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BY BETRAND RUSSELL
Ideas That Have
Harmed Mankind
• Causes of
Misfortunes of
Humans:
1. Cruelty of Nature
2. Cruelty of Humans
towards one another
• Pleasure Humans receive by
the Sight of Suffering of Others.
Example of Heretics burnt in Lisbon
War as Righteous Act
Cruelty as a Product of Evil Passions.
Use of Anesthetics prohibited in Past
Beating a Lunatic
to drive away evil
spirit.
Punishing wives necessary to
improve their behaviour.
Superstitions
Offering of Blood to
Gods to Improve
Crops
Christian Saints enjoyed the torment of
Sinners in Afterlife
Ideas that have harmed mankind
Cruelty prompted by certain
political beliefsCruelty prompted by
certain political beliefs
German Nazis
Sacrifice comfort, pleasures and belief in a hard and
strenuous life.
Sacrifice comfort, pleasures and beli...
Slogan was “ guns rather than butter”
The same outlook is fond in communists and Milton’s
Satan.
The same outlook
is found in
communists and
Milton’s Satan.
Some are sinners and
some are saints.
The cruelty caused by the belief
in witchcraft
The
cruelty
caused by
the belief
in
witchcraft
• People give a great importance to themselves.
• Imagine good or evil or good fortune to be the
purpose of other’s action...
• Witch is a person
• Injures her neighbours from
• Sheer hatred Sheer hatred
• Not any hope of gain
Not any hope
of gain
• Bible supported this belief.
• “ thou shalt not suffer a witch to live.”
Bible supported
this belief.
“ thou shalt not
s...
• Religion not only punish witches but also
those who refused to believe in witchcraft.
• Science dispel but could not wholly dispel.
Envy
Cause of false believe is envy.
Women are known for
their mutual
jealousies and
rivalries.
Envy leads a lot of misunderstanding.
1. Economic interest
2. Individual sense
3. National sense
National pride
National
pride
• People are proud of their
1. Nationality
2. Race
3. Sex
4. Class
5. creed
Divisive force
• English man are taught to believe that they
are superior to Frenchman and Germans.
• This kind of nationa...
Conception of sin and
punishment
• conception of sins and punishment for sin is
both in religion and in politics.
• Sin is not innate( according to some
ps...
02/16/15
Use of Irony
• All pervasive in the writings of Russell.
• To expose the absurdity of institutions, ideas, belief...
Racial pride
•The belief that race accounts for
differences in human character or
ability and that a particular race is
su...
More harmful than pride of Nationality
British and American believe
Attitude of British
towards Indian
Jews and Christian
Superiority over one
another
Infinite harm
Aim of education
The Pride of Sex/Gender
Male over female
No innate superiority
Proved superiority by men
Physical strength
Men more reasonable than women
Mo...
False arguments
Unfortunate effects
Concept of marriage
Master and slave
Civilized countries
Concept of marriage
Master and slave
Civilized countries
The Pride of Class
Soviet Russia
Son of proletarian vs son of bourgeois
In democratic countries
In America
Rich and m...
The Pride of Creed
Wrong belief
Christians
Muslims in middle ages
Entirely wicked
Pride as food for self-esteem
• Americans feed their self-esteem by the belief
that America is God’s own country.
The white races feed
their self-esteem by
the believe that black
people are black
because God’s curse
upon them.
The Protestant feed their self-
esteem by thinking themselves to be
superior to the Catholics.
Men feed their
self-esteem by
thinking
themselves to be
more reasonable
then women.
Women feed
their self-
esteem by
thinking men
to be brutes.
Russell’s
Humanitarianism
• A great champion of mankind.
• Well wisher.
• Zeal of a missionary.
• Speaks Harmful results o...
Moral remedy
Social sciences
World Government
Indifference of great mass
Belief about politicians
Virtues of democracy
Lack of experience in nations
Thrusting democracy
Remedies
• Organisation
• Moral Qualities
Moral Qualities
• Charity
• Tolerance
Charity
Tolerance
Organisation
• Political organisation-elimination of war.
• Economic organisation- increase productivity.
• Educational or...
Moral and intellectual realisation.
Conclusion
Ideas that have harmed mankind
Ideas that have harmed mankind
Ideas that have harmed mankind
Ideas that have harmed mankind
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Ideas that have harmed mankind

  1. 1. BY BETRAND RUSSELL Ideas That Have Harmed Mankind
  2. 2. • Causes of Misfortunes of Humans:
  3. 3. 1. Cruelty of Nature
  4. 4. 2. Cruelty of Humans towards one another
  5. 5. • Pleasure Humans receive by the Sight of Suffering of Others.
  6. 6. Example of Heretics burnt in Lisbon
  7. 7. War as Righteous Act
  8. 8. Cruelty as a Product of Evil Passions.
  9. 9. Use of Anesthetics prohibited in Past
  10. 10. Beating a Lunatic to drive away evil spirit.
