Writing Across the Curriculum (MRA 2009)


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A presentation given by Lynnette Van Dyke, Michigan Department of Education; Troy Hicks, Chippewa River Writing Project, Central Michigan University; Carol Trojanowski, Literacy Consultant and Michigan State University; and Sharon Armstrong, Genesee Intermediate School District at the 2009 Michigan Reading Association Annual Conference.

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  • Lynnette Welcome Introduce Presenters—Each person states who they are and how they contributed to the project
  • Writing Across the Curriculum (MRA 2009)

    1. 1. Writing Across the Curriculum: English Language Arts Lynnette Van Dyke Troy Hicks Carol Trojanowski Sharon Armstrong 53 rd MRA Conference Grand Rapids, MI March 14, 2009
    2. 2. Goals For the Session <ul><li>Provide an awareness overview of the Michigan Department of Education Writing Across the Curriculum: English Language Arts Resource </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the status of the project </li></ul><ul><li>Help participants understand the importance of implementing the two types of writing </li></ul><ul><li>Provide examples </li></ul><ul><li>Make connections to MDE’s emphasis on technology and 21 st Century learning </li></ul>
    3. 3. What is Writing Across the Curriculum (WAC) ? <ul><li>Infusing writing throughout the curriculum for various learning purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Fosters and demonstrates learning in a variety of subjects or disciplines </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasizes common, communicable, and portable practices </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages critical thinking and learning </li></ul><ul><li>Use in multiple ways to prepare students for a variety of contexts </li></ul>
    4. 4. Writing Across the Curriculum: From Writing Now <ul><li>“ Writing can help students understand, process, and think critically about course material (Writing to Learn). Writing assignments, then, are best designed to help students learn: by asking them first to use writing to learn about a given topic or subject, to evaluate their own understanding of that topic, and/or to develop expertise about it; then to use writing to critically analyze that understanding. In other words, teachers who create writing assignments that begin by engaging students in writing-to-learn activities set the stage for students to demonstrate in final, polished writing (Writing to Demonstrate Knowledge) a fuller understanding of the topic at hand.” ( Writing Now, NCTE , page 2) </li></ul>
    5. 5. How is Michigan Faring? <ul><li>NAEP </li></ul><ul><li>MEAP: ELA Writing and Reading </li></ul><ul><li>High Priority Schools </li></ul>
    6. 6. From Past ………………………….… <ul><li>30 years of Writing Across the Curriculum perpetuates its usefulness and importance </li></ul><ul><li>Writing lets us communicate & discover what we know and what we didn’t know we knew </li></ul><ul><li>Writing is recursive: the writer considers purpose and audience while shifting back and forth to develop ideas and clarify meaning </li></ul><ul><li>MDE Content Literacy Committee: User-Friendly Writing to Learn Handbooks (SS, Sci, Math) </li></ul>
    7. 7. …………………………….to Present <ul><li>Emphasis on process & product </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledges outside-of-school literacies, & </li></ul><ul><li>connects inside/outside literacy practices, supporting development </li></ul><ul><li>Uses online literacy practices that nurture: quality of work, narrative power, logic, character & concept development </li></ul><ul><li>Utilizes Web 2.0 for social networking: free participatory, collaborative & distributed resources </li></ul><ul><li>Documents for all core curricular areas: </li></ul><ul><li>posted at www.michigan.gov/ela </li></ul>
    8. 8. Why Does Writing Matter Now? <ul><li>When we write we think. We slow down enough to reflect, synthesize, clarify & communicate. These are 21 st Century skills </li></ul><ul><li>We cannot write without reading. If we neglect writing it is at the expense of reading (Rief, 2006). Strong writers are strong readers </li></ul><ul><li>Writing about or developing content helps students focus on meaning & helps them process information at deep levels </li></ul><ul><li>Both essay & blog writing are important. One should support the other </li></ul>
    9. 9. 21 st Century Writing Assumptions <ul><li>More than ever , students need to develop their capacities to communicate effectively in preparation for participation in a global world </li></ul><ul><li>Students need to think & write clearly to be effective contributors & to use current social media well </li></ul><ul><li>New media demand new literacies —those including sound, graphics & moving images in addition to text </li></ul><ul><li>Digital literacy provides rich opportunities to blend research & storytelling in creative ways within the domain of new media </li></ul><ul><li>NCTE Policy Research Brief: 21st Century Literacies </li></ul>
