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gynecologic cancers
Prepared by:
Hiba Saad Ahmed Yousif
BScN
Outline
• Ovarian cancer
• Uterine (endometrial) cancer
• Cervical cancer
• Vulvar cancer
• Vaginal cancer
Overian cancer
• Ovarian cancer is
cancer that forms in
the tissue of the ovary
and it Called
“the overlooked disease”
or ...
Epidemiology
• Ovarian cancer is the second most common
gynecologic cancer after uterine cancer.
• It causes more deaths t...
Pathophysiology
• Ovarian cancer, the cause of which is
unknown, can originate from different cell
types.
• Most ovarian c...
Stages :
• In stage 1 the cancer is limited to the ovaries.
• In stage 2 the growth involves one or both
ovaries, with pel...
Risk factors
• Nulliparity
• Early menarche (before 12 years old)
• Late menopause (after 55 years old)
• Increasing age (...
• Inherited
• Use of perineal talcum powder or hygiene sprays
• Older than 30 years at first pregnancy
• Positive BRCA-1 a...
Clinical mainifestation
• Pelvic discomfort or pain
• Persistent indigestion, gas, or nausea
• Abdominal pressure, swellin...
Cont..
• fatigue
• Vague abdominal pain
• diarrhea or constipation
• unexplained weight loss or gain
• ascites
• a palpabl...
Nursing assessment
• History
• Physical examination
• Investigation:-
• Ultrasound: Low positive predictive value for
canc...
Treatment
• There are many different kinds of treatments
available, depends on certain factors, like:
• The stage and size...
Cont…
• Surgery :Is the most common. The surgeon
tries to remove as much of the tumor as
possible
• Chemotherapy :Chemo is...
Endometrial cancer
• Endometrial cancer also known as (uterine cancer)
is malignant neoplastic growth of the uterine linin...
Epidemiology
• Approximately 95% of these malignancies
are carcinomas of the endometrium.
• Most common in women > age 50 ...
Phathophysiology
• Endometrial cancer may originate in a polyp or in a
diffuse multifocal pattern.
• The pattern of spread...
stages
• In stage 1, it has spread to the muscle wall of the
uterus.
• In stage 2, it has spread to the cervix.
• In stage...
Casuse &risk factor
• A history of exposure to unopposed estrogen is
the cause in 75% of women
• Nulliparity
• Obesity (mo...
• Early menarche (before 12 years old)
• High-fat diet
• Endometrial hyperplasia
• Family history of endometrial cancer
• ...
Clinical manifestation
• Dyspareunia
• Low back pain
• Purulent genital discharge
• Dysuria
• Pelvic pain
• Weight loss
• ...
Nursing assessment
• History .
• Physical examination
• Investigation:
• A pelvic examination is frequently normal in the
...
:investigation
Pap Smear
• –Only 30-50% patients with cancer will have an
abnormal result
Endometrial Biopsy
• Transvagina...
Pap Smear test
Endometrial Carcinoma
Treatment
• Surgery is the mainstay of treatment followed by
adjuvant radiation and/or chemotherapy ...
Cervical cancer
Cervical cancer is
cancer of the
uterine cervix.
Epidemiology
• Approximately 570,000 cases expected worldwide
each year
• 275,000 deaths
Number one cancer killer of
women...
Pathophysiology
• Cervical cancer starts with abnormal changes in the
cellular lining of the cervix.
• Typically these cha...
Cervical Cancer Etiology
• Cervical cancer is a sexually transmitted disease.
• HPV is the primary cause of cervical cance...
Cervical Cancer Risk Factors
• smoking
• giving birth to more than 7 children having your first
child before 17yrs
• Numbe...
The stages of cancer
progression
The pre-cancerous
stage before the cells
turn cancerous is
called Cervical Intra-
epithel...
Clinical Manifestations
• May be silent until advanced disease develops
• Symptoms of Invasion :
• Post-coital bleeding
• ...
Nursing assessment
• History
• Physical examination
• Investigation:
• Pap smear test :
• To Obtain Cells From the Cervix ...
Cold cone biopsy
Colposcopy Medical Test
a procedure that
allows doctor to
look at the surface
of your cervix and
biopsy any
abnormal areas
Treatment of Early Disease
• simple hysterectomy
• microinvasive cancer Radical hysterectomy -removal
of the uterus with i...
