Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
The Evolution of Industrial Engineering to Industrial and Systems Engineering
Why +Systems in Industrial
Engineering
Dr Ak...
2
Agenda
• Dealing with Increasing Complexity
• Current Perspectives of Systems Engineering in Industrial Engineering
• Pr...
3
Technology tends to disrupts organization lives
UBER Services Demo in Various City in Europe
4
Uber Growth is unprecedented by creating “connecting” platform for
Passengers and Drivers
5
It also the disruptions of how the money flows with global financial
connections … and create headaches for government h...
6
Indonesia has Gojek … with multiple service.. all over major cities in
Indonesia
7
So a new Level of Complexity has Arrived …
it continues to rise exponentially … Why? .. New Connections
Beyond 3 Compone...
8
Complex problems occurs because of connections structure of
components, not just the components itself
Expanding from Co...
9
So the Challenges of Industrial Engineers in the future will get
more complex
The Institute of Industrial
Engineering (I...
10
OBSERVE : ISE is Industrial AND Systems Engineering
• AND is not OR.
• Jim Collins in Built To Last highlights this as:...
11
Systems engineering “is” 3 things:
a perspective, a process and a profession
Systems engineering is a perspective, a pr...
12
Systems Engineering AND Industrial Engineering is Already Overlapping
.. especially in the Perspective of Systems
… con...
13
Agenda
• Dealing with Increasing Complexity
• Current Perspectives of Systems Engineering in Industrial Engineering
• P...
14
What do you see?
A Regular Person will see this café as a place to buy coffee
15
What does an ISE Must See?
Output
ISErs see this Café as an OUTPUT of a Product-Service Systems that works as Designed
...
16
What does and ISE Must See?
Output
• Computer POS
(point of sale)
• Credit Card POS
• Espresso Machine
• Espresso Grind...
17
SoS Views Definition INCOSE
• “Systems-of-Systems” (SoS) are defined as an interoperating collection
of component syste...
18
What ISE Really Should
Know
What ISE Must Know
What ISE Will Discover
What Customer Know
19
By seeing the problems as Systems-of-Systems, ISE sees its Designs and
Solutions must considers both components and con...
20
Helicopter Views is the ability to see systems at multiple scale
A Complete Systems View can only be
achieve by dynamic...
21
Multi Perspectives to achieve holistic views
A Complete Systems View can only be achieve by
talking and gaining insight...
22
What ISE Really Should Know?
A Systems of System (SOS) based on Different Views of Stakeholder
Customer Regulators
Inte...
23
This Helicopter Views has created understanding for ISE that they have to
managed from micro level - to meso level - to...
24
The system scale is the driving force in the development of ISE
Curriculum so far
Product
Organizations
Inter-Chain
Wor...
25
man
material
flow
methods
money
info
machine
energy
5M+IEE
ISE Curriculum also considers different groups of components...
26
The ISE Curriculum trains it students to putting it all together in
Capstone Design Courses
Capstone Design
Capstone is...
27
Agenda
• Dealing with Increasing Complexity
• Current Perspectives of Systems Engineering in Industrial Engineering
• P...
28
The New Responsibilities of ISE: Sustainability of The Industrial Systems
Increasing Population demands Increasing Good...
29
Start by Only Produced what the Customer Wants
The Importance to Change Perspective from Delivering Products or Service...
30
The next level: Design the Value with The Customer
This is Value Co-Creation
Co-creation of Value
• Customer Value Cent...
31
Human-Centered Design
Speed will be the Key to Make these Process Meaningful
32
ISE must taking account the life cycle of a system
When we design a PSS we must think project
ahead on how it will be o...
33
Agenda
• Dealing with Increasing Complexity
• Current Perspectives of Systems Engineering in Industrial Engineering
• P...
34
Systems engineering is a perspective, a process and a profession that
uses interdisciplinary approach and means to enab...
Systems Life Cycle
Life Cycle
Model
Management
Infrastructure
Management
Portfolio
Management
Human
Resource
Management
Qu...
36
Controls
(Directive and
Constraints)
Why Processes? The first way of defining system
The Birth of Systems Engineering i...
37
Why Processes? Not components, aspects, factors, subjects etc
.. because the dynamics of Systems of Systems
The primary...
38
What type of Systems Realization is the focus of SE?
Product Systems Engineering Service Systems Engineering Enterprise...
39
Product System Engineering Notes
A product is an artefact that is created by some person or
by some process such as a m...
40
Service Systems Engineering Notes
Service System Engineering is a multidisciplinary approach to manage and
design value...
41
Service Systems Engineering Notes can be seen as: A comprehensive end-to-end solutions in
delivering co-created values ...
42
Enterprise Systems Engineering
Enterprise systems
engineering refers to the
application of systems
engineering principl...
43
So what are the Systems Engineering Processes to Realizing a
Successful System?
44
4.1 Stakeholder Requirements Definition Process
Technical Processes Example
Enablers
- Enterprise Infrastructure
- Ente...
45
4.2 Requirements Analysis Process
Technical Processes
Controls
- Natural and societal laws
- Project procedures & proce...
46
4.3 Architectural Design Process
Controls
- Agreements
- Project procedures & processes
Inputs
- Functional and perform...
47
4.4 Implementation Process
Activities
- Define implementation strategy
- Realize the system element
- Provide evidence ...
48
4.5 Integration Process
Enablers
- Enterprise Infrastructure
- Enterprise Policies, Processes, & Standards
- Integratio...
49
4.6 Verification Process
Activities
- Define strategy for systems verification
- Create, maintain RVTM
- Conduct verifi...
