Agent Based Pedestrian Modeling for Evaluation MRT Jakarta Underground Station Design


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This is presentation of how we analyzed the design of underground station for PT MRT Jakarta based on the pedestrian movement.

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Agent Based Pedestrian Modeling for Evaluation MRT Jakarta Underground Station Design

  1. 1. Analysis of Mass RapidTransit Jakarta’sUnderground Station Interconnectivity Designusing Agent Based ModelingAkhmad Hidayatno, Stefan Darmansyah, Armand Omar MoeisSystems Engineering Modeling and Simulation
  2. 2. Agenda• Transit Oriented Development in MRT Jakarta• Multi-Method Modeling Initiatives to Support MRT Jakarta• Case Study: Pedestrian Modeling for MRT Jakarta Stations
  3. 3. Overview of MRT Development in Jakarta3© MRTJakarta 2009Tahap 1Lebak Bulus – Dukuh AtasTahap 2Lebak Bulus – KotaLength 14.5 Km (10.5 Km Elevated,4 Km Underground)22.7 KmNo of Stations 12 (8 Elevated, 4Underground)9 underground antaraDukuh Atas - KotaTravelTime 28 menit 51 menitStationStopTime 40 – 60 detik 40 – 60 detikLength betweenStations0.8 – 2.2 km 0.8 – 2.2 kmHeadway 4.5 menit (2015) 3.5 Menit (2020)ProjectedPassenger Daily340.000 (2015) 400.000 (2020)Rolling Stock 17 train sets (102 cars) | 1 set= 6 cars39 train sets (234 cars)| 1 set = 6 carsPower 35 – 40 MVA 50 MVA
  4. 4. How can we leverage Gov. investment for maximumpublic benefits and sustainability of the services?15 trillion Gov. Investment10 years grace period30 years repayment periodPlannedOperation 2016ODA Loan - JICAJust Building RailwayDeveloping Economic Growth Zonesbased on urban transport
  5. 5. How the opportunity arisedNationalGovernmentCityGovernmentRailway Operator(State OwnedEnterprise)disconnected with surrounding areaSpatialPlanningPowerRailway & stations Railway & stationsCity OwnedEnterpriseseamless integration with surrounding areaIntercity RailbasedTransportInnercity RailbasedTransportLaw No 23/2007On Railway
  6. 6. The Gov. of DKI JakartaThrough MRT ProjectsIntroducingTransit Oriented Development (TOD)First Indonesian model to combat urban sprawl andmobility issue through “a pedestrian-drivendevelopment”Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) is:• moderate-to higher- densitydevelopment,• located within an easy walk of a majortransit stop,• generally with a mix of residential,employment, and shoppingopportunities designed for pedestrianswithout excluding the auto.(JackWierzenski)Iwan Prijanto - MRTJ © 2009
  7. 7. Role Evolution ofTOD at MRT Jakarta1. Supports Urban railway:Enable connectivity, entry, passengerdistribution2. Stimulate Demand:Increase ridership :Same customer profile3. Produce Destination:Public realm ; public & commercial amenities4. Stimulate Urban growth:Increase commercial & social capacities5. Create Places;Sustainable & vibrant neighborhood6. Urban RestructureCity re-master planningInside OutOutside in0. Just Build Station – No TODJust focus & worry on constructionNeed no role of urban &Property dev.Iwan Prijanto - MRTJ © 2009
  8. 8. TOD LEVEL OF MRTJ’S 1ST LINEJust focus & worry on construction. Situation to be avoided!!LEVELTOD 1-2SEAMLESS MOBILITYLEVELTOD 5-6SUSTAINABLEGROWTH DISTRICTNOTOD, LEVEL - 0UNSUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTEnable connectivity, safe entry & passenger distribution,customer segment harmonyStimulating growth by providing convenient public realm,commercial facilities and Increasing its commercial & socialcapacitiesRe-master plan the city districts to enable sustainablegrowth, create a vibrant & sustainable neighborhoodLEVELTOD 3-4SUSTAINABLE NEIGHBORHOODIwan Prijanto - MRTJ © 2009
  9. 9. Density GradientVary byType ofTransit(Robert Cervero )Iwan Prijanto - MRTJ © 2009