Radical hysterectomy -removal of the
uterus
Vaginal caner
Vaginal Cancer
• Vaginal cancer is malignant tissue
growth arising in the
vagina.
Epidemiology
• It is rare, representing less than 3% of all
genital cancers.
• This type of cancer usually occurs in women...
Pathophysiology
• Malignant diseases of the vagina are either
primary vaginal cancers or metastatic forms
from adjacent or...
• Tumors in the vagina commonly occur on the
posterior wall and spread to the cervix or vulva
• Squamous cell carcinomas t...
Vagina cancer Staging
• Stage 1: Confined to Vaginal Wall
• Stage 2: Subvaginal tissue but not to pelvic
sidewall
• Stage ...
Causes &Risk factors
• Cause is unknown
• Advancing age (over 50 years old)
• Previous pelvic radiation
• Vaginal trauma
•...
Symptoms
• Painless vaginal bleeding (often after sexual
intercourse)
• Abnormal vaginal discharge
• Dyspareunia
• Dysuria...
Nursing assessment
• History
• Physical examination
• Investigation:
• Biopsy to look for either precancerous or
cancerous...
Treatment
• Treatment of vaginal cancer depends on the type of
cells involved and the stage of the disease.
• If the cance...
Vulvar cancer
Vulvar Cancer
• Vulvar cancer is an abnormal neoplastic growth on
the external female genitalia
Vulvar cancer epidemiology
• It is responsible for 0.6% of all malignancies in
women and 4% of all female genital cancers....
Pathophysiology
• Approximately 90% of vulvar tumors are
squamous cell carcinomas.
• This type of cancer forms slowly over...
• The two major types of VIN are classic
(undifferentiated) and simplex
(differentiated).
• Classic VIN, the more common o...
Causes & Risk Factor
• Cigarette smoking
• Human Papilloma
Virus (HPV)
infection
• Immunosuppressio
n
• Chronic vulvar
con...
Clinical Manifestations
• Ulcer or mass
• Pruritus is the most common presenting
symptom especially if associated with vul...
Nursing assessment
• History
• Physical examinations
• Investigations:
• Biopsy of gross lesions
• If no gross lesion pres...
Therapeutic Management
• Surgery
• Chemotherapy
• Radiotherapy
pregnancy & Cancer
• Cancer during pregnancy is uncommon
• Most importantly, a pregnant woman with
cancer is capable of gi...
Treatment of pregnant women
• Some cancer treatments may be used during pregnancy
but only after careful consideration and...
• Chemotherapy.
• Chemotherapy can harm the fetus, particularly if
it is given during
• The first trimester of pregnancy w...
• The later stages of pregnancy may not
directly harm the developing baby, it may
cause side effects like malnutrition and...
No breast feeding?
• Radiation therapy:
• Radiation therapy can harm the fetus,
particularly during the first trimester, doctors
generally av...
Nursing management for
gynecologic cancers
• Focuses on measures to promote early detection
Screening
• Provide emotional support.
• Nurses should show a positive at...
• Teach the woman about preventive measures such
as not wearing tight undergarments and not using
perfumes and dyes in the...
• Tell her to look for any changes in genital
appearance, changes in feel ( areas of the vulva
becoming itchy or painful) ...
NURSING CARE PLANE
• NURSING DIAGNOSIS: Anxiety related to
diagnosis of cancer
• Outcome:
• Reducing Anxiety
•Interventions:
• Assess client’s psychological status to
determine degree of emotional distress
related to diagnosis and ...
• • Provide reliable, realistic information to
enhance her understanding of her condition,
subsequently reducing her anxie...
• 2/NURSING DIAGNOSIS: Deficient knowledge
related to diagnosis, and treatment
• Outcome: educatable Client about disease
•Interventions:
• • Assess client’s current knowledge about her
diagnosis and proposed therapeutic regimen to
establish a ...
• • Urge the client to have Pap smear to allow
screening and early detection.
• • Provide written material with pictures t...
Be careful fromus
Thank you
warning
To inquire or help , please e-mail me at:
hibasaad1994@Hotmail.com
Thank you for trusting me
Hiba saad
gynecologic cancers
gynecologic cancers
gynecologic cancers
gynecologic cancers
gynecologic cancers
gynecologic cancers
gynecologic cancers
gynecologic cancers
gynecologic cancers
gynecologic cancers
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gynecologic cancers

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The slides talk about all types of the gynecologic cancers and nursing care by simple way.