50
4.7 Transition Process
Activities
- Prepare Installation procedures
- Prepare operational site
- Install the system
- A...
51
4.8 Validation Process
Activities
- Define validation procedures
- Ensure system readiness
- Demonstrate conformance to...
52
4.9 Operation Process
Activities
- Execute concept of operations
- Maintain qualified staff
- Obtain consumable materia...
53
4.10 Maintenance Process
Controls
- Agreements
- System Concept Documents
Outputs
- Maintenance strategy
- Maintenance ...
54
4.11 Disposal Process
Activities
- Define disposal strategy
- Impose disposal constraints on
requirements
- Deactivate ...
55
Systems has Context (Concepts of Operations)
A concept of operations (abbreviated CONOPS, CONOPs, or ConOps) is a docum...
56
Context Diagram is the tools to show how the Role of Context Changes
the Connections of Systems-of-Systems
1. External ...
57
Agenda
• Dealing with Complexity
• Perspectives of Systems Engineering
• Processes of Systems Engineering
• Professions...
58
Professional Organizations
International Council on
Systems Engineering INCOSE
Institute of Industrial and
Systems Engi...
59
SyE could come from various discipline/domain, however IE has
strongest connection with SyE
Domain-Centric Systems Engi...
60
Careers of Systems Engineers (INCOSE)
61
Industrial Engineering is 100% Systems Engineering Perspectives, 70%
SE Processes, and 50% SE Professions
Industrial En...
62
Professional Certification of SyE by INCOSE
63
Agenda
• Dealing with Complexity
• Perspectives of Systems Engineering
• Processes of Systems Engineering
• Professions...
64
The combination of SyE with IE will brings a new way of looking
things, that brings more strength to solutions delivere...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Why Systems Engineering in Industrial and Systems Engineering

10,311 views

Published on

There are a lot of questions for Indonesian Industrial Engineering Program regarding the change of name to Industrial and Systems Engineering. These slides are parts of Studium Generale Lecture that I lectured some time ago.

Published in: Education
  • The final result was amazing, and I highly recommend ⇒ www.HelpWriting.net ⇐ to anyone in the same mindset as me.
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • I’ve personally never heard of companies who can produce a paper for you until word got around among my college groupmates. My professor asked me to write a research paper based on a field I have no idea about. My research skills are also very poor. So, I thought I’d give it a try. I chose a writer who matched my writing style and fulfilled every requirement I proposed. I turned my paper in and I actually got a good grade. I highly recommend ⇒ www.WritePaper.info ⇐
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Ted's collection of plans are some of the best I've seen. If you're a woodworker, you really don't want miss out on this great deal. ▲▲▲ https://t.cn/A62YeZUX
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

Why Systems Engineering in Industrial and Systems Engineering

  1. 1. The Evolution of Industrial Engineering to Industrial and Systems Engineering Why +Systems in Industrial Engineering Dr Akhmad Hidayatno
  2. 2. 2 Agenda • Dealing with Increasing Complexity • Current Perspectives of Systems Engineering in Industrial Engineering • Processes of Systems Engineering • Professions of Systems Engineering • New Perspectives from Systems Engineering for Industrial Engineering We will start by why IE must be change to ISE due to increasing complexity …
  3. 3. 3 Technology tends to disrupts organization lives UBER Services Demo in Various City in Europe
  4. 4. 4 Uber Growth is unprecedented by creating “connecting” platform for Passengers and Drivers
  5. 5. 5 It also the disruptions of how the money flows with global financial connections … and create headaches for government how to tax them 5
  6. 6. 6 Indonesia has Gojek … with multiple service.. all over major cities in Indonesia
  7. 7. 7 So a new Level of Complexity has Arrived … it continues to rise exponentially … Why? .. New Connections Beyond 3 Components, the connections between components will have higher number than the components. So we must expand from just component to connections analysis, from variables to structural analysis New Connections, Untapped Connections has given rise to complexity What does the growth of Internet Connected Smartphone brings? It can provide direct connection between individual service provider with the costumer.
  8. 8. 8 Complex problems occurs because of connections structure of components, not just the components itself Expanding from Component to Connections • Component oriented methods is searching for solutions by breaking down the system’s components and identify what is wrong with each component. • This component oriented methods usually involve single dimension of analysis (time, geography) , single scale and single perspective • Seeking solutions in problems by adding simple connection analysis with a contextual interdependence and holistic approach • Contextual Conditions in Multi dimension (time and geography), Multi scale, multi perspectives.. will change system’s connections which resulted in changes in system’s behavior For example, if you have to list why a company business is going down floundering, do not just use a list of causal factors … … instead use a table, a matrix, a drawing or any representation that show how each factors relates to other factors
  9. 9. 9 So the Challenges of Industrial Engineers in the future will get more complex The Institute of Industrial Engineering (IIE) has changed its name by recognizing our core uniqueness which is System Perspective. We are now Institute of Industrial and Systems Engineering (IISE) The IIE Profession Recognized this, therefore they believe to be prepared we must RECOGNIZED our unstated perspective and ADD the to our profession “You think that because you understand “one” that you must therefore understand “two”, because one and one make two. But you forget that you must also understand “and” (Sufi Teaching Story)
  10. 10. 10 OBSERVE : ISE is Industrial AND Systems Engineering • AND is not OR. • Jim Collins in Built To Last highlights this as: The Tyranny of the “OR” vs the Genius of the “AND” • We bombarded in the world of “OR”, but the solutions are in the “AND”. Innovations is based on Connecting Combinations of Things .. The world of AND • A truly visionary company embraces both ends of a continuum: continuity and change, conservatism and progressiveness, stability and revolution, predictability and chaos, heritage and renewal, fundamentals and craziness. And, and, and • Built to Last Principles: Clock build your organization so that it preserves a passionately held core ideology and simultaneously stimulates progress in everything but that ideology • It does not mean that there must be 2 different study programs in ISE
  11. 11. 11 Systems engineering “is” 3 things: a perspective, a process and a profession Systems engineering is a perspective, a process and a profession that can be defined as: • Systems Engineering is an interdisciplinary approach and means to enable the realization of successful systems. It focuses on defining customer needs and required functionality early in the development cycle, documenting requirements, then proceeding with design synthesis and system validation while considering the complete problem: Systems Engineering integrates all the disciplines and specialty groups into a team effort forming a structured development process that proceeds from concept to production to operation. • Operations • Cost & Schedule • Performance • Training & Support • Test • Disposal • Manufacturing 1. SE Perspective 2. SE Process 3. SE Professions “… realization of successful systems.” “integrates all the discipline.. with interdisciplinary approach and means.” “… defining customer needs and required functionality early in the development cycle.”
