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Tree Crops & Agroforestry - Young Farmers 09

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This is my presentation on tree crops & agroforestry at Young Farmers Conference 2009.

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Tree Crops & Agroforestry - Young Farmers 09

  1. 1. Tree Crops and Agroforestry Whole-systems Regeneration Through Perennial Agriculture Connor Stedman – Gaia Northeast Thanks to: M. Kat Anderson, Dave Jacke, Ethan Roland, Jon Young
  2. 3. What is Agroforestry? <ul><li>Agroforestry (AF) is land use integrating trees and/or tree crops with other types of agriculture. </li></ul><ul><li>The three I’s: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intentional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interconnected </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The “Rule of 3”: An AF system must have at least 3 “layers” or managed functional elements. </li></ul>
  3. 4. The Roots – Indigenous AF Worldwide
  4. 5. Tropical Agroforestry
  5. 6. Tropical Agroforestry <ul><li>Read 1491 by Charles Mann. Current Amazonian rainforest diversity is a result of thousands of years of native agroforestry. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Tropical Agroforestry <ul><li>Read 1491 by Charles Mann. Current Amazonian rainforest diversity is a result of thousands of years of native agroforestry. </li></ul><ul><li>Hawai’ian Ahupua’a – whole-watershed management from mountain to sea, cared for by extended family networks. </li></ul>
  7. 8. Temperate & Mediterranean Agroforestry <ul><li>(Wherever acorns are found.) </li></ul>
  8. 9. Balanoculture
  9. 10. Cork Oak Savanna
  10. 11. Tending the Wild Across North America
  11. 12. Tending the Wild Across North America <ul><li>M. Kat Anderson spent 17 years interviewing native elders from around California. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Tending the Wild Across North America <ul><li>M. Kat Anderson spent 17 years interviewing native elders from around California. </li></ul><ul><li>Their stories illustrate whole-ecosystem caretaking based on agroforestry and managing wild plant and animal populations for harvest. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Tending the Wild Across North America <ul><li>M. Kat Anderson spent 17 years interviewing native elders from around California. </li></ul><ul><li>Their stories illustrate whole-ecosystem caretaking based on agroforestry and managing wild plant and animal populations for harvest. </li></ul><ul><li>Analogous patterns are found in the history (and sometimes present day) of every inhabited ecosystem in North America. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Soaproot – Chlorogalum spp. <ul><li>A “wild” plant physiologically </li></ul><ul><li>adapted to human harvesting </li></ul><ul><li>and use. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Some Paradigm Shifts <ul><li>Don’t just plant and harvest crops – manage and participate in the ecosystems that support staple crops in abundance. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Some Paradigm Shifts <ul><li>Don’t just plant and harvest crops – manage and participate in the ecosystems that support staple crops in abundance. </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional land use patterns have resulted in heritage ecosystems , with humans as keystone species within those ecosystems. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Some Paradigm Shifts <ul><li>Don’t just plant and harvest crops – manage and participate in the ecosystems that support staple crops in abundance. </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional land use patterns have resulted in heritage ecosystems , with humans as keystone species within those ecosystems. </li></ul><ul><li>With regenerative land use practices, human economic activities increase ecosystem health. </li></ul>
  18. 19. References on Indigenous Agroforestry <ul><li>Tending the Wild – M. Kat Anderson </li></ul><ul><li>Enduring Seeds – Gary Paul Nabhan </li></ul><ul><li>The Voice of the Dawn – Frederick Matthew Wiseman </li></ul><ul><li>It Will Live Forever – Julia Parker & Beverly Ortiz </li></ul><ul><li>1491 – Charles Mann </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in the Land – William Cronon </li></ul>
  19. 20. Coppice: Traditional European Agroforestry
  20. 21. The Coppice Cycle
  21. 22. Billhook
  22. 23. Coppice Products: Unlimited Potential <ul><li>Baskets – Furniture – Buildings – Tools – FUEL </li></ul><ul><li>… ..and more! </li></ul>
  23. 24. Coppice and Standard <ul><li>Understory: coppice </li></ul><ul><li>Overstory: mast trees. </li></ul><ul><li>Other yields: wild </li></ul><ul><li>plant & fungus food & </li></ul><ul><li>medicine, wild game, </li></ul><ul><li>silvopasture… </li></ul><ul><li>Whole Ecosystem Management </li></ul>
  24. 25. So…. What does all this mean in the Northeast US?