Hope to find it useful for u
thanks
Hiba saad

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gynecologic cancers

  1. 1. gynecologic cancers Prepared by: Hiba Saad Ahmed Yousif BScN
  2. 2. Outline • Ovarian cancer • Uterine (endometrial) cancer • Cervical cancer • Vulvar cancer • Vaginal cancer
  3. 3. Overian cancer • Ovarian cancer is cancer that forms in the tissue of the ovary and it Called “the overlooked disease” or “the silent killer”
  4. 4. Epidemiology • Ovarian cancer is the second most common gynecologic cancer after uterine cancer. • It causes more deaths than any other gynecologic cancer. • Older women are at highest risk (frequently in women between 55 and 75 years of age). • 75%will survive one year and about 25% will survive 5 years after treatment.
  5. 5. Pathophysiology • Ovarian cancer, the cause of which is unknown, can originate from different cell types. • Most ovarian cancers originate in the ovarian epithelium. • They usually present as solid masses that have spread beyond the ovary.
  6. 6. Stages : • In stage 1 the cancer is limited to the ovaries. • In stage 2 the growth involves one or both ovaries, with pelvic extension. • Stage 3 cancer has spread to the lymph nodes and other organs or structures inside the abdominal cavity. • In stage 4, the cancer has metastasized to distant sites
  7. 7. Risk factors • Nulliparity • Early menarche (before 12 years old) • Late menopause (after 55 years old) • Increasing age (over 50 years of age) • High-fat diet • Obesity • Persistent ovulation over time • First-degree relative with ovarian cancer
  8. 8. • Inherited • Use of perineal talcum powder or hygiene sprays • Older than 30 years at first pregnancy • Positive BRCA-1 and BRCA-2 mutations • Personal history of breast, bladder, or colon cancer • Hormone replacement therapy for more than 10 years • Infertility
  9. 9. Clinical mainifestation • Pelvic discomfort or pain • Persistent indigestion, gas, or nausea • Abdominal pressure, swelling, or bloating • Urinary urgency or burning with no infection • Changes in menstruation.
  10. 10. Cont.. • fatigue • Vague abdominal pain • diarrhea or constipation • unexplained weight loss or gain • ascites • a palpable abdominal mass • back pain
  11. 11. Nursing assessment • History • Physical examination • Investigation:- • Ultrasound: Low positive predictive value for cancer • Tumor markers • Tumor markers are substances that can be found in the body (usually in the blood or urine) when cancer is present.
  12. 12. Treatment • There are many different kinds of treatments available, depends on certain factors, like: • The stage and size of the tumors • Age • General health • Desire to have kids
  13. 13. Cont… • Surgery :Is the most common. The surgeon tries to remove as much of the tumor as possible • Chemotherapy :Chemo is commonly used after surgery to kills cancer cells that weren’t removed • Radiation Therapy: The main goal is to reduce pain symptoms • Biotherapy/Immunotherapy: Boosts the body’s immune system to fight the disease.
  14. 14. Endometrial cancer • Endometrial cancer also known as (uterine cancer) is malignant neoplastic growth of the uterine lining.
  15. 15. Epidemiology • Approximately 95% of these malignancies are carcinomas of the endometrium. • Most common in women > age 50 years. • 75% of uterine cancers occur in post- menopausal women. • Incidence is highly dependent on age.