  12. 12. 12 Systems Engineering AND Industrial Engineering is Already Overlapping .. especially in the Perspective of Systems … concerned with the design, improvement and installation … … of integrated systems of people, materials, equipment and energy … … It draws upon specialized knowledge and skill in the mathematical, physical and social sciences together with the principles and methods of engineering .. … to specify, predict and evaluate the results to be obtained from such a system IISE Definition of Industrial EngineeringSE Definition “SE perspectives in IE is name Systems Approach” We must resurface and recognize our Systems Approach in our professions ..hence the addition of Systems Engineering So the key Questions The “AND” of SE in IE 1. What are the SE Perspectives already adopted by ISErs that must be recognized? 2. What Additional concepts in SE that can be adopted to ISE? “… realization of successful systems.” “integrates all the discipline.. with interdisciplinary approach and means.” “… defining customer needs and required functionality early in the development cycle.”
  13. 13. 13 Agenda • Dealing with Increasing Complexity • Current Perspectives of Systems Engineering in Industrial Engineering • Processes of Systems Engineering • Professions of Systems Engineering • Input Process Output Feedback • Helicopter View of Analysis • Component Views of Analysis • Integrated Views of Analysis • Different Views of Stakeholders and Systems Actors • New Perspectives from Systems Engineering for Industrial Engineering ISE is actually already considering Systems Perspectives… We just put the name now
  14. 14. 14 What do you see? A Regular Person will see this café as a place to buy coffee
  15. 15. 15 What does an ISE Must See? Output ISErs see this Café as an OUTPUT of a Product-Service Systems that works as Designed and Expected Why Product-Service System (PSS)? Because you don’t pay 10 times more for just a coffee (that you can make at home), you pay for “the service” of coffee: Cleanliness, Value, The Atmosphere,etc PSS Defined as a marketable set of products and services capable of jointly fulfilling a user’s need. The product/service ratio in this set can vary, either in terms of function fulfilment or economic value When you purchase a Car as a product, you have other services tied to that car: Insurance, After Sales Service. Output Performance Expected Quick Service AND Taste Good. We expect our drinks will be delivered by the time we go to end counter Consistency of TASTE. When we purchased from one cafe to another café on other cities, they will have a consistency taste. Warmth and Comfortable Atmosphere. The place must be cleaned, with seating areas, and warm lights. Options of Payment. We can pay with Cash, Cards and Mobile Phones
  16. 16. 16 What does and ISE Must See? Output • Computer POS (point of sale) • Credit Card POS • Espresso Machine • Espresso Grinders • Coffee Maker (drip) • Pastry Case (refrigerated and non) • Blender • Under Counter Refrigerator Quick Service, Taste Consistency, Ambience of Warms and Comfort, Bonus Points Processes Inputs • Storage Refrigerator Ice Maker • Freezer • Oven • Panini Grill • Furniture Phone • Radio/Music System Prep Tables • Wifi • Cash • Electronic Money • NFC Phones • Serving Procedures • Safety Procedures • Food Handling Procedures • Strategic Sourcing Management • Logistics • Recruitment • Retain • Develop • Re-train Feedbacks ISE Sees BEHIND the Output: The Process, The Input and The Feedbacks ISErs must see that the OUTPUT of a Product-Service Systems requires a Systems-of- Systems
  17. 17. 17 SoS Views Definition INCOSE • “Systems-of-Systems” (SoS) are defined as an interoperating collection of component systems that produce results unachievable by the individual systems alone. • Challenges with development of SoS: – System elements operate independently – System elements have different life cycles – The initial requirements are likely to be ambiguous – Complexity is a major issue – Management can overshadow engineering – Fuzzy boundaries cause confusion – SoS engineering is never finished
  18. 18. 18 What ISE Really Should Know What ISE Must Know What ISE Will Discover What Customer Know
  19. 19. 19 By seeing the problems as Systems-of-Systems, ISE sees its Designs and Solutions must considers both components and connections at different levels of analysis Never loose the big picture, but the devil is in the details ISE start with the whole then go into detail to the process .. and dynamically move up and down to see how each process affects the whole Helicopter Views and Holistic Views In our analysis we must considered multiple scale of the problems and have identified that at that scale – majority of important components are represented We must also show how the improved performance of the system after the solutions implementation are also improving the upper-level system performance and if any, contribute to other systems’ performance SOI WSOI
  20. 20. 20 Helicopter Views is the ability to see systems at multiple scale A Complete Systems View can only be achieve by dynamically change-scale and move our helicopter
  21. 21. 21 Multi Perspectives to achieve holistic views A Complete Systems View can only be achieve by talking and gaining insights to different stakeholders of the systems
  22. 22. 22 What ISE Really Should Know? A Systems of System (SOS) based on Different Views of Stakeholder Customer Regulators Interest Groups Communities Farmers Suppliers Systems of Systems Exist because