  25. 26. Northeast US Forest Characteristics <ul><li>Temperate forest ecosystem; 40+ inches of rain distributed evenly through the year. </li></ul>
  26. 27. Northeast US Forest Characteristics <ul><li>Temperate forest ecosystem; 40+ inches of rain distributed evenly through the year. </li></ul><ul><li>Rainfall exceeding evaporation + heavy winter snowfalls = high levels of spring mineral leaching from topsoil. </li></ul>
  27. 28. Northeast US Forest Characteristics <ul><li>Temperate forest ecosystem; 40+ inches of rain distributed evenly through the year. </li></ul><ul><li>Rainfall exceeding evaporation + heavy winter snowfalls = high levels of spring mineral leaching from topsoil. </li></ul><ul><li>Most forests are under 100 years old. Old-growth very rare and extremely fragmented. </li></ul>
  28. 29. Northeast US Forest Characteristics <ul><li>Temperate forest ecosystem; 40+ inches of rain distributed evenly through the year. </li></ul><ul><li>Rainfall exceeding evaporation + heavy winter snowfalls = high levels of spring mineral leaching from topsoil. </li></ul><ul><li>Most forests are under 100 years old. Old-growth very rare and extremely fragmented. </li></ul><ul><li>Coastal & intervale prairies and savannas almost completely gone – huge loss of diverse early-succession habitats. </li></ul>
  29. 30. Northeast US Forest Characteristics <ul><li>Temperate forest ecosystem; 40+ inches of rain distributed evenly through the year. </li></ul><ul><li>Rainfall exceeding evaporation + heavy winter snowfalls = high levels of spring mineral leaching from topsoil. </li></ul><ul><li>Most forests are under 100 years old. Old-growth very rare and extremely fragmented. </li></ul><ul><li>Coastal & intervale prairies and savannas almost completely gone – huge loss of diverse early-succession habitats. </li></ul><ul><li>200+ years of near-complete fire suppression. </li></ul>
  30. 31. Northeast US Forest Characteristics <ul><li>Temperate forest ecosystem; 40+ inches of rain distributed evenly through the year. </li></ul><ul><li>Rainfall exceeding evaporation + heavy winter snowfalls = high levels of spring mineral leaching from topsoil. </li></ul><ul><li>Most forests are under 100 years old. Old-growth very rare and extremely fragmented. </li></ul><ul><li>Coastal & intervale prairies and savannas almost completely gone – huge loss of diverse early-succession habitats. </li></ul><ul><li>200+ years of near-complete fire suppression. </li></ul><ul><li>A 10,000+ Year History of Agroforestry </li></ul>
  31. 32. Tree Crop Characteristics for AF in the Northeast <ul><li>Climate-appropriate </li></ul>
  32. 33. Tree Crop Characteristics for AF in the Northeast <ul><li>Climate-appropriate </li></ul><ul><li>High Yielding & High Quality </li></ul>
  33. 34. Tree Crop Characteristics for AF in the Northeast <ul><li>Climate-appropriate </li></ul><ul><li>High Yielding & High Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Disease Resistant </li></ul>
  34. 35. Tree Crop Characteristics for AF in the Northeast <ul><li>Climate-appropriate </li></ul><ul><li>High Yielding & High Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Disease Resistant </li></ul><ul><li>Historic or present-day use as staple crop </li></ul>
  35. 36. Tree Crop Characteristics for AF in the Northeast <ul><li>Climate-appropriate </li></ul><ul><li>High Yielding & High Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Disease Resistant </li></ul><ul><li>Historic or present-day use as staple crop </li></ul><ul><li>Same, Analogous, or Closely Related Plants Found in Local Ecosystems </li></ul>
  36. 37. Tree Crop Characteristics for AF in the Northeast <ul><li>Climate-appropriate </li></ul><ul><li>High Yielding & High Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Disease Resistant </li></ul><ul><li>Historic or present-day use as staple crop </li></ul><ul><li>Same, Analogous, or Closely Related Plants Found in Local Ecosystems </li></ul><ul><li>--Fun and Exciting – Motivational Species!-- </li></ul>
  37. 38. Top Tree Crops: Small Fruits <ul><li>Currants & Gooseberries ( Ribes spp. ) </li></ul>
  38. 39. Top Tree Crops: Small Fruits <ul><li>Currants & Gooseberries ( Ribes spp. ) </li></ul><ul><li>Raspberries & Blackberries ( Rubus spp.) </li></ul>
  39. 40. Top Tree Crops: Small Fruits <ul><li>Currants & Gooseberries ( Ribes spp. ) </li></ul><ul><li>Raspberries & Blackberries ( Rubus spp.) </li></ul><ul><li>Bush Cherries ( Prunus spp. ) </li></ul>
  40. 41. Top Tree Crops: Mid-Sized Fruits <ul><li>Juneberries ( Amalanchier spp.) </li></ul>
  41. 42. Top Tree Crops: Mid-Sized Fruits <ul><li>Juneberries ( Amalanchier spp.) </li></ul><ul><li>Pawpaw ( Asimina triloba ) </li></ul>
  42. 43. Top Tree Crops: Mid-Sized Fruits <ul><li>Juneberries ( Amalanchier spp.) </li></ul><ul><li>Pawpaw ( Asimina triloba ) </li></ul><ul><li>Hardy Kiwi ( Actinidia arguta ) </li></ul>