  11. 11. Punishing wives necessary to improve their behaviour.
  12. 12. Superstitions
  13. 13. Offering of Blood to Gods to Improve Crops
  14. 14. Christian Saints enjoyed the torment of Sinners in Afterlife
  15. 15. Ideas that have harmed mankind
  16. 16. Cruelty prompted by certain political beliefsCruelty prompted by certain political beliefs
  17. 17. German Nazis Sacrifice comfort, pleasures and belief in a hard and strenuous life. Sacrifice comfort, pleasures and belief in a hard and strenuous life.
  18. 18. Slogan was “ guns rather than butter”
  19. 19. The same outlook is fond in communists and Milton’s Satan. The same outlook is found in communists and Milton’s Satan.
  20. 20. Some are sinners and some are saints.
  21. 21. The cruelty caused by the belief in witchcraft The cruelty caused by the belief in witchcraft
  22. 22. • People give a great importance to themselves. • Imagine good or evil or good fortune to be the purpose of other’s action. • This mentality give rise to necromancy and witchcraft.
  23. 23. • Witch is a person • Injures her neighbours from
  24. 24. • Sheer hatred Sheer hatred
  25. 25. • Not any hope of gain Not any hope of gain
  26. 26. • Bible supported this belief. • “ thou shalt not suffer a witch to live.” Bible supported this belief. “ thou shalt not suffer a witch to live.”
  27. 27. • Religion not only punish witches but also those who refused to believe in witchcraft.
  28. 28. • Science dispel but could not wholly dispel.
  29. 29. Envy Cause of false believe is envy.
  30. 30. Women are known for their mutual jealousies and rivalries.
  31. 31. Envy leads a lot of misunderstanding. 1. Economic interest 2. Individual sense 3. National sense
  32. 32. National pride National pride
  33. 33. • People are proud of their 1. Nationality 2. Race 3. Sex 4. Class 5. creed
  34. 34. Divisive force • English man are taught to believe that they are superior to Frenchman and Germans. • This kind of national pride is a divisive force.
  35. 35. Conception of sin and punishment
  36. 36. • conception of sins and punishment for sin is both in religion and in politics. • Sin is not innate( according to some psychologists)
  37. 37. 02/16/15 Use of Irony • All pervasive in the writings of Russell. • To expose the absurdity of institutions, ideas, beliefs, customs. • Ironical picture of the minds of the Christian saints. • Through fables Russell makes us laugh at the absurdity of human beings. • Irony in the feelings of national, racial and religious pride. “We are Americans, therefore America is God’s own country. We are white, and therefore God cursed Ham and his descendants who were black.”
  38. 38. Racial pride •The belief that race accounts for differences in human character or ability and that a particular race is superior to others.
  39. 39. More harmful than pride of Nationality British and American believe
  40. 40. Attitude of British towards Indian
  41. 41. Jews and Christian Superiority over one another Infinite harm Aim of education
  42. 42. The Pride of Sex/Gender
  43. 43. Male over female No innate superiority Proved superiority by men Physical strength Men more reasonable than women More inventive Less swayed by emotion
  44. 44. False arguments Unfortunate effects
  45. 45. Concept of marriage Master and slave Civilized countries Concept of marriage Master and slave Civilized countries
  46. 46. The Pride of Class Soviet Russia Son of proletarian vs son of bourgeois In democratic countries In America Rich and middle class Hypocrisy In England Snobbery Wealth and education
  47. 47. The Pride of Creed Wrong belief Christians Muslims in middle ages Entirely wicked
  48. 48. Pride as food for self-esteem
  49. 49. • Americans feed their self-esteem by the belief that America is God’s own country.
  50. 50. The white races feed their self-esteem by the believe that black people are black because God’s curse upon them.
  51. 51. The Protestant feed their self- esteem by thinking themselves to be superior to the Catholics.
  52. 52. Men feed their self-esteem by thinking themselves to be more reasonable then women.
  53. 53. Women feed their self- esteem by thinking men to be brutes.
  54. 54. Russell’s Humanitarianism • A great champion of mankind. • Well wisher. • Zeal of a missionary. • Speaks Harmful results of envy. • Ardent love of mankind.
  55. 55. Moral remedy
  56. 56. Social sciences
  57. 57. World Government
  58. 58. Indifference of great mass
  59. 59. Belief about politicians
  60. 60. Virtues of democracy
  61. 61. Lack of experience in nations
  62. 62. Thrusting democracy
  63. 63. Remedies • Organisation • Moral Qualities
  64. 64. Moral Qualities • Charity • Tolerance
  65. 65. Charity
  66. 66. Tolerance
  67. 67. Organisation • Political organisation-elimination of war. • Economic organisation- increase productivity. • Educational organisation-sane feelings.
  68. 68. Moral and intellectual realisation.
  69. 69. Conclusion
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