  23. 23. 23 This Helicopter Views has created understanding for ISE that they have to managed from micro level - to meso level - to macro level Barang Jasa Kursi material, estetika, market survey, ergonomi, aspek uang Kopi material, standarisasi rasa, nyaman, aspek uang Aliran Pekerjaan material, estetika, market survey, pilihan mesin, $$$ Aliran Penghidangan material, standarisasi rasa, market survey, prosedur Layout Pabrik aliran barang, kedekatan tempat kerja, receiving distributing, persediaan Layout Dapur & Layanan aliran barang, aliran pelanggan, receiving distributing, persediaan PT Kopi XYZ rekrutmen, pembiayaan, pemasaran, pemeliharaan PT Kursi XYZ rekrutmen, pembiayaan, pemasaran, pemeliharaan Rantai Suplai distribusi, logistik, outsourcing Rantai Suplai distribusi, logistik, outsourcing Product Organizations Inter-Chain Workplace Factory or Operations Organization Systems Scales
  24. 24. 24 The system scale is the driving force in the development of ISE Curriculum so far Product Organizations Inter-Chain Workplace Factory or Operations Organization Perancangan Produk Perancangan Tata Letak Pabrik Perancangan Teknik Industri Gambar Teknik Proses Produksi Pengetahuan Bahan Faktor Manusia dalam Rekayasa dan Desain Metode, Standard dan Pengukuran Kerja Sistem Produksi PPIC Pengantar Mekanika dan Elektronika Pabrik Manajemen Rantai Suplai Manajemen Teknologi Occupational Safety and Health Organisasi & Psikologi Industri Analisa Kelayakan Industri Manajemen Proyek Industri Sistem Pemeliharaan Sistem Kualitas Sistem Informasi Simulasi Industri Analisa Biaya Pengantar Ilmu Ekonomi Skripsi Statistik Probabilitas Statistik Industri Ekonomi Teknik Programa Linier Riset Operasional Pengantar Teknik Industri Kerja Praktek Kapita Selekta Kuliah-Kuliah Pilihan Pemodelan Sistem Note: This diagram is a simplifications of courses grouping, many courses may carry multiple system component content.
  25. 25. 25 man material flow methods money info machine energy 5M+IEE ISE Curriculum also considers different groups of components that develop the system.. Man, Machine, Money, Material, Methods, Information and Energy (5M+IE) Perancangan Produk Perancangan Tata Letak Pabrik Perancangan Teknik Industri Gambar Teknik Proses Produksi Pengetahuan Bahan Faktor Manusia dalam Rekayasa dan Desain Metode, Standard dan Pengukuran Kerja Sistem Produksi PPIC Pengantar Mekanika dan Elektronika Pabrik Manajemen Rantai Suplai Manajemen Teknologi Occupational Safety and Health Organisasi & Psikologi Industri Analisa Kelayakan Industri Manajemen Proyek Industri Sistem Pemeliharaan Sistem Kualitas Sistem Informasi Simulasi Industri Analisa Biaya Pengantar Ilmu Ekonomi Statistik Probabilitas Statistik Industri Ekonomi Teknik Programa Linier Riset Operasional Pemodelan Sistem enviro Note: This diagram is a simplifications of courses grouping, many courses may carry multiple system component content.
  26. 26. 26 The ISE Curriculum trains it students to putting it all together in Capstone Design Courses Capstone Design Capstone is Captain Stone. The stone that are on top of the pyramid of stones. It only can exist when you correctly put together all the stones in the pyramid to support the captain stone. Capstone Design Courses means courses that integrates from other course to create an integrated design In ISE this is usually in the Product Design Course, Plant Layout Design, Industrial Simulation, or Industrial Engineering Design •Product •Place •Plant •Policy Multi Scale •Past •Present •Future Multi Time •Man •Machine •Material •Methods •Money Multi Factors •Competitors •Company •Customer Multi Actors
  27. 27. 27 Agenda • Dealing with Increasing Complexity • Current Perspectives of Systems Engineering in Industrial Engineering • Processes of Systems Engineering • Professions of Systems Engineering • Systems Life Cycle • Value Co-Creation • New Perspectives from Systems Engineering for Industrial Engineering However there are several new perspective from SE that must be introduced to ISE
  28. 28. 28 The New Responsibilities of ISE: Sustainability of The Industrial Systems Increasing Population demands Increasing Goods and Services We only have one earth to support the increasing population ISE must Responds this by .. Less Waste, Less Resource, Less New Resources • Green Manufacturing • Sustainable Manufacturing • Green Logistics • Energy Efficiency Design the Right Product-Service Systems at the beginning • Design Thinking • Value Thinking • Human-Centered Design Think in Life Cycles! • Sustainable Supply Chain Systems • System Life Cycle Analysis • End-to-End Analysis
  29. 29. 29 Start by Only Produced what the Customer Wants The Importance to Change Perspective from Delivering Products or Service to Delivering Value Value: Is not just price vs performance It is about what is expected and what is delivered Delivering Value means delivering service/products that fits the need of the customer I am selling Coffee I am adding Value of Enjoying Coffee I am building Cars I am delivering Value of Personal Transport Thinking in Value: Opens up new ways of improving your products and services because it creates a better understanding of what the customer needs and wants
  30. 30. 30 The next level: Design the Value with The Customer This is Value Co-Creation Co-creation of Value • Customer Value Centric • User Requirements • User Verification and Validation Concepts Development Production Utilization Support Retirement Value creation are the processes creating the value. Value Co-creation means the process of creating the value were design and created with the customer. In ISE, Value Co-creation can be seen an re-affirmation to the focus of the customer.
