grids<br />Surveying & Mapping<br />...
3<br />Defense<br />Transportation<br />State<br />Interior<br />NATIONALEXECUTIVE COMMITTEEFOR SPACE-BASED PNT<br />Execu...
4<br />Key Points <br />GPS performance is better than ever and will continue to improve<br />Augmentations (WAAS, NDGPS, ...
Introduction<br />Global Positioning System<br />Modernization Plans<br />U.S. Policy<br />DOI GPS Survey<br />5<br />Over...
6<br />The Global Positioning System<br />Baseline 24+3 satellite constellation in medium earth orbit<br />Global coverage...
GPS Constellation Status<br />32 Operational Satellites(Baseline Constellation: 24+3)<br />11 Block IIA<br />12 Block IIR<...
8<br />GPS Operational Control Segment (OCS)<br />Alaska<br />England<br />Schriever AFB Colorado<br />S Korea<br />Vanden...
Current GPS Accuracy<br />N/A<br />N/A<br />N/A<br />N/A<br />N/A<br />7<br />Signal-in-Space User Range Error is the diff...
Introduction<br />Global Positioning System<br />Modernization Plans<br />U.S. Policy<br />DOI GPS Survey<br />10<br />Ove...
11<br />Increasing System Capabilities  w   Increasing Defense / Civil Benefit<br />Block IIA/IIR<br />Block III<br />Bloc...
 4th civil signal (L1C)
 Increased accuracy
 Increased anti-jam power
 Assured availability
 Navigation surety
 Controlled integrity
 Increased security
 System survivability</li></ul>IIR-M: IIA/IIR capabilities plus<br /><ul><li> 2nd civil signal (L2C)
M-Code (L1M & L2M)</li></ul>IIF: IIR-M capability plus<br /><ul><li> 3rd civil signal (L5)
 Anti-jam flex power</li></ul>Basic GPS<br /><ul><li> Civil (Free access)
Single frequency (L1) Coarse acquisition (C/A) code navigation
 Military
Y-Code (L1Y & L2Y)</li></ul>GPS Modernization Program<br />
12<br />Second Civil Signal (L2C)<br />Designed to meet commercial needs<br />Higher accuracy via ionospheric correction<b...
13<br />Third Civil Signal (L5)<br />Designed to meet demanding requirements for transport safety<br />Uses highly protect...
14<br />Fourth Civil Signal (L1C)<br />Designed with international partners for interoperability<br />Modernized civil sig...
Introduction<br />Global Positioning System<br />Modernization Plans<br />U.S. Policy<br />DOI GPS Survey<br />15<br />Ove...
16<br />U.S. Policy History<br />1978: First GPS satellite launched<br />1983: U.S. President offers free civilian access ...
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GPS Update for USGS Liaisons

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Milo Robinson provides USGS Geospatial Liaisons an update on the federal plans for the future of GPS.

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GPS Update for USGS Liaisons

  1. 1. GPS Constellation, Modernization Plans and Policy(Bonus: DOI GPS Survey) <br />Milo RobinsonDOI Senior Advisor <br />National Coordination OfficePosition Navigation and Timing<br />for<br />USGS Geospatial Liaisons<br />February, 2011<br />
  2. 2. GPS enables a diverse array of applications<br />Satellite<br />Operations<br />Power Grids<br />Surveying & Mapping<br />Transit<br />Operations<br />NextGen<br />Precision Agriculture<br />Disease Control<br />TeleComm<br />IntelliDrive<br />Trucking & Shipping<br />Personal <br />Navigation<br />Oil Exploration<br />Fishing & Boating<br />
  3. 3. 3<br />Defense<br />Transportation<br />State<br />Interior<br />NATIONALEXECUTIVE COMMITTEEFOR SPACE-BASED PNT<br />Executive Steering Group<br />Co-Chairs: Defense, Transportation<br />ADVISORY BOARD<br />Sponsor: NASA<br />Agriculture<br />Commerce<br />NATIONAL COORDINATION OFFICE<br />Host: Commerce<br />Homeland Security<br />Joint Chiefs of Staff<br />NASA<br />GPS International Working Group<br />Chair: State<br />Engineering Forum<br />Co-Chairs: Defense, Transportation<br />National Space-Based PNT Organization<br />WHITE HOUSE<br />Ad HocWorking Groups<br />
  4. 4. 4<br />Key Points <br />GPS performance is better than ever and will continue to improve<br />Augmentations (WAAS, NDGPS, CORS) enable even higher performance<br />New civil GPS signal available now<br />Many additional upgrades scheduled<br />U.S. policy encourages worldwide use of civil GPS and augmentations<br />International cooperation is a priority<br />Compatibility and interoperability are critical<br />