  16. 16. Phathophysiology • Endometrial cancer may originate in a polyp or in a diffuse multifocal pattern. • The pattern of spread partially depends on the degree of cellular differentiation. • Early tumor growth is characterized by friable and spontaneous bleeding. • Later tumor growth is characterized by growth toward the cervix
  17. 17. stages • In stage 1, it has spread to the muscle wall of the uterus. • In stage 2, it has spread to the cervix. • In stage 3, it has spread to the bowel or vagina, with metastases to pelvic lymph nodes. • In stage 4, it has invaded the bladder mucosa with distant metastases to the lungs , inguinal, supraclavicular nodes, liver, and bone
  18. 18. Casuse &risk factor • A history of exposure to unopposed estrogen is the cause in 75% of women • Nulliparity • Obesity (more than 50 pounds overweight) • Liver disease • Infertility • Diabetes mellitus • Hypertension • History of pelvic radiation
  19. 19. • Early menarche (before 12 years old) • High-fat diet • Endometrial hyperplasia • Family history of endometrial cancer • Personal history of hereditary colon cancer • Personal history of breast or ovarian cancer • Late onset of menopause (after age 52 years) • Tamoxifen use (This medication can block the growth of breast cancer)
  20. 20. Clinical manifestation • Dyspareunia • Low back pain • Purulent genital discharge • Dysuria • Pelvic pain • Weight loss • A change in bladder and bowel habits
  21. 21. Nursing assessment • History . • Physical examination • Investigation: • A pelvic examination is frequently normal in the early stages of the disease. • Changes in the size, shape, or consistency of the uterus or its surrounding support structures may exist when the disease is more advanced
  22. 22. :investigation Pap Smear • –Only 30-50% patients with cancer will have an abnormal result Endometrial Biopsy • Transvaginal Ultrasound Fractional Dilation and Curettage • –Use in cases of cervical stenosis, patient intolerance to exam, recurrent bleeding after negative biopsy
  23. 23. Pap Smear test
  24. 24. Endometrial Carcinoma Treatment • Surgery is the mainstay of treatment followed by adjuvant radiation and/or chemotherapy based on stage of disease. • Primary radiotherapy or hormonal therapy may be employed in patients who have contraindications to surgery.
  25. 25. Cervical cancer Cervical cancer is cancer of the uterine cervix.
  26. 26. Epidemiology • Approximately 570,000 cases expected worldwide each year • 275,000 deaths Number one cancer killer of women worldwide • With the advent of the Pap smear, the incidence of cervical cancer has declined
  27. 27. Pathophysiology • Cervical cancer starts with abnormal changes in the cellular lining of the cervix. • Typically these changes occur in the squamous– columnar junction of the cervix. • Here, columnar epithelial cells meet the protective flat squamous epithelial cells from the outer cervix and vagina in what is termed the transformation zone. • The continuous replacement of columnar epithelial cells by squamous epithelial cells in this area makes these cells vulnerable to take up foreign or abnormal genetic material
  28. 28. Cervical Cancer Etiology • Cervical cancer is a sexually transmitted disease. • HPV is the primary cause of cervical cancer. • Some strains of HPV have a predilection to the genital tract and transmission is usually through sexual contact (15, 19 age High Risk).
  29. 29. Cervical Cancer Risk Factors • smoking • giving birth to more than 7 children having your first child before 17yrs • Number of sexual partners • Early age of intercourse • Having a weakened immune system
  30. 30. The stages of cancer progression The pre-cancerous stage before the cells turn cancerous is called Cervical Intra- epithelial Neoplasia commonly in short called CIN
  31. 31. Clinical Manifestations • May be silent until advanced disease develops • Symptoms of Invasion : • Post-coital bleeding • Foul vaginal discharge • Abnormal bleeding • Unilateral leg swelling or pain • Pelvic mass • Pelvic pain • Gross cervical lesion
  32. 32. Nursing assessment • History • Physical examination • Investigation: • Pap smear test : • To Obtain Cells From the Cervix for Cervical Cytology Screening • Cold cone biobsy • MRI, a CT, blood tests or a X-ray • Colposcopy,
  33. 33. Cold cone biopsy
  34. 34. Colposcopy Medical Test a procedure that allows doctor to look at the surface of your cervix and biopsy any abnormal areas
  35. 35. Treatment of Early Disease • simple hysterectomy • microinvasive cancer Radical hysterectomy -removal of the uterus with its associated connective tissues, the upper vagina, and pelvic lymph nodes.. • Chemoradiation therapy • Advanced Staging: • Chemoradiation is the mainstay of treatment • Chemotherapy acts as a radiation sensitizer and may also control distant disease
  36. 36. Radical hysterectomy -removal of the uterus
  37. 37. Vaginal caner
  38. 38. Vaginal Cancer • Vaginal cancer is malignant tissue growth arising in the vagina.
  39. 39. Epidemiology • It is rare, representing less than 3% of all genital cancers. • This type of cancer usually occurs in women over age 50. • Vaginal cancer can be effectively treated, and when found early it is often curable. • The etiology of vaginal cancer has not been identified.