  31. 31. 31 Human-Centered Design Speed will be the Key to Make these Process Meaningful
  32. 32. 32 ISE must taking account the life cycle of a system When we design a PSS we must think project ahead on how it will be operated and maintain (..and disposed). We call this Concepts of Operations. Which lead on how it will be validated and what test will it required, which will be reflected by requirements and design. The process of projectivity and reflectivity is the way to think in end to end solutions Concepts Development Production Utilization Support Retirement Projective - Each Stage Should Think ahead on what problems and challenges that could occurs in the future Can my design be implemented in the current production or operational capability and capacity? Can my design be produced? (Design for Operation-ability or Design for Manufacturability) Can my design be quality controlled? (Design for Quality) Can my design be maintain? Can my design be dispose safely? Reflective - Each Stage Should Reflect Back on the Requirements and Design set in the past Is the systems conforms with the concepts defined in the design stage? What test required for systems check? Have verify with the requirements and the architecture of the systems
  33. 33. 33 Agenda • Dealing with Increasing Complexity • Current Perspectives of Systems Engineering in Industrial Engineering • Processes of Systems Engineering • Professions of Systems Engineering • Processes of SyE • Common Systems of Interest where SyE is Applied • New Perspectives of Systems Engineering for Industrial Engineering
  34. 34. 34 Systems engineering is a perspective, a process and a profession that uses interdisciplinary approach and means to enable the realization of successful systems. SE as a Perspective SE as a Process SE as a Profession As a perspective, SE is adopted by IE because IE is already thinking in systems. The Recognition of this is the driving force for the change of name IE to ISE As a process, SE is collection of processes to enable the realization of successful systems. For SE there are 3 typeof systems: products, service and enterprise As a profession there are 3 levels of certification based on BKCASE (Systems Engineering Body of Knowledge). This is called Systems Engineering Professional (SEP) Certification program.
  35. 35. Systems Life Cycle Life Cycle Model Management Infrastructure Management Portfolio Management Human Resource Management Quality Management Knowledge Management Organizational Project-Enabled Processes Conceptual Development Stage Engineering Development Stage Operation Stage Retirement Stage Systems Perspectives and Thinking in Systems 1. Business or Mission Analysis 2. Stakeholder Needs and Requirements Definition 3. System Requirement Analysis 4. Concept Definition 5. Preliminary Design 6. Detailed Design 7. System Analysis Process 8. Engineering Process 9. System Integration 10. System Evaluation 11. Production 12. Operation 13. Maintenance 14. Retirement and Disposal TechnicalProcesses Acquisition Supply AgreementProcesses Technical Management Processes Project Planning Project Assessment & Control Decision Management Risk Management Configuration Management Information Management Measurement Quality Assurance
  36. 36. 36 Controls (Directive and Constraints) Why Processes? The first way of defining system The Birth of Systems Engineering is based on the push to see things as processes Input Process Output (IPO) Model/Pattern is a widely used approach to describe a process Process (A process is an integrated set of activities that transforms inputs into desired outputs. Output (Processed Data, Products and Services) Input (Data and Material) Feedbacks Constraints Enablers (Support, Resources, Tools, Technologies) The Importance of Context in Process
  37. 37. 37 Why Processes? Not components, aspects, factors, subjects etc .. because the dynamics of Systems of Systems The primary processes can be dynamically change depending on the systems of interest Systems of Interest (SOI) the system whose life cycle is under consideration. Defining SOI is important before the start of ISE Design or Improvement Projects SOI 1 WSOI SOI2 SOI 2.1 Re-Design the Processes of Sub-Systems 2 because of a new standard Primary Process is the Technical Processes with the help of Quality Assurance Our Outsourcing Mechanism is not strong to support the company growths Primary Process is the Agreement Processes with support from IT infrastructure The Sub-Systems of HR is not adequate for new level of innovation Primary Process is HR Processes with the help of Agreement Process by inviting external consultants Human Resource Management Knowledge Management Project Planning Acquisition Acquisition Quality Assurance Quality Assurance Quality Management Infrastructure Management
  38. 38. 38 What type of Systems Realization is the focus of SE? Product Systems Engineering Service Systems Engineering Enterprise Systems Engineering Product systems engineering (PSE) is at the core of the new product development process (NPDP) that is needed to successfully develop and deploy products into different market segments. A market can be consumer based (e.g., private enterprises or general consumers) or it can be public (not-for-profit). Public markets address the strategic needs of a country or region, such as military, healthcare, educational, transportation, and energy needs. The SoS consist of Product, Product System, Product Realization System and Product Sustainment System Service System Engineering is a multidisciplinary approach to manage and design value co-creation of a service system. It extends the holistic view of a system to a customer- centric, end-to-end view of service system design. Primary Method is service systems development process (SSDP): 1 Service Strategy/Concept, 2 Requirements Analysis and Engineering, 3 Systems Design/Development, 4 Service Integration, Verification & Validation, 5 Service Transition/Deployment, 6 Service Operations/Continuous Service Improvement (CSI) Enterprise systems engineering (ESE) is the application of systems engineering principles, concepts, and methods to the planning, design, improvement, and operation of an enterprise. It is worth noting that an enterprise is not equivalent to an "organization” Three Generic Groups of Systems Realization in SE
  39. 39. 39 Product System Engineering Notes A product is an artefact that is created by some person or by some process such as a manufacturing process, software source code compilation and integration, building construction, creative writing process, or data processing. A product system is the combination of end products and the enabling products for those end products. Product Realization System is a related system that enables the realization of the product system. It consists of all the resources to be applied in causing the Intervention System [i.e., the product system, in this case] to be fully conceived, developed, produced, tested, and deployed When the realization system delivers the product system into its intended environment, the product often needs a set of services to keep that product operational. This other system, when needed, is called the Product Sustainment System . It consists of various enabling products and operational services.