  10. 10. 1234a4bResidentialTown CenterGarden CityRebirth Town CenterCBD-FinancialCenterGatewayJAKARTA 2025NEW URBANISM!1. Focus development on pedestrian, stimulatingnew urban lifestyle - green lifestyle2. MRT Transit development stimulates smarturban redevelopment, smart growth & compactcity policies.3. Urban Transit development provides substantialspace for future Jakarta city development(redevelopment)4. Urban Transit development reduce urbansprawl tendency, reorienting developmentdirection back to the city5. MRT Transit development provide appropriatemilieu for productive working class6. MRT development as green transportationscheme inspire further green development inurban space along corridor7. Connected bicycle path starting from early zone2 to end part of zone 48. Urban redevelopment & MRT development willimprove Jakarta image, increase national pride,and became truly respected world city withinAsia Pacific region.Urban Transit ZoneIwan Prijanto - MRTJ © 2009
  11. 11. Transit Oriented LifestyleSouthern Downtown of Jakarta“Now available for sale or rent in the Southern Downtown of Jakarta: Attractive, affordable homes with modernamenities in vibrant neighborhoods. All units offer excellent public transit access forgridlock-free commutes to employment centers. Convenience is key, with shops, restaurants and retail services juststeps away, and walking and biking opportunities galore. Autos are optional, and anysavings in gasoline, parking, maintenance and insurance costs are yours to keep. Experience the benefits of atransit-oriented lifestyle at one of the exciting new developments taking shape in, Simatupang TransitTown, Cipete Residential Town, Haji Nawi square, Blok A square ... and in many other locations throughout theregion. Come see if this new style of living is the right choice for you.”New Places, New urban lifestyle”.ModifiedfromBARTpresentation
  12. 12. TOD 3 Bottom LinesValue (Robert Cervero)Iwan Prijanto - MRTJ © 2009increasedurban mobilityImprovingenvironmentalsustainabilityImproving sociallife qualityStimulates furthereconomic growth
  13. 13. The Challenge ofTOD in Jakarta• Paradigm Change from car driven to pedestrian driven• Orientation Change orientation from finding green fields to seeking urbanrenewal, and land consolidation opportunities.• Move the property business principle from “location, location, location” to“station, station, station”.• How to seamlessly connects and integrate every MRT station with surroundingneighborhood development with many different powerful stakeholders• How to consistently develop institutional building in the government, todevelop the regulatory framework needed for urban redevelopment policy• How to sustain the focus to improve consistently public mass-transportationinfrastructure, operation, and integration, because patient is needed ....Building strong, reliable and sustainable public transportation & urbanredevelopment initiatives needs careful, thorough, coherent and consistent effortsfrom strategic envisioning, strengthening regulatory framework, planning,designing, constructing and delivering its services.Iwan Prijanto - MRTJ © 2009
  14. 14. Agenda• Transit Oriented Development in MRT Jakarta• Multi-Method Modeling Initiatives to Support MRT Jakarta• Case Study: Pedestrian Modeling for MRT Jakarta Stations
  15. 15. Opportunity + Challenge = Complexity• TOD Paradigm would require a new interconnection of cooperation betweenmulti-stakeholders to answers the all important questionsWhat is the businessmodels of MRTJakarta to sustainedits operations?What rights the citymust decentralizedto the company?How to justify thesubsidy for MRT?Is other city services ready tosupport MRT, especially theemergency services? (FireDepartment, HealthOutbreak, etc)Should the urbanrail transportstandards differentthat currentintercity standards?Does bettersurroundingconnection couldattract privatevehicles to move?What would be theminimum servicelevel of MRT?What is the best mix-useddevelopment compositionto maximize revenue andeconomic contributions?How towrite thecost ofmulti-billiondollarsasset?How to exploitand maintaintheundergroundstructures?