    10. 10. Using This Online Document <ul><li>Peruse </li></ul><ul><li>Locate a resource aligned to your learning purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Use the Table of Contents hyperlinks to go directly to the page </li></ul><ul><li>Print using the page numbers feature </li></ul><ul><li>Use this strategy & others often </li></ul>
    11. 11. Two Major Categories Writing Across the Curriculum (WAC) Writing-To-Learn Writing-To- Demonstrate- Knowledge
    12. 12. Each Section Offers… <ul><li>A definition </li></ul><ul><li>What it accomplishes </li></ul><ul><li>How to implement </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of procedures or variations </li></ul><ul><li>Visual representations to use with students </li></ul>
    13. 13. Practices In Strategy Instruction ? <ul><li>Set & facilitate high expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Empower students </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the value & rationale for strategy use </li></ul><ul><li>Explain why, when & how the strategy assists performance </li></ul><ul><li>Model & discuss thinking associated with steps </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher or student modeling includes explanation, demonstration, & thinking aloud </li></ul>
    14. 14. Practices in Strategy Instruction? <ul><li>Guided Practice/Gradual Release of Responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Independent use & application of the strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Instruction & practice extend over a period of time across diverse tasks leading to success with complex assignments… </li></ul><ul><li>Keep the audience in mind when writing </li></ul><ul><li>Ongoing reflection & planning </li></ul>
    15. 15. Writing-To-Learn: Definition <ul><li>“ A writing-to-learn strategy is one that teachers employ throughout and/or at the end of a lesson to engage students and develop big ideas and concepts.” </li></ul>
    16. 16. Writing-To-Learn: Definition <ul><li>Fosters critical thinking, requiring analysis and application, & other higher order thinking skills </li></ul><ul><li>Uses impromptu, short or informal writing designed by the teacher & included throughout the lesson to help students think </li></ul><ul><li>Focused on ideas rather than correctness of style, grammar or spelling </li></ul><ul><li>Uses journals, logs, micro-themes, responses to written or oral questions, summaries, free writing, notes & other writing assignments that align to learning ideas/concepts </li></ul>
    17. 17. Writing-To-Learn: Purpose <ul><li>Organizational tools such as journals where specific strategies can be housed </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies for understanding, synthesizing generating content area, digital, literary or generating narrative & informational texts </li></ul><ul><li>Responses— interpretations—connections </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding content area, literary & digital texts </li></ul><ul><li>Graphic organizers to hold, process & organize thoughts throughout a lesson </li></ul>
    18. 18. Journaling <ul><li>Helps students express thoughts, feelings, & reactions about reading, authors, messages, & style on paper </li></ul><ul><li>A flexible instructional strategy used for self-generated responses or tailored for instructional purposes—short or extended, capturing thinking on paper </li></ul><ul><li>Helps students interact with text/reflect on reading </li></ul><ul><li>Helps students discover what they know, ask questions, confidently share their observations/opinions & clarify understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Assists teachers in assessments of critical thinking </li></ul>
    19. 19. Implementation of Journaling <ul><li>In the beginning, the teacher models the journaling strategy by using his or her own response journal </li></ul><ul><li>Students write down the date, title, author, chapter, and page of text to which they are responding to save their writings for future use </li></ul><ul><li>Students meet the expectations set for completing one or more thoughtful responses </li></ul><ul><li>Expectations for length of entries should be set high </li></ul>
    20. 20. Implementation of Journaling <ul><li>Interrupt discussion with writing to change direction, get back to a main point, or encourage greater participation </li></ul><ul><li>Identify a unifying theme and support it with references from the text </li></ul><ul><li>Allow flexibility. Teach various purposes of journaling that allow choice in how to respond </li></ul><ul><li>Use journals for closure. Allow five minutes at the end of lessons to write observations/summaries </li></ul>