  40. 40. 40 Service Systems Engineering Notes Service System Engineering is a multidisciplinary approach to manage and design value co-creation of a service system. It extends the holistic view of a system to a customer-centric, end-to-end view of service system design. Service System is a combination perspective on product as a service and services to support a product, or also known as Product-Service System ValueCoCreation Delivering value to customer is hard, because customer is Subjective, Changing and not easily Satisfied So Why don’t we Creating the Value with the Customers Design for Customer Lean Manufacturing Customer Relationship Management Holistic View Start with the whole, go to detail but frequently lift up to see the whole (helicopter view) Comprehensive end-to-endsolutions Comprehensively connecting between stages in systems realization
  41. 41. 41 Service Systems Engineering Notes can be seen as: A comprehensive end-to-end solutions in delivering co-created values by focusing on systems connection 3C: (1) Co-creation of value, (2) Comprehensive end-to-end solution, (3) Connectivity focus Connectivity Focus • Multidisciplinary • Holistic Views • Alignment Co-creation of Value • Customer Value Centric • Service Oriented • Rapid Prototyping Comprehensive end-to-end solutions • Design, Improve and Install • Systems Life Cycle • Virtual Development3 1 2 industrial_engineering@ui: where the science of engineering and management blends Industrial Design Engineering Concepts Development Production Utilization Support Retirement Industrial Systems Engineering
  42. 42. 42 Enterprise Systems Engineering Enterprise systems engineering refers to the application of systems engineering principles and practices to engineering systems that are part of an enterprise To enable more efficient and effective enterprise transformation, the enterprise needs to be looked at “as a system,” rather than merely as a collection of functions connected solely by information systems and shared facilities Start with Value. The primary purpose of an enterprise is to create value for society, other stakeholders, and for the organizations that participate in that enterprise This includes the improvement of organization instruments, such as • business strategy and strategic planning, • business processes, • enterprise services, • governance, • technical processes, • people management and interactions, • knowledge management, • information technology infrastructure and investment, • facility and equipment management, • supplies management, and • data and information management.
  43. 43. 43 So what are the Systems Engineering Processes to Realizing a Successful System?
  44. 44. 44 4.1 Stakeholder Requirements Definition Process Technical Processes Example Enablers - Enterprise Infrastructure - Enterprise Policies, Processes, & Standards -System solution constraints -Traceability Matrix -Validation criteria -Concept documents Outputs - System solution constraints - Requirements Verification & Traceability Matrix - Validation criteria - Concept documents - Stakeholders’ needs - Project Constraints Inputs Activities - Identify legitimate stakeholders - Elicit requirements - Define constraints - Build scenarios and concept documents - Resolve requirements problems - Confirm and record requirements - Establish and maintain traceability - Agreements - Project procedures & processes Controls PURPOSE of the Stakeholder Requirements Definition Process is to elicit, negotiate, document, and maintain stakeholders’ requirements for the system- of-interest within a defined environment. DESCRIPTION: Governs the system’s development
  45. 45. 45 4.2 Requirements Analysis Process Technical Processes Controls - Natural and societal laws - Project procedures & processes - Define functional boundary - Define performance requirements - Identify architectural constraints - Define non-functional requirements - Maintain traceability and baseline integrity Activities Outputs - Functional and non- functional Requirements - Performance Requirements - Architectural constraints - Updated RVTM - Verification strategy and criteria - Stakeholder requirements - System Solution Constraints - Requirements Verification & Traceability Matrix (RVTM) Inputs Enablers - Enterprise Infrastructure - Enterprise Policies, Processes, & Standards PURPOSE of the Stakeholder Requirements Definition Process is to elicit, negotiate, document, and maintain stakeholders’ requirements for the system- of-interest within a defined environment. DESCRIPTION: Governs the system’s development
  46. 46. 46 4.3 Architectural Design Process Controls - Agreements - Project procedures & processes Inputs - Functional and performance requirements - Architectural constraints - Requirements Verification and Traceability Matrix (RVTM) - Interfacing systems specifications Activities - Define logical architecture - Partition system requirements - Evaluate off-the-shelf system elements - Evaluate alternative designs - Document interfaces Enablers - Enterprise Infrastructure - Enterprise Policies, Processes, & Standards Outputs - Architecture design baseline - System element descriptions - Interface requirements - Updated RVTM - Verification strategy - System Integration Plan PURPOSE of the Architectural Design Process is to synthesize a system solution that satisfies the requirements. DESCRIPTION: The Architectural Design Process requires the participation of systems engineers joined by relevant specialists in the system domain. When alternative solutions present themselves, technical analysis and decisions are taken as part of this process to identify a set of system elements.