  16. 16. ModelingTopology: Matching Problems with models16Strategic-operationalQualitative-quantitativeContinuous-discreteDynamic-staticSpatial-temporalDeterministic-stochasticData rich-data poorWhite box – black boxTime horizon, responsible authorityDegree or direction of changeOngoing or intermittentInherent system memory or notWhere or when or bothWhy or ifAvailability of dataKnowledge rich or knowledge poorProblem descriptors Model typologyModeling Tools, Methology and ApproachSystem DynamicsDiscrete modellingPhysical systems modellingRegression analysisCost-benefit analysis Spreadsheet modellingGIS-based modelsAgent-based modellingStatistical/Mathematical modelsExpert systemsNetwork-based modellingMulti-Approach models
  17. 17. Systems Diagram of MRT JakartaTOD Complexity thatcould be supported by multi-method modelingAdvocating Macro Level InitativesAgent BasedModelingProblem Owner:Shareholders ofMass Rapid TransitJakartaProblem Owner Goals:Sustainable Operationswith the fulfillment of theshort-term and long-termcorporations’ target byserving governmentassignments of PublicServices in urban rail-basedmass transportationStakeholdersOutputOperationalSustainabilityMicro Level Strategy (MRT Jakarta)CoordinatingEconomyNGOsTransportationTradeEnvironmentMinistry ofFinanceLocal Governmentsas ShareholdersJICA (previouslyJBIC)Multi-Methods Modeling SupportConstruction andStation DesignOperationalDesignBlue-SkyClean AirStrategyNFB PricingSubsidy Line ExpansionPriceRegulationsQuantityRegulationsLow-CarbonEconomyEconomic GrowthContributionSocial MobilityIncreasing Qualityof LifeCO2 EmissionReduction fromreduction ofprivate vehiclesusageInputBasic ExternalEconomicFactors(Inflation,ExchangeRates, etc)LandAvailability forExpansionsLoanBasic Social(PopulationGrowth Rate,etc)MRT JakartaOperationalSustainabilitySystem DynamicsModelingFinancial ModelingPolicies for RevenueGeneration andEconomic GrowthConcessionAgreement AnalysisInfrastructureCostJustificationPedestrianMovement QualityAs Input As Constraint and FacilitationAsFeedbacksProjection of CO2Emission ReductionTransit OrientedDevelopmentConcessionAgreementOptimization ModelUrban LifeQualityImprovementSustainableOperationsEmergency ResponseSimulationSpecialEventsStationCrowdBehaviorLocalParliamentVariable of FixedTicket PricesNFB Prices
  18. 18. Agenda• Transit Oriented Development in MRT Jakarta• Multi-Method Modeling Initiatives to Support MRT Jakarta• Case Study: Pedestrian Modeling for MRT Jakarta Stations
  19. 19. Bendungan Hilir Underground Station
  20. 20. Sustainable Development Policy of MRTJCore stationPlatformConcourseExtended stationBuildingExtended stationBuildingIntegration withAdjacent Building1. Green Transportation2. Green Building3. Sustainable Neighborhood
  21. 21. Station AreaDev. FrameworkStructureStructureStructureStructureSTRUCTURENeighborhoodCommercialsResidentialsOtherFacilitiesPublic On street transportOther Mass rapid transportTOD ASPECT RELATED TOMRT1.Core station structure2.Site utility system-integratedutility system (energy-water-airsystem)3.Site management system4.Macro to micro climate (outdoorto indoor environment quality)5.Passenger to Pedestrian volume6.Passenger to Pedestrian flow7.Transport inter-modal scheme8.Integrated Security system9.Integrated commercial facilitiesBicyclepathsRoad SystemPublicFacilitiesIwan Prijanto - MRTJ © 2009Iwan Prijanto - MRTJ © 2009
  22. 22. The Causal Logic of StationTransit Oriented Development
  23. 23. TheTentacles Design
  24. 24. Spesifikasi Lingkungan Stasiun (4)2 Underground Floors – Concourse Level & PlatformLevelElevator Speed 0,5 m/s & 1 m/s.Ticket Purchase Service Time 8 – 13 seconds.Farebox Transaction Time 2 – 3 seconds.MRT Headway 5 minutes with 30 – 40 seconds stop time.
  25. 25. 1st floor concourse floor (paid and non paid)
  26. 26. 2nd floor platform
  27. 27. Alternatives• Escalator Configuration– One way– Two ways• Tentacles Configuration– 2 tentacles, 1 Free Concourse Zone in the middle, surrounded with PaidZone– 4 Tentakel, 2 Free Concourse Zone on the side, surrounding the Paid Zone• Interconnections with the surrounding business/commercial area– Without connection– With connection
  28. 28. Examples of Results2017 Passenger Projection Scenario 1
  29. 29. Examples of Results2037 Passenger Projection with Skenario 4
  30. 30. Focus zones in 2037 Passenger Projection with Skenario4
  31. 31. Conclusion and Recommendation based on the Model• The station draft design could served the minimum service levelstandard set by the MRT Jakarta based on the current passengergrowth projections with the additional tentacles interconnections• However, the final design should accommodate additional far-boxgateways, ticketing sales booth and the variable speed of escalator
  32. 32. Analysis of Mass RapidTransit Jakarta’sUnderground Station Interconnectivity Designusing Agent Based ModelingAcknowledgement ofSupporttoPTMRTJakarta:Mr. IwanPrijantoUrbanPlanning&