  5. 5. Introduction<br />Global Positioning System<br />Modernization Plans<br />U.S. Policy<br />DOI GPS Survey<br />5<br />Overview<br />
  6. 6. 6<br />The Global Positioning System<br />Baseline 24+3 satellite constellation in medium earth orbit<br />Global coverage, 24 hours a day, all weather conditions<br />Satellites broadcast precise time and orbit information on L-band radio frequencies<br />Two types of signals:<br />Free or Civil<br />U.S. and Allied military<br />Three segments: <br />Space<br />Ground control<br />User equipment<br />
  7. 7. GPS Constellation Status<br />32 Operational Satellites(Baseline Constellation: 24+3)<br />11 Block IIA<br />12 Block IIR<br />8 Block IIR-M<br />Transmitting new second civil signal<br />1 GPS IIR-M in on-orbit testing <br />1 Block IIF<br />In Test and Checkout <br />First of 12 Boeing satellites<br />3 additional satellites in residual status<br />Global GPS civil service performance commitment met continuously since December 1993<br />7<br />
  8. 8. 8<br />GPS Operational Control Segment (OCS)<br />Alaska<br />England<br />Schriever AFB Colorado<br />S Korea<br />Vandenberg AFB California<br />USNO<br />Cape Canaveral<br />Hawaii<br />Bahrain<br />Kwajalein <br />Ecuador<br />Tahiti<br />Diego Garcia<br />Ascension<br />S Africa<br />Argentina<br />Australia<br />New <br />Zealand<br /> Ground<br />Antenna<br />OCS Monitor Station<br />Master Control Station<br />Monitor<br />Station<br />NGA Monitor Station<br />Alternate Master Control Station<br />Ground Antenna<br />Future Monitor Station<br />Master Control Station (Schriever AFB)<br />
  9. 9. Current GPS Accuracy<br />N/A<br />N/A<br />N/A<br />N/A<br />N/A<br />7<br />Signal-in-Space User Range Error is the difference between a GPS satellite’s navigation data (position and clock) and the truth, projected on the line-of-sight to the user<br />2001 SPS Performance Standard<br />(RMS over all SPS SIS URE) <br />6<br />5<br />2008 SPS Performance Standard<br />(Worst of any SPS SIS URE)<br />4<br />RMS SIS URE (m)<br />RMS Signal-in-Space User Range Error (URE), meters<br />3<br />Decreasing range error<br />2<br />1.6<br />1.2<br />1.1<br />1.0<br />0.9<br />1<br />0<br />9<br />1990<br />1992<br />1994<br />1996<br />1997<br />2001<br />2004<br />2006<br />2009<br />2008<br />Selective Availability (SA)<br />System accuracy exceeds published standard<br />
  10. 10. Introduction<br />Global Positioning System<br />Modernization Plans<br />U.S. Policy<br />DOI GPS Survey<br />10<br />Overview<br />
  11. 11. 11<br />Increasing System Capabilities w Increasing Defense / Civil Benefit<br />Block IIA/IIR<br />Block III<br />Block IIR-M, IIF<br /><ul><li> Backward compatibility
  12. 12. 4th civil signal (L1C)
  13. 13. Increased accuracy
  14. 14. Increased anti-jam power
  15. 15. Assured availability
  16. 16. Navigation surety
  17. 17. Controlled integrity
  18. 18. Increased security
  19. 19. System survivability</li></ul>IIR-M: IIA/IIR capabilities plus<br /><ul><li> 2nd civil signal (L2C)
  20. 20. M-Code (L1M & L2M)</li></ul>IIF: IIR-M capability plus<br /><ul><li> 3rd civil signal (L5)
  21. 21. Anti-jam flex power</li></ul>Basic GPS<br /><ul><li> Civil (Free access)
  22. 22. Single frequency (L1) Coarse acquisition (C/A) code navigation
  23. 23. Military
  24. 24. Y-Code (L1Y & L2Y)</li></ul>GPS Modernization Program<br />
  25. 25. 12<br />Second Civil Signal (L2C)<br />Designed to meet commercial needs<br />Higher accuracy via ionospheric correction<br />Expected to generate over $5 billion in user productivity benefits<br />Available since 2005<br />On 24 satellites by 2016<br />Benefits existing professional receivers<br />Supports miniaturization, possible indoor use<br />Increases accuracyfor consumers<br />
  26. 26. 13<br />Third Civil Signal (L5)<br />Designed to meet demanding requirements for transport safety<br />Uses highly protected Aeronautical Radionavigation Service (ARNS) band<br />May also enable global, centimeter-level accuracy using new techniques<br />Opportunity for international interoperability<br />Demonstration signal launched in 2008<br />24 satellites by 2018<br />