  47. 47. 47 4.4 Implementation Process Activities - Define implementation strategy - Realize the system element - Provide evidence of compliance - Package and store; supply Controls - Agreement - Government & Industry standards Inputs - Design requirements - Verification criteria - Validation criteria Enablers - Enterprise Infrastructure - Enterprise Policies, Processes, & Standards Outputs - Integration constraints - Implementation strategy - System element supplied - Initial operator training PURPOSE create or fabricate a system element conforming to that element’s detailed description. The element is constructed employing appropriate technology and industry practices. DESCRIPTION: engineers follow the requirements allocated to the system element to design, fabricate, code, or build each individual element using specified materials, processes, physical or logical arrangements, standards, technologies, and/or information flows outlined in detailed drawings or other design documentation.
  48. 48. 48 4.5 Integration Process Enablers - Enterprise Infrastructure - Enterprise Policies, Processes, & Standards - Integration enabling systems Activities - Define integration strategy - Integrate system elements - Record integration information - Schedule system elements and enabling systems per planned deliveries Controls - Agreements - Project procedures & processes Inputs - Architectural design requirements - Supplied system elements - Identification of external systems - Integration Plan - RVTM - Definition of system hierarchy Outputs - Verifiable system - Results of integration testing - Problem resolution records - Interface Control Documents (ICDs) - Updated RVTM PURPOSE: to realize the system-of-interest by progressively combining system elements in accordance with the architectural design requirements and the integration strategy, successively repeated in combination with the Verification and Validation Processes as appropriate. DESCRIPTION: includes activities to acquire or design and build enabling systems needed to support the integration of system elements and demonstration of end-to-end operation. Confirms all boundaries between system elements have been correctly identified and described, including physical, logical, and human-system interfaces; and confirms that all functional, performance, and design requirements and constraints are satisfied.
  49. 49. 49 4.6 Verification Process Activities - Define strategy for systems verification - Create, maintain RVTM - Conduct verification to demonstrate compliance with requirements - Analyze and document verification and corrective action information Outputs - Updated Requirements Verification & Traceability Matrix (RVTM) - Report results of verification and corrective actions taken Controls - Agreements - Project procedures & processes Enablers - Enterprise Infrastructure - Enterprise Policies, Processes, & Standards Inputs - Baseline system requirements - Verification criteria - Requirements Verification & Traceability Matrix (RVTM) - System element to be verified PURPOSE: To confirm that all requirements are fulfilled by the system elements and eventual system-of-interest, i.e. that the system has been built right. Establishes the procedure for taking remedial actions in the event of non- conformance. DESCRIPTION: Confirms that all elements of the system-of-interest perform their intended functions and meet the performance requirements allocated to them. A key outcome of the Planning Process is the creation of project procedures and processes that specify the forms of system assessments (conformation audits, integration testing, verification, and validation) in appropriate project documents (e.g. systems engineering plans, schedules, and specifications).
  50. 50. 50 4.7 Transition Process Activities - Prepare Installation procedures - Prepare operational site - Install the system - Acceptance acknowledgement - Document results; anomalies; recommendations Inputs - System-of-interest - Installation Plan - Prepared operational environment Controls - Agreements - Project procedures & processes Enablers - Enterprise Infrastructure - Enterprise Policies, Processes, & Standards - Access to operational environment Outputs - Installation procedures - Results from final acceptance activities - Installed System PURPOSE: Transfer custody of the system and responsibility for system support from one organizational entity to another. DESCRIPTION: Installs a verified system in the operational environment along with relevant enabling systems, such as, operator training systems, as defined in the agreement. As part of this process, the acquirer accepts that the system provides the specified capabilities in the intended operational environment prior to allowing a change in control, ownership, and/or custody.
  51. 51. 51 4.8 Validation Process Activities - Define validation procedures - Ensure system readiness - Demonstrate conformance to stakeholder requirements - Recommend corrective actions - Attain stakeholder acceptance Controls - Agreements - Project procedures & processes Outputs - Validation Procedures - Reported results of validation activities and corrective actions taken Inputs - Integrated system released for validation - Validation Criteria for stakeholders’ requirements Enablers - Enterprise Infrastructure - Enterprise Policies, Processes, & Standards PURPOSE: Confirm that the realized system complies with the stakeholder requirements. DESCRIPTION: Assessment as a means to determine if stakeholders’ requirements and defined measures of effectiveness have been correctly translated into technical design specifications and measures of performance.
  52. 52. 52 4.9 Operation Process Activities - Execute concept of operations - Maintain qualified staff - Obtain consumable materials - Monitor operations; assess performance - Determine appropriate actions - Collect operator and stakeholder satisfaction feedback Controls - Agreements - System Concept Documents Outputs - Ongoing system services - Results of monitoring system performance - Recommendations for corrective, remedial, or preventive actions Inputs - Accepted system - Operational procedures - Consumables Enablers - Enterprise Infrastructure - Enterprise Policies, Processes & Standards PURPOSE: To use the system to deliver its services. This process is often executed concurrent with the Maintenance Process. DESCRIPTION: Sustains system services by supplying personnel to operate the system, monitoring operator-system performance, and monitoring the system performance. Usually accounts for the largest portion of the total life cycle cost.
  53. 53. 53 4.10 Maintenance Process Controls - Agreements - System Concept Documents Outputs - Maintenance strategy - Maintenance design constraints - Ongoing system services - Logistics service records - Maintenance history records Enablers - Enterprise Infrastructure - Enterprise Policies, Processes & Standards - Operational environment & enabling systems Inputs - Accepted system - Maintenance procedures - Spare parts and replaceable materials Activities - Define maintenance strategy - Implement Maintenance and Logistics support procedures; reporting - Perform maintenance actions - Maintain documentation - Define design constraints imposed by maintenance PURPOSE: To sustain the system through its useful life. DESCRIPTION: To provide operations support, logistics, and material management. Based on feedback from ongoing monitoring of the operational environment, problems are identified and corrective, remedial or preventive actions are taken to restore full system capability.