    21. 21. CRAFTS: A Design Tool <ul><li>Acronym prompts & guides design and inquiry </li></ul><ul><li>Provides choice & develops ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrates student knowledge & higher-order thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages creative application </li></ul><ul><li>Aligns writing to accommodate an audience other than the teacher </li></ul>
    22. 22. CRAFTS Acronym Students use the acronym to think through and plan their writing: T opic for writing is chosen T Uses a s trong verb S Student chooses a format for presenting their writing F Student chooses an a udience to which they will present their writing (real world or imagined) A Student chooses a r ole from which to write R Student considers c ontext for the writing C
    23. 23. Design Choices Students determine the CONTEXT ROLE …I will be the writer as though I am … (historian, political commentator, lawyer, librarian) AUDIENCE …The writing will be read/heard by… (immigrants, leader of another country, general public, those in poverty, senate committee, etc.) FORMAT …The writing will take the form of… (brief essay, commercial, e-mail, 5-minute speech)
    24. 24. Design Choices TOPIC … and will be about… (civil rights, democracy, monarchy, war, Bill of Rights) STRONG VERB … the writing’s purpose will be … (contrast, oppose, evaluate, support, rate)
    25. 25. Complete CRAFTS Assignment I will be the writer as though I am … a political commentator The writing will be read or heard by … the general public It will take the form of… 5-minute speech … and will be about… war The writing’s purpose will be to… oppose
    26. 26. Column Notes: Cornell Notes
    27. 27. Column Notes: T-Charts
    28. 28. Column Notes: Chapters/Selection Chart Q Notes
    29. 29. Writing-To-Demonstrate-Knowledge <ul><li>Inquiry-based writing connects with real-world experiences & increases student engagement </li></ul><ul><li>Research: authentic writing leads to increased writing achievement </li></ul><ul><li>21st century requires: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>flexible writers who can move between genres, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>think critically about new writing tasks, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>exercise audience awareness, & </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>identify & improve areas of weakness. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Digital technologies & social networking opportunities influence the processes & evaluation of writing </li></ul>
    30. 30. Writing-To-Demonstrate-Knowledge <ul><li>Students show what they have learned: </li></ul><ul><li>About disciplinary (literary/narrative & informational) content and process </li></ul><ul><li>Through a “constructed response” explaining their understanding of concepts and ideas </li></ul><ul><li>About specific writing genre </li></ul><ul><li>Through inquiry--finding, organizing, and reporting information in both traditional and new ways </li></ul>
    31. 31. I-Search: Traditional Report <ul><li>My questions </li></ul><ul><li>My search process </li></ul><ul><li>What I have learned </li></ul><ul><li>What this means to me </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul><ul><li>More on I-Search Process can be found by following </li></ul><ul><li>the link on the wiki page. </li></ul>
    32. 32. I-Search: Description <ul><li>Informal, alternative process to formal, traditional research papers </li></ul><ul><li>Interest-based– students design questions to satisfy &quot;a genuine itch“ </li></ul><ul><li>The inquiry: Reading, Watching, Asking, Doing </li></ul><ul><li>The 1 st person report or multi-genre option </li></ul><ul><li>Students reflect upon their search processes </li></ul><ul><li>Designed for authentic audiences </li></ul>
    33. 33. I-Search: Phase 1 Immersion & Generation of Questions <ul><li>Teachers engage students in activities about a topic connected to standards </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers check & build prior knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers help students find questions to pursue </li></ul><ul><li>Varied immersion activities model for students multiple ways to gather information </li></ul><ul><li>Large & small group inquiries set the stage for learning the process </li></ul>
    34. 34. I-Search: Phase 2 Search Plan <ul><li>Students meet criteria for active inquiry </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers guide students in the development of a Search Plan requiring active learning : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reading: books, magazines, newspapers, & reference materials (in print, CD/DVD, Internet) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Watching: videos, pod casts, television documentaries, online newscasts, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asking: face-to-face requests: online/e-mail interviews or surveys; or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doing : e.g., experiment, Congressional session, debate/computer simulation, field trip </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. I-Search: Phase 2 Search Plan <ul><li>Teachers guide students through developing a materials/resources plan for the search process </li></ul><ul><li>Sequence calendars detail what & when </li></ul><ul><li>Specific processes for citing & keeping track of materials & resources used </li></ul>
