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



Risha Jamal
Hifza Junaid
Globalization in its literal sense is

the process of transformation of
local phenomenon into global ones.

A process by w...
The

term

globalization is quite
new, widely
introduced and
commonly used only

in the late
1980s/early 1990s.
International Monetary Fund

(IMF) identified four basic
aspects of globalization: trade
and transactions, capital and
inv...
• One division of its history is done by Thomas L.

Friedman, who divides globalization‟s history in
three parts.

Globali...


However, a more popular division is done by

A.G.Hopkins, who has divided the history into three
Archaic
Modern
parts, ...
Earliest forms –
1600s


States began to interact and trade with others within

close proximity as a way to acquire covet...
Prerequisites
 There

were three main prerequisites for

globalization to occur.

Eastern
Origins

• West adapts ideas an...
Archaic Globalization
The result of increased
interaction.
Universalizing
of kingship –
Traveling men
found prized
possess...
Trade Routes
and Empires


Three major trade routes: Silk road, Syria to

Baghdad route and the route through Egypt.


T...
Silk Route
As a Result


Mapping came of age by

around, with increasingly
accurate representations of
Asia, Europe and much of

Afr...
As a Result


Printing press by Johannes

Gutenberg made books cheaper
and easily accessible. Secular
books were printed....
 Phase

of increasing trade

links and cultural exchange
that characterized the period

immediately preceding the
advent ...


This period is marked by trade arrangements (East India

Company), the shift of domination to Western Europe,
the rise ...
Changes in
Trade and Wars


Switch from inter-nation trading of rarities to the trading of
commodities.



Shift of expa...
Atlantic Slave
Trade


One of the main reasons for the rise of commodities was

the rise in the slave trade, specifically...
As a Result


Rise in commodity trade lead to a rise in plantation

economy.


Colonies were formed and that resulted in...
As a Result


New technologies were invented as the need arose.



Guns, and particularly the naval cannon, played a
maj...
1800 present
 Also

known as contemporary globalization.

 Industrial
 Shaped

Revolution gave it a jump start.

by 19t...


After WWII, Bretton Woods Conference took place where

the framework of international monetary policy,
commerce and fin...
UNO


Created after failure of League of
Nations in 1945.



Platform for all countries in the
world to discuss all aspe...
Internet and its
effects


Internet facilitated the expansion of the

movement toward a global village.


Creation of ch...
As a Result

 Exports

nearly doubled from 8.5% from total

Gross World Product in 1970 to 16.2% in
2001.
 Aviation

bec...
As a Result


In late 19th and early 20th century the

connectivity of the world‟s economies
and cultures grew.


Exchan...
Thank you!!
Globalization in world history
Globalization in world history
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Globalization in world history

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Globalization in world history