  54. 54. 54 4.11 Disposal Process Activities - Define disposal strategy - Impose disposal constraints on requirements - Deactivate the system (element) - Remove system (element) from operational environment - Maintain archival documentation of disposal; residual hazards Controls - Agreements - System Concept Documents - Government and regulatory agencies - Industry standards for disposal Outputs - Disposal strategy - Disposal constraints on requirements - Retired system element - Documentation as required Inputs - Depleted system element - Production and operational enviroments - System Disposal Plan Enablers - Enterprise Infrastructure - Enterprise Policies, Processes, & Standards - Disposal enabling systems PURPOSE: To remove a system element from the operational environment with the intent of permanently terminating its use; and to deal with any hazardous or toxic materials or waste products in accordance with applicable guidance, policy, regulations, and statutes. DESCRIPTION: Environmental concerns are driving the designer to consider reclaiming the materials or recycling them into new systems. Regulatory reporting requirements are addressed by this process.
  55. 55. 55 Systems has Context (Concepts of Operations) A concept of operations (abbreviated CONOPS, CONOPs, or ConOps) is a document describing the characteristics of a proposed system from the viewpoint of an individual who will use that system. It is used to communicate the quantitative and qualitative system characteristics to all stakeholders.
  56. 56. 56 Context Diagram is the tools to show how the Role of Context Changes the Connections of Systems-of-Systems 1. External Entities. These constitute all entities in which the system will interact. Many of these entities can be considered as sources for inputs into the system and destinations of outputs from the system. 2. Interactions. These represent the interactions between the external entities and the system and are represented by arrows. 3. The System. This is the single geographic figure mentioned already. Typically, this is an oval, circle, or rectangle in the middle of the figure with only the name of the system within.
  57. 57. 57 Agenda • Dealing with Complexity • Perspectives of Systems Engineering • Processes of Systems Engineering • Professions of Systems Engineering
  58. 58. 58 Professional Organizations International Council on Systems Engineering INCOSE Institute of Industrial and Systems Engineering IISE • Established 1990 • www.incose.org • BKCASE (Systems Engineering Body of Knowledge) • Systems Engineering Professional (SEP) Certification program. • Established 1948 as American Institute of Industrial Engineers, 1981 as Institute of Industrial Engineers, and 2016 as Institute of Industrial and Systems Engineers • www.iise.org • Support Professional Engineering (P.Eng) for Industrial Engineers The Council of Engineering Systems Universities (CESUN) • Established 2004 • www.cesun.org • Collaboration of Universities offering educational and research programs in engineering systems • IISE and INCOSE already cooperating by establishing a Journal together: Journal of Enterprise Transformation • There is still no plans to integrate both organization
  59. 59. 59 SyE could come from various discipline/domain, however IE has strongest connection with SyE Domain-Centric Systems Engineering Degree Program (INCOSE 2014) INCOSE data 2010 BS MS PhD SyE With Biological Engineering 16 5 4 24 SyE With Computer Engineering 1 4 2 7 SyE With Electrical Engineering 1 1 SyE With Industrial Engineering 14 15 7 36 SyE With Management Engineering 3 1 4 SyE With Manufacturing Engineering 1 8 1 10 32 36 14 82
  60. 60. 60 Careers of Systems Engineers (INCOSE)
  61. 61. 61 Industrial Engineering is 100% Systems Engineering Perspectives, 70% SE Processes, and 50% SE Professions Industrial Engineering Systems Engineering Introduction to Service Systems Engineering, Introduction to Energy Systems Engineering, Optimization by Nature , Systems Design and Architecture, Advanced Linear Programming, Advanced Integer Programming, Stochastic Programming, Nonlinear Programming, Queuing Theory, Revenue and Price Optimization Decision, Uncertainty and Risk Management; Systems Dynamics, Knowledge Management, Legal and Contractual Agreement, Introduction to Policy Analysis Thinking and Systems Thinking , Systems Engineering Fundamentals, Systems Engineering Management (Life Cycle Management) FoundationCoreSpecialty Finance, Economics and Cost Estimation, Quality Assurance and Control System , Project Management, Organization Design & Analysis, Information Management, Product Design, Process Design, Maintenance Management , Safety & Health Management, Systems Modeling (Discrete Systems Modeling) Human Factors , Chemical Process, Plant and Facility Layout , Decision Making Process, Supply Chain and Logistics, Engineering Ethics and Legal Considerations, Management of Technology Probability and Statistics, Engineering Economy, Operations Research, Computer Fundamentals (Java Programming). Engineering Drawing etc
  62. 62. 62 Professional Certification of SyE by INCOSE
  63. 63. 63 Agenda • Dealing with Complexity • Perspectives of Systems Engineering • Processes of Systems Engineering • Professions of Systems Engineering • Key Take-aways
  64. 64. 64 The combination of SyE with IE will brings a new way of looking things, that brings more strength to solutions delivered by ISE • The Systems in IE is to explicitly brought in front what we as old Industrial Engineers already being learnt and use consistently… thinking and working in systems • The highlighted use of Systems Perspectives and the infusion of Systems Processes from the Systems Engineering can opened up better understanding of the systems’ problems and create a more integrative solutions .. • It does not necessary to establish a new study program of Systems Engineering under Industrial Engineering. However, we do need to propose legally changing our program name to Industrial and Systems Engineering Dynamic Multi-Dimension Thinking Component to Connections Systems Perspectives Life Cycle Perspectives Value Co-Creation

×