    36. 36. I-Search: Phase 3 Gathering & Integrating Knowledge <ul><li>Students implement search plans </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers introduce strategies to organize information: semantic maps, categorization charting, developing figures, drafting summaries </li></ul><ul><li>Students sustain gathering, integrating & recording information </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers confer with students throughout the process to monitor & facilitate progress </li></ul>
    37. 37. I-Search: Phase 3 Gathering & Integrating Knowledge <ul><li>Students progressively revise search plans </li></ul><ul><li>Students utilize media centers, interviewing, field excursions, & community & online libraries </li></ul><ul><li>Students integrate information from multiple sources & engage in enrichment around big ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Students create journal entries on &quot;ups & downs&quot; of the search process </li></ul><ul><li>Students begin drafting </li></ul>
    38. 38. I-Chart Summary 5) 4) 3) 2) Sources: 1) New Questions Interesting Facts and Figures ? ? ? ? My Research Topic ________ Guiding Question 4 Guiding Question 3 Guiding Question 2 Guiding Question 1
    39. 39. I-Search: Phase 4 “First Person” Reporting <ul><li>Teachers explain product the criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers provide time, process & supports needed to help students represent new knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Students use writing process: Design/Pre-write, Draft, Revise, Edit, Publish </li></ul><ul><li>Students share reports/exhibitions with appropriate authentic audiences </li></ul><ul><li>Students debrief & reflect </li></ul>
    40. 40. <ul><li>“ A multi-genre paper arises from research, experience, and imagination. It is not an uninterrupted, expository monolog nor a seamless narrative nor a collection of poems. </li></ul><ul><li>A multi-genre paper is composed of many genres and subgenres, each piece self-contained, making a point of its own, yet connected by theme or topic and sometimes by language, images and content. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition to many genres, a multi-genre paper may also contain many voices, not just the author's. The trick is to make such a paper hang together.” </li></ul><ul><li>Romano, T. (2000). Blending Genre, Altering Style: Writing Multi-genre Papers. </li></ul>Multi-Genre: Definition from Romano
    41. 41. <ul><li>Works for elementary, middle & high school </li></ul><ul><li>Can be integrated into any content area </li></ul><ul><li>Highly adaptable –from autobiography to critical analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Students experience the agency of shaping & structuring their papers to extend performance beyond the teacher’s expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Listening/speaking are addressed through the presentation stage </li></ul>Multi-Genre: Characteristics
    42. 42. Why Use Multi-Genre? <ul><li>Project development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genre choices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weaving genre into writing in a connected way </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scrapbook, magazine, locked trunk in the attic, narrative, biography </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multitude of standards & expectations in writing, research, reading, vocabulary, & speaking </li></ul><ul><li>Spark creativity & imagination—create a thought -provoking search & thematic product </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforce mechanics </li></ul>
    43. 43. Why Use Multi-Genre? <ul><li>Incorporate thinking: analysis, synthesis & MI </li></ul><ul><li>Driven by a personal need to know </li></ul><ul><li>Provides the opportunity to communicate in multiple genres </li></ul><ul><li>Expands student writing experiences beyond a traditional report </li></ul><ul><li>Process provides the synergy of sharing ideas & accomplishment </li></ul><ul><li>Students develop identities as writers & learners </li></ul>
    44. 44. 5 th Grade Multi-Genre: Process & Product Complete same process up to spreadsheet Decide and draft the thread that hangs all of the pieces together Decide and draft the various genre pieces for the ‘thread’ of the project When everything fits, revise as needed, edit, and publish.