  43. 44. Top Tree Crops: Orchard Fruits <ul><li>Pear ( Pyrus spp. ) </li></ul>
  44. 45. Top Tree Crops: Orchard Fruits <ul><li>Pear ( Pyrus spp. ) </li></ul><ul><li>Persimmon ( Diospyrus spp. ) </li></ul>
  45. 46. Top Tree Crops: Orchard Fruits <ul><li>Pear ( Pyrus spp. ) </li></ul><ul><li>Persimmon ( Diospyrus spp. ) </li></ul><ul><li>Mulberry ( Morus spp. ) </li></ul>
  46. 47. Top Tree Crops: Nut Trees <ul><li>Hazel/Filbert ( Corylus spp. ) </li></ul>
  47. 48. Top Tree Crops: Nut Trees <ul><li>Hazel/Filbert ( Corylus spp. ) </li></ul><ul><li>Chestnut ( Castenaea spp. ) </li></ul>
  48. 49. Top Tree Crops: Nut Trees <ul><li>Hazel/Filbert ( Corylus spp. ) </li></ul><ul><li>Chestnut ( Castenaea spp. ) </li></ul><ul><li>Black Walnut ( Juglans nigra ) </li></ul>
  49. 50. Top Tree Crops: Timber/Coppice <ul><li>Black Locust ( Robinia pseudoacacia ) </li></ul>
  50. 51. Top Tree Crops: Timber/Coppice <ul><li>Black Locust ( Robinia pseudoacacia ) </li></ul><ul><li>Black Walnut ( Juglans nigra ) </li></ul>
  51. 52. Top Tree Crops: Timber/Coppice <ul><li>Black Locust ( Robinia pseudoacacia ) </li></ul><ul><li>Black Walnut ( Juglans nigra ) </li></ul><ul><li>Hazel/Filbert ( Corylus spp. ) </li></ul>
  52. 53. Some Tree Crop Resources <ul><li>Tree Crops - J. Russell Smith </li></ul><ul><li>Edible Forest Gardens - Dave Jacke & Eric Toensmeier </li></ul><ul><li>Uncommon Fruits - Lee Reich </li></ul><ul><li>A Guide to Nut Tree Culture in North America – Dennis W. Fulbright, ed. </li></ul><ul><li>Northern Nut Growers Association – nutgrowing.org </li></ul><ul><li>The Woodland Way – Ben Law </li></ul><ul><li>Permaculture: A Designer’s Manual – Bill Mollison </li></ul>
  53. 54. Why Implement AF Now? <ul><li>Overyielding Polycultures </li></ul><ul><li>Perennial Staple Crops </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon Sequestration </li></ul><ul><li>Erosion Control & Soil Fertility Renewal </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable, Local, Carbon-Neutral Fuel </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat Regeneration </li></ul><ul><li>Productive Use of Marginal/Degraded Land </li></ul><ul><li>Enhancement of Existing Farm Systems </li></ul><ul><li>= BIOREGION REPAIR </li></ul>
  54. 55. 4 Strategies for AF Implementation <ul><li>1. Enhance Existing Farm Systems & Solve Problems with Tree Crops </li></ul><ul><li>2. Implement Proven AF Tree Crop Systems </li></ul><ul><li>3. Trial, Research, and Develop Commercially Unproven AF Tree Crop Systems </li></ul><ul><li>4. Manage Existing Landscapes as Heritage Ecosystems </li></ul>
  55. 56. 1. Enhance Existing Farm Systems & Solve Problems with Tree Crops <ul><ul><li>Windbreaks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Riparian Buffers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hedgerows </li></ul></ul>
  56. 57. 2. Implement Commercially Proven Tree Crop Systems <ul><li>Alley Cropping </li></ul><ul><li>Forest Farming </li></ul><ul><li>Silvopasture </li></ul>
  57. 58. 3. Trial, Research, and Develop Commercially Unproven Tree Crop Systems & Techniques
  58. 59. 3. Trial, Research, and Develop Commercially Unproven Tree Crop Systems & Techniques <ul><li>Ideas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fruit/nut orchard with diverse perennial crop understory </li></ul></ul>
  59. 60. 3. Trial, Research, and Develop Commercially Unproven Tree Crop Systems & Techniques <ul><li>Ideas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fruit/nut orchard with diverse perennial crop understory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prescribed fire management in nut tree-based AF systems </li></ul></ul>
  60. 61. 3. Trial, Research, and Develop Commercially Unproven Tree Crop Systems & Techniques <ul><li>Ideas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fruit/nut orchard with diverse perennial crop understory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prescribed fire management in nut tree-based AF systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trial uncommon fruits for small commercial markets within AF systems, such as: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Juneberry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>American Persimmon </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pawpaw </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jujube </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Honeyberry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hardy Kiwi </li></ul></ul></ul>
  61. 62. 4. Manage Existing Landscapes as Heritage Ecosystems
  62. 64. Contact Info <ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>turkeytail.wordpress.com </li></ul><ul><li>Gaia Northeast </li></ul><ul><li>B.Sc. and M.Sc. Degree Programs Start February 2011 </li></ul><ul><li>www.gaianortheast.org </li></ul><ul><li>www.gaiauniversity.org </li></ul>

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