3D INTEGRATION

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3D INTEGRATION

  1. 1. INTRODUCTION  3D IC technology assures higher levels of miniaturization and integration.  It focuses on portraying advances in interconnect technologies and reduction of interconnect delays.  It is a single circuit built by stacking and integrating. Separately-built layers
  2. 2. WHY A 3D IC?  In modern world when the utilization of IC’s is increasing rapidly , a problem is being observed by the IC developers and that problem is space.  general ICs those are in form of 2-D having a limited space.  So developers are now a days planning on a concept that is called 3D IC.  In 3D IC developers use 3rd dimension to manufacture the IC.
  3. 3. • Interconnect structures increasingly consume more of the power and delay budgets in modern design. • Reasonable solution: increase the number of “nearest neighbors” seen by each transistor by using 3D IC design
  4. 4. Design tools for 3D-IC design  Demand for EDA tools  As the technology matures, designers will want to exploit this design area  No design tool is available till date for commercial purpose  Current tool-chains  Mostly academic  MIT has developed a tool for the academic purpose.
  5. 5. Energy performance  Wire length reduction has an impact on the cycle time and the energy dissipation  Energy dissipation decreases with the number of layers used in the design  Following graph is based on a 3D tool
  6. 6. Energy performance • Energy dissipation decreases with increase in the number of layers used in the design.
  7. 7. Concerns in 3D circuit • Thermal Issues in 3D-circuits • Inductance Effects • Reliability Issues
  8. 8. Thermal Issues in 3D Circuits • Effects dramatically impact interconnect and device reliability in 2D circuits • Due to reduction in chip size of a 3D implementation, 3D circuits exhibit a sharp increase in power density • Analysis of Thermal problems in 3D is necessary to evaluate thermal robustness of different 3D technology and design options.
  9. 9. Heat Flow in 2D  Heat generated arises due to switching  In 2D circuits we have only one layer of Si to consider.
  10. 10. Heat Flow in 3D  With multi-layer circuits , the upper  layers will also generate a significant  fraction of the heat.  Heat increases linearly with level increase
  11. 11. Heat Dissipation  All active layers will be insulated from each other by layers of dielectrics  With much lower thermal conductivity than Si  Therefore heat dissipation in 3D circuits can accelerate many failure mechanisms.
  12. 12. Inductance Effects  Interconnect Inductance Effects  Shorter wire lengths help reduce the inductance  Presence of second substrate close to global wires might help lower inductance by providing shorter return paths.
  13. 13. Reliability Issues?  Electro thermal and Thermo-mechanical effects between various active layers can influence electro-migration and chip performance  Die yield issues may arise due to mismatches between die yields of different layers, which affect net yield of 3D chips.
  14. 14. ADVANTAGES  3D ICs offer many significant benefits, including:  SPEED  DESIGN  HETEREOGENEOUS INTEGRATION  BANDWIDTH
  15. 15. Challenges  Yield – Each extra manufacturing step adds a risk for defects. In order for 3D ICs to be commercially viable, defects must be avoided or repaired.  Heat – Thermal buildup within the stack must be prevented or dissipated  Design complexity – Taking full advantage of 3D requires elegant multi-level designs. Chip designers will need new CAD tools to address the 3D integration
  16. 16. WAFER LEVEL 3D INTEGRATION: An emerging architecture for future chips
  17. 17. APPLICATIONS  READ-ONLY MEMORY  DIGITAL CAMERAS  DIGITAL AUDIO PLAYERS  SMART CELLULAR PHONES  GAMING DEVICES  MEMORY CARDS
  18. 18.  Three Dimensional Read-Only Memory ( 3D - ROM).  3D -ROM is a new non-volatile semiconductor memory with lower cost , higher capacity and comparable bandwidth.  It is compatible with standard CMOS process.  More importantly, 3D-ROM can be readily integrated with RAM/flash ROM.
  19. 19. 3D Integration of Next- Generation Transceivers for Wireless Communications:
  20. 20. Conclusion  3D IC design is a relief to interconnect driven IC design.  Still many manufacturing and technological difficulties.  Needs strong applications for automated design.
  21. 21. THANK YOU

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