    45. 45. Interactive Multigenre Planning Tool
    46. 46. Multi-Genre Example: Wanted! <ul><li>A lovely giraffe is wanted for eating too much bark off trees causing the poor trees to die. If you see this 16-17 foot tall female giraffe, please come to animal control. Thank you! </li></ul><ul><li>Reward: A nice salad with everything you can dream of on it! </li></ul>
    47. 47. Multi-Genre Example: Menu <ul><li>Welcome to Irukandji Restaurant! </li></ul><ul><li>We cater to adults and children </li></ul>Adult Menu Prawns Fish Just for the children Microscopic animals – as much as you can eat!
    48. 48. Multi-Genre Example: Dear Diary <ul><li>Dear Diary, </li></ul><ul><li>I turned 4 years old today. All of </li></ul><ul><li>the emperor penguins chose today </li></ul><ul><li>to form a colony called a rookery. </li></ul><ul><li>Together, we travel 70 miles to our </li></ul><ul><li>mating grounds and huddle </li></ul><ul><li>together to keep warm. We go to </li></ul><ul><li>the same spot where we were born </li></ul><ul><li>where the ice is thickest and won’t </li></ul><ul><li>break under all our weight. </li></ul>
    49. 49. Multi-Genre Example: Creative Interview-Late Night TV <ul><li>Marty (host): Now, can you tell </li></ul><ul><li>me more about how you find </li></ul><ul><li>your meals? </li></ul><ul><li>Prickles (hedgehog): I have a furry face with two eyes that cannot see very well, but I have two large ears that hear well and a nose that is superb. Add my mouthful of sharp teeth and I think you get the picture. </li></ul>
    50. 50. Multi-Genre Example: Poetry <ul><li>Raining </li></ul><ul><li>Snails reign </li></ul><ul><li>Especially when it rains. </li></ul><ul><li>They march out of hibernation </li></ul><ul><li>Around March. </li></ul>Macho Cat The jaguar conquers the capybara in the grass Slams it into the ground Crushes the skull With its tantalizing teeth Then drags it home to eat.
    51. 51. Multi-Genre Example: Page Torn Out of an ABC Book The pads on the bottom of the tiger’s feet help him to move quickly and quietly through forests and grasslands. Sneaky, sneaky! When tiger cubs play , they are practicing their hunting skills. They are not trained by the father as he leaves after they are born. The loud “ROAR” of the tiger can REACH distances up to a mile away. I would hate to be next to the tiger when he roars – for more reasons than noise!
    52. 52. Multi-Genre Example: Simulated Ad– “Danger Lurks” <ul><li>Human creatures are starting to take our kind one by one. Armed with guns and working in groups, the poachers in the forests of Africa seek animals with the longest tusks. These are sold to dealers for up to $350 per pound. Beware! Report any poaching activity to the Wildlife Conservation Society. </li></ul>
    53. 53. Multi-Genre Example: Diagram 2 keen eyes 4 paws – run up to 30 miles per hour Up to 12-21 inches long Head and body length, 18 to 33.75 in
    54. 54. Multi-Genre Use Of Technology <ul><li>Powerpoint slide show </li></ul><ul><li>Digital story </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporate video clips </li></ul><ul><li>& music </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive for viewers </li></ul><ul><li>Motivating & </li></ul><ul><li>engaging for </li></ul><ul><li>creators </li></ul>
    55. 55. Argumentation: Toulmin <ul><li>Considered a “Genre of Power” </li></ul><ul><li>Improves logic, persuasion, the ability to argue reasonably, & coherence of an argument </li></ul><ul><li>Introduces students to informal logic </li></ul><ul><li>Aligns to instructional requirements of the ACT in the high school Michigan Merit Exam </li></ul><ul><li>Establishes a claim—then proves it with logical reasoning, examples, and research </li></ul><ul><li>Guides an audience through the writer’s reasoning process, offers an explanation of each point argued, & demonstrates the credibility of the writer </li></ul>
