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Variables in Researches

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  • Variables

    1. 1. Presented by Hiba Armouche Variables
    2. 2. • Identifying relationships among variables enhances understanding. • Understanding relationships helps us to explain the nature of our world. The Importance of Studying Relationships-
    3. 3. Outline • Variable and Constant • Independent and Dependent Variables • Quantitative and Categorical Variables • Moderator Variables • Mediator Variables • Extraneous Variables
    4. 4. Variables
    5. 5. A Variable is any characteristic or quality that varies among the members of a particular group Example: gender, eye color, motivation.. The individual members or class of objects however should differ-or vary- to qualify the class as a variable. A constant is a characteristic or quality that is the same for all members of a particular group. Variables
    6. 6. Variables Example: A researcher is interested in studying the effects of reinforcement on student achievement.
    7. 7. • Quantitative variables: varies in amount and degree but not in kind Example: height, length, interest • Categorical variables: varies only in kind, not in degree or amount (qualitatively different). Example :eye color, gender, occupation. Types of variables: Variables
    8. 8. Variables Researchers in education often study the relationship among/either: 1. Two or more quantitative variables Ex: -Reading achievement and mathematics achievement - Amount of time watching television and aggressiveness of behavior
    9. 9. Variables 2. One categorical and one quantitative variable Ex: -Method used to teach reading and reading achievement -Counseling approach and level of anxiety
    10. 10. Variables 3. Two or more categorical variables Ex: -Gender of teacher and subject matter taught - Ethnicity and father occupation N.B: Some variables can be treated both as quantitative or categorical EX: quantitative :degree of anxiety level Categorical : group of high anxiety/Group of low anxiety
    11. 11. Variables Independent/Dependent variables: • An independent variable is presumed to influence other variables. Sometimes independent variables are called manipulated variables or experimental variables.
    12. 12. Variables • An independent variable may be either manipulated or selected: – A manipulated variable is produced by the researcher Ex: amount of reinforcement – A selected variable is one that already exists and that the researcher locates and then chooses to study Ex: Gender, mathematical ability, test anxiety
    13. 13. Independent/Dependent variables: • A dependent variable is presumed to be affected by one or more independent variable. The dependent variable is often called an outcome variable Example: Gender of teacher and subject matter taught Variables
    14. 14. • A moderator variable is a secondary independent variable that the researcher selects because he or she thinks it may affect the relationship between the primary independent variable and the dependent variable. Variables
    15. 15. • Research Question 1: “Does anxiety affect test performance and, if so, does it depend on test-taking experience?” – Independent variable: anxiety level – Moderator variable: test-taking experience – Dependent variable: test performance Variables
    16. 16. Variables A mediator variable is a variable that attempts to Explain the relationship between the 2 variables. Example : “Does anxiety affect test performance and, if so, does it depend on test-taking experience?” The mediator could be the SES
    17. 17. • An extraneous variable is an independent variable that may have unintended effect on the dependent variable. Variables
    18. 18. Example: The principal of a high school compares the final examination scores of two history classes taught by teachers who use different methods, not realizing that they are also different in many other ways because of extraneous variables. The classes differ in: Size of class - Gender of students- Gender of teacher- Age of teacher - Time of day class meets Days of week class meets- Length of class - Ethnicity of teacher Variables
    19. 19. Thank You