  1. 1.   Risha Jamal Hifza Junaid
  2. 2. Globalization in its literal sense is the process of transformation of local phenomenon into global ones. A process by which the people of the world are unified into a single society and function together.
  3. 3. The term globalization is quite new, widely introduced and commonly used only in the late 1980s/early 1990s.
  4. 4. International Monetary Fund (IMF) identified four basic aspects of globalization: trade and transactions, capital and investment movements, migration and movement of people and the dissemination of knowledge.
  5. 5. • One division of its history is done by Thomas L. Friedman, who divides globalization‟s history in three parts. Globalization 1 1492 - 1800 Globalization 2 1800 - 2000 Globalization 3 2000 - present
  6. 6.  However, a more popular division is done by A.G.Hopkins, who has divided the history into three Archaic Modern parts, as well. Globalization Globalization Earliest forms 1800s – 1600s present Protoglobalizatio n 1600 - 1800
  7. 7. Earliest forms – 1600s  States began to interact and trade with others within close proximity as a way to acquire coveted goods that were considered a luxury.  Merchants became connected and aware of others.  The spread of goods, commodities and cultures to other regions.
  8. 8. Prerequisites  There were three main prerequisites for globalization to occur. Eastern Origins • West adapts ideas and principles from the East. Distance • Difficult to wander too far away. • Interaction in Asia, Middle East, North Africa, Europe. Inter• States became dependenc dependent on each other. y
  9. 9. Archaic Globalization The result of increased interaction. Universalizing of kingship – Traveling men found prized possessions from far away lands. Trading & desire Pilgrimages – for better health Increased – Spices, precious exchange of cultures, especi stones, medicin ally. al drugs were exchanged.
  10. 10. Trade Routes and Empires  Three major trade routes: Silk road, Syria to Baghdad route and the route through Egypt.  There were two major empires; the Roman and the Chinese empires that were specifically influential in trade.
  11. 11. Silk Route
  12. 12. As a Result  Mapping came of age by around, with increasingly accurate representations of Asia, Europe and much of Africa.  Long distance travel resulted in caravans for protection of goods and a common rate of exchange for trading, eventually leading to banking.
  13. 13. As a Result  Printing press by Johannes Gutenberg made books cheaper and easily accessible. Secular books were printed.  More information dissemination lead to Renaissance and developments in all fields of life.  Christopher Columbus discovers the “New World.” Johannes Gutenberg
  14. 14.  Phase of increasing trade links and cultural exchange that characterized the period immediately preceding the advent of so-called 'modern globalization' in the 19th century.
  15. 15.  This period is marked by trade arrangements (East India Company), the shift of domination to Western Europe, the rise of larger-scale conflicts between powerful nations and rise of new commodities.
  16. 16. Changes in Trade and Wars  Switch from inter-nation trading of rarities to the trading of commodities.  Shift of expansionism by large nations to Western Europe, nations began competing in an effort to achieve world domination. Anglo-Dutch Wars • Between England and Holland • 1652 - 1654 French and Indian Wars • Between Britain and France • Ended in 1763 American Revolutionary War • Between England and thirteen colonies of N.America • 1775 - 1783
  17. 17. Atlantic Slave Trade  One of the main reasons for the rise of commodities was the rise in the slave trade, specifically the Atlantic slave trade.  Due to increase in production, labor shortage rose and so did the use of slaves.  The Atlantic slave traders, ordered by trade volume, were: the Portuguese, the British, the French, the Spanish, the Dutch, and the Americans.  Current estimates are that about 12 million were slaves
  18. 18. As a Result  Rise in commodity trade lead to a rise in plantation economy.  Colonies were formed and that resulted in exchange of culture especially in the Americas.  Global Disease increased.  Exchange of food items.
  19. 19. As a Result  New technologies were invented as the need arose.  Guns, and particularly the naval cannon, played a major role.  Increasing the size and versatility of ocean-going ships was a key gain.  Calculation of direction and speed of wind and ship.  Better and more efficient printing presses.
  20. 20. 1800 present  Also known as contemporary globalization.  Industrial  Shaped Revolution gave it a jump start. by 19th century Imperialism.  Transport Revolution.
  21. 21.  After WWII, Bretton Woods Conference took place where the framework of international monetary policy, commerce and finance was laid.  This lead to the founding of several international institutions intended to facilitate economic growth and lowered trade barriers.  Lead to the formation of GATT and later, WTO.
  22. 22. UNO  Created after failure of League of Nations in 1945.  Platform for all countries in the world to discuss all aspects of government. • Health, politics, economics. • International Labor Organization. • Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
  23. 23. Internet and its effects  Internet facilitated the expansion of the movement toward a global village.  Creation of cheaper, faster and easier means of communication, the provision of a vast pool of information.  E-commerce.  Created a “global audience.”  Social media - Focus now on individual contact.
  24. 24. As a Result  Exports nearly doubled from 8.5% from total Gross World Product in 1970 to 16.2% in 2001.  Aviation became affordable to middle classes in developed countries in the „70s.  1990 – the growth of low – cost communication networks accelerated the rate of communication between countries.
  25. 25. As a Result  In late 19th and early 20th century the connectivity of the world‟s economies and cultures grew.  Exchange of various commodities and ideas that were unique to one culture, became accessible to others.  Rise of the East.  Diseases – the SARS virus spread between three continents at an alarming speed.
  26. 26. Thank you!!

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