    56. 56. Toulmin’s Conversational Approach <ul><li>The writer makes a claim . The claim is the point being made, answering the question “So, what is your point?” </li></ul><ul><li>The audience may accept this claim or ask, &quot;Why do you say that?&quot; or &quot;What makes you say that?&quot; Respond with evidence or data that satisfies the challenge. </li></ul><ul><li>If the data satisfy the audience, the conversation ends. This suggests that the data warranted the claim & satisfies the question &quot;Is the data sufficient to prove this claim?” </li></ul>
    57. 57. Toulmin Writers <ul><li>4. The conversation will end if warranted data support the claim. If not, the opposition might ask, &quot;Why do you think that such data supports that claim?&quot; The response is backing for the warrant </li></ul><ul><li>5. Or, the audience might respond, &quot;There were assumptions being made when you chose to use that data to support that claim that may or may not be true.” This requires rebuttal </li></ul><ul><li>6. The writer might respond to the challenge by narrowing the claim and adding a qualifier </li></ul>
    58. 58. Argumentation: Planning & Drafting <ul><li>What position or claim will be developed? Take a stand. </li></ul><ul><li>What grounds will convince the reader to agree with the claim? Give reasons why, data, evidence, and facts. </li></ul><ul><li>What is the link (warrant) between grounds and claim? Explain the “reasons why” using conventional wording, e.g., since, given the data, if…then… </li></ul><ul><li>Is the backing reliable? Justify the reasons. This is reasonable because ... (further explanation) </li></ul>
    59. 59. Argumentation: Planning & Drafting <ul><li>What are other possible views on this issue? Rebut the counterargument. Explain and refute other possibilities, e.g., Others might think...but... </li></ul><ul><li>Is a qualification necessary? Is the argument so solid that qualification based on extenuating circumstances is unneeded? Use conditional qualification, e.g., probably, presumably </li></ul><ul><li>Have I adequately summed up the case? Restate and summarize </li></ul>
    60. 60. Toulmin Graphic Rebuttals to Counterarguments Most Significant Counterargument 3. 3. 3. 2. 2. 2. 1. 1. 1. “ Warrant” HOW the reasons & examples support the position EXAMPLES and EVIDENCE “ Reasons” or WHY I take this position My CLEAR POSITION (thesis) on this issue: Audience: Purpose: Topic or Issue: Writing Prompt:
    61. 61. Interactive Persuasive Essay Planning Tool
    62. 62. Recommendations <ul><li>Use writing strategies across all content areas, write both narrative & informational texts, & write everyday </li></ul><ul><li>Require all students—especially less experienced ones—to write extensively so that they become comfortable writing extended prose </li></ul><ul><li>Create writing assignments that require analysis and interpretation through a wide variety of genres </li></ul><ul><li>Help students understand how language works in a variety of contexts </li></ul><ul><li>Foster collaborative writing processes </li></ul>
    63. 63. Recommendations <ul><li>Use formative assessment to give students feedback on developing drafts </li></ul><ul><li>Employ multiple measures to track student’s development & proficiency over time </li></ul><ul><li>Develop authentic assessments that bridge gaps between school/workplace writing </li></ul><ul><li>Create & implement curricula that fosters writing through every subject at every grade level </li></ul><ul><li>Build a technological infrastructure to support new media writing and make it a part of students’ regular composing </li></ul><ul><li>Invest in professional development </li></ul>
    64. 64. Open the Window <ul><li>“ It has been said that reading can serve as a window to the world; if that is true, then writing is what opens the window. That window must be opened to all.”— Kylene Beers, The Genteel Unteaching of America’s Poor, p. 1 </li></ul><ul><li>We will post WAC materials and this powerpoint at our wiki site. Please go to: </li></ul><ul><li>http://hickstro.wikispaces.com/WAC_MRA_2009 </li></ul>
    65. 65. Contacts Carol Trojanowski Anna B. Literacy Consultant MSU Faculty, College of Ed [email_address] 517-339-8441 Sharon Armstrong GISD ELA Coordinator [email_address] 810-591-4441 Troy Hicks Chippewa River Writing Project Central Michigan University [email_address] 989-774-3236 Lynnette Van Dyke MDE ELA Consultant [email_address] 517-241-3508