  40. 40. Pathophysiology • Malignant diseases of the vagina are either primary vaginal cancers or metastatic forms from adjacent or distant organs. • About 80% of vaginal cancers are metastatic, primarily from the cervix and endometrium. • Cancers from distant sites that metastasize to the vagina through the blood or lymphatic system are typically from the colon, kidneys, skin (melanoma), or breast.
  41. 41. • Tumors in the vagina commonly occur on the posterior wall and spread to the cervix or vulva • Squamous cell carcinomas that begin in the epithelial lining of the vagina account for about 85% of vaginal cancers occur in women( 50 yrs. and up). • The remaining 15% are adenocarcinomas,occur in teenagers and young women[14 –20 yrs. ] • Vagina cancer develop slowly over a period of years, commonly in the upper third of the vagina.
  42. 42. Vagina cancer Staging • Stage 1: Confined to Vaginal Wall • Stage 2: Subvaginal tissue but not to pelvic sidewall • Stage 3: Extended to pelvic sidewall • Stage 4: Bowel or Bladder • Stage 5: Distant metastasis
  43. 43. Causes &Risk factors • Cause is unknown • Advancing age (over 50 years old) • Previous pelvic radiation • Vaginal trauma • History of genital warts (HPV infection) • HIV infection • Cervical cancer • Chronic vaginal discharge • Smoking
  44. 44. Symptoms • Painless vaginal bleeding (often after sexual intercourse) • Abnormal vaginal discharge • Dyspareunia • Dysuria • Swelling in the legs (oedema) • Constipation • pelvic pain
  45. 45. Nursing assessment • History • Physical examination • Investigation: • Biopsy to look for either precancerous or cancerous cells • Scans and x-rays to see if the cancer has spread to other parts of your body.
  46. 46. Treatment • Treatment of vaginal cancer depends on the type of cells involved and the stage of the disease. • If the cancer is localized, radiation, laser surgery, or both may be used. • If the cancer has spread, radical surgery might be needed, such as a hysterectomy, or removal of the upper vagina with dissection of the pelvic nodes in addition to radiation therapy.
  47. 47. Vulvar cancer
  48. 48. Vulvar Cancer • Vulvar cancer is an abnormal neoplastic growth on the external female genitalia
  49. 49. Vulvar cancer epidemiology • It is responsible for 0.6% of all malignancies in women and 4% of all female genital cancers. • It is the fourth most common gynecologic cancer, after endometrial, ovarian, and cervical cancers • It typically occurs in women between 30 and 40 years old.
  50. 50. Pathophysiology • Approximately 90% of vulvar tumors are squamous cell carcinomas. • This type of cancer forms slowly over several years and is usually preceded by precancerous changes. • These precancerous changes are termed vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN).
  51. 51. • The two major types of VIN are classic (undifferentiated) and simplex (differentiated). • Classic VIN, the more common one, is associated with HPV infection • In contrast to classic VIN, simplex VIN usually occurs in postmenopausal women and is not associated with HPV
  52. 52. Causes & Risk Factor • Cigarette smoking • Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) infection • Immunosuppressio n • Chronic vulvar conditions such as lichen sclerosus • Prior history of cervical cancer • Multiple sex partners • HIV • History of breast cancer • Hypertension • Diabetes mellitus • Obesity
  53. 53. Clinical Manifestations • Ulcer or mass • Pruritus is the most common presenting symptom especially if associated with vulvar dystrophy • Vulvar bleeding or discharge • Dysuria • Enlarged groin lymph node
  54. 54. Nursing assessment • History • Physical examinations • Investigations: • Biopsy of gross lesions • If no gross lesion present but high clinical suspicion, perform colposcopy
  55. 55. Therapeutic Management • Surgery • Chemotherapy • Radiotherapy
  56. 56. pregnancy & Cancer • Cancer during pregnancy is uncommon • Most importantly, a pregnant woman with cancer is capable of giving birth to a healthy baby because cancer rarely affects the fetus directly. • Although some cancers may spread to the placenta • most cancers cannot spread to the baby. However, being pregnant with cancer is extremely complicated for both the mother and the health care team.