  27. 27. 14<br />Fourth Civil Signal (L1C)<br />Designed with international partners for interoperability<br />Modernized civil signal at L1 frequency<br />More robust navigation across a broad range of user applications<br />Improved performance in challenged tracking environments<br />Original signal retained for backward compatibility<br />Launches with GPS III in 2014<br />On 24 satellites by ~2021<br />Under trees<br />Inside cities<br />
  28. 28. Introduction<br />Global Positioning System<br />Modernization Plans<br />U.S. Policy<br />DOI GPS Survey<br />15<br />Overview<br />
  29. 29. 16<br />U.S. Policy History<br />1978: First GPS satellite launched<br />1983: U.S. President offers free civilian access to GPS<br />1996: U.S. policy establishes joint civil/military GPS management<br /><ul><li>1997: U.S. Congress passes law that civil GPS shall be provided free of direct user fees
  30. 30. 2000: U.S. President set Selective Availability to “Zero”
  31. 31. 2004: U.S. President issues Space-Based PNT Policy
  32. 32. 2007: Selective Availability removed from GPS III satellites
  33. 33. 2010: U.S. President issues new National Space Policy</li></li></ul><li>17<br />Latest U.S. Policy<br />Provide continuous worldwide access for peaceful uses, free of direct user charges<br />Encourage compatibility and interoperability with foreign GNSS services<br />Operate and maintain constellation to satisfy civil and national security needs<br />Foreign PNT may be used to strengthen resiliency<br />Invest in domestic capabilities and support international activities to detect, mitigate and increase resiliency to harmful interference<br />
  34. 34. 18<br />For Additional Information…<br />GPS.gov<br />PNT.gov<br />
  35. 35. Introduction<br />Global Positioning System<br />Modernization Plans<br />U.S. Policy<br />Bonus: DOI GPS Survey<br />19<br />Overview<br />
  36. 36. DOI GPS Survey <br />Distributed widely to Department employees<br />During Spring and Summer 2010<br />Over 1450 responses<br />Including over 450 written comments<br />“GPS is so integrated into what I do that everything is GPS related.” <br />Responses span every bureau and every state<br />Caveat: DOI survey not NCO PNT activity <br />
  37. 37. Who Completed the Survey? <br />
  38. 38.
  39. 39.
  40. 40. Major Results<br />Estimate 10,000 DOI GPS users <br />Most are part-time users <br />$100-200 million invested on GPS hardware and software<br />$12-24 million spent annually on maintenance <br />Employees need and want GPS training and education<br />58 % feel they need GPS Training <br />GPS meets the broad range of positional accuracies required for DOI<br />GPS coordination is valued<br />The largest use of GPS is for the inventory and management of natural resources<br />
  41. 41. If there is an outage,<br />A majority of users donothave a back-up plan <br />
  42. 42. What did the Comments Say?<br />“I'd like to emphasize the need for GPS coordinators and training,” summarizes the view of many comments. <br />“We would benefit from upgraded technology…,” is another important point made in many comments.<br />
  43. 43. Key actions suggested by the survey<br />Increase training and education (a priority)<br />Prepare for the expanded use of GPS and related Global Navigation Satellite Systems<br />Support field users<br />Improve coordination within Bureaus, within DOI and with other Departments<br />Provide Department level coordination, policies, and guidance on the appropriate use of GPS equipment for typical GPS applications<br />
  44. 44. Recommendations<br />Strategic Plan for GPS<br /> Develop a strategic plan to guide the Department’s GPS activities. The plan, more importantly the planning process, can provide a long term framework and policy support for improving GPS use. <br />Work plan for GPS <br /> Near term actions, one-to two-year time frame, are suggested by the GPS survey and should be used to launch efficiencies in GPS operations and eliminate gaps in capabilities. <br />A work plan for training/education is a priority. <br />
  45. 45. 29<br />Contact Information<br />Milo Robinson<br />Senior Advisor<br />U.S. National Coordination Office<br />Space-Based Positioning, Navigation and Timing <br />1401 Constitution Ave, N.W.<br />Washington, D.C. 20230-0001 <br />(202) 482-0019<br />(703) 648-5162<br />Milo.Robinson@pnt.gov<br />mrobinson@usgs.gov<br />

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