  57. 57. Treatment of pregnant women • Some cancer treatments may be used during pregnancy but only after careful consideration and treatment planning to optimize the safety of both the mother and the unborn baby. • These include: surgery, chemotherapy, and rarely, radiation therapy. • Surgery: • Surgery is the removal of the tumor and surrounding tissue during an operation. • There is little risk to the developing baby • In some cases, more extensive surgery can be done to avoid having to use chemotherapy or radiation therapy.
  58. 58. • Chemotherapy. • Chemotherapy can harm the fetus, particularly if it is given during • The first trimester of pregnancy when the fetus' organs are still developing. Chemotherapy during the first trimester may cause birth defects or even the loss of the pregnancy (miscarriage). • During the second and third trimesters, some types of chemotherapy may be given without necessarily harming the fetus. The placenta acts as a barrier between the mother and the baby, and some drugs cannot pass through this barrier, or they pass through in very small amounts.
  59. 59. • The later stages of pregnancy may not directly harm the developing baby, it may cause side effects like malnutrition and anemia in the mother that may cause indirect harm. • In addition, chemotherapy given during the second and third trimesters sometimes causes early labor and low birth weight, • The baby may struggle to gain weight and fight infections, and the mother may have trouble breastfeeding.
  60. 60. No breast feeding?
  61. 61. • Radiation therapy: • Radiation therapy can harm the fetus, particularly during the first trimester, doctors generally avoid using this treatment. Even in the second and third trimesters, the use of radiation therapy is uncommon, and the risks to the developing baby depend on the dose of radiation and the area of the body being treated
  62. 62. Nursing management for gynecologic cancers
  63. 63. • Focuses on measures to promote early detection Screening • Provide emotional support. • Nurses should show a positive attitude that communicates understanding and reassurance. • Teach the woman about healthy lifestyle behaviors, such as smoking cessation and measures to reduce risk factors. • Instruct the woman how to examine her genital area, urging her to do so monthly between menstrua periods.
  64. 64. • Teach the woman about preventive measures such as not wearing tight undergarments and not using perfumes and dyes in the vulvar region. • Also educate her about the use of barrier methods of birth control (e.g., condoms) to reduce the risk of contracting HIV, and HPV. • Discuss potential changes in sexuality if radical surgery is performed. • Encourage her to communicate openly with her partner. Refer her to appropriate community resources and support groups.
  65. 65. • Tell her to look for any changes in genital appearance, changes in feel ( areas of the vulva becoming itchy or painful) or the development of lumps, (changes in size, shape, or color), cuts, or sores on the vulva. Urge the woman to report these changes to the health care provider. • Women undergoing to surgery need intensive counseling about the nature of the surgery, risks, potential complications, and physiologic function, and sexuality alterations. • Educate the client about preventive measures or follow-up care if she has been treated for cancer.
  66. 66. NURSING CARE PLANE
  67. 67. • NURSING DIAGNOSIS: Anxiety related to diagnosis of cancer • Outcome: • Reducing Anxiety
  68. 68. •Interventions: • Assess client’s psychological status to determine degree of emotional distress related to diagnosis and treatment options. • Assess the client’s of coping mechanisms. • Encourage client to express her feelings and concerns to reduce her anxiety and to determine appropriate interventions.
  69. 69. • • Provide reliable, realistic information to enhance her understanding of her condition, subsequently reducing her anxiety. • • Teach client about early signs of anxiety and help her recognize them (e.g., fast heartbeat, sweating, or feeling flushed) to minimize escalation of anxiety.
  70. 70. • 2/NURSING DIAGNOSIS: Deficient knowledge related to diagnosis, and treatment • Outcome: educatable Client about disease
  71. 71. •Interventions: • • Assess client’s current knowledge about her diagnosis and proposed therapeutic regimen to establish a baseline from which to develop a teaching plan. • • Review contributing factors associated with development of reproductive tract cancer, including lifestyle behaviors, to foster an understanding of the etiology of cervical cancer.
  72. 72. • • Urge the client to have Pap smear to allow screening and early detection. • • Provide written material with pictures to allow for client review and help her visualize what is occurring in her body.
  73. 73. Be careful fromus Thank you warning
  74. 74. To inquire or help , please e-mail me at: hibasaad1994@Hotmail.com Thank you for trusting me Hiba saad

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