Why Agile?Why Agile?Why Agile?Why Agile?
Context and BackgroundContext and Background
19-Jan-09 1®2009 Entinex, Inc. ***PR...
TopicsTopics
The Agile Manifesto Typical Agile Conceptsg
Perceptions/Abuse of
CMMI
yp g p
Scrum In a Nutshell
RolesCMMI
Co...
Agile ManifestoAgile Manifesto
“We are uncovering better ways of developing software
by doing it and helping others do it....
Perception/Abuse of CMMIPerception/Abuse of CMMI
CMMIE i ti P CMMIExisting Processes
19-Jan-09 4®2009 Entinex, Inc. ***PRO...
Correct UnderstandingCorrect Understanding
CMMI is a Model FRAMEWORK for building process
improvement systems…
Not a stand...
How we use ModelsHow we use Models
15 April 2008 6®2008 Entinex, Inc. ***PROPRIETARY*** ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
Assumptions & ApproachAssumptions & Approach
You’re already successful.y
Your people know how to deliver working products....
Practice/Process OverlapPractice/Process Overlap
19-Jan-09 8®2009 Entinex, Inc. ***PROPRIETARY*** ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
OptimizationOptimization
Extreme Extreme
Optimized Optimized
Extreme
CoreCoreCore
CMMI
Principles
Agile
Principles
Agile
P...
Typical Agile Concepts &Typical Agile Concepts &
TechniquesTechniquesqq
Iterative, incremental, and
ti b d d l t
Everyone ...
Lean and TQMLean and TQM
“Agile” is the result of applying “lean” concepts to
software.
CMMI is the result of applying TQM...
Scrum in a NutshellScrum in a Nutshell
Definition
How Scrum WorksHow Scrum Works
Scrum CharacteristicsScrum Characteristic...
DefinitionDefinition
An iterative, incremental process for developing products and
i l d f fservices – mostly used for sof...
How Scrum WorksHow Scrum Works
A bottom-up empirical approach based in process
control theory,
Vice top-down “command and ...
Scrum CharacteristicsScrum Characteristics
Product Backlog – prioritized list of all product requirements
hi h i d d d i i...
Scrum Life CycleScrum Life Cycle
Notional
19-Jan-09 16®2009 Entinex, Inc. ***PROPRIETARY*** ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
Why Scrum WorksWhy Scrum Works
Self-organizing -- team meets to figure out how to
live up to its “Sprint goal”.
Responding...
RolesRoles
Customer & Management
Product OwnerProduct Owner
Scrum MasterScrum Master
S TScrum Team
19-Jan-09 18®2009 Entin...
Customer & ManagementCustomer & Management
Customer
Pays for the project and provides developers with
project, product and...
Product OwnerProduct Owner
“Owns” the Product Backlog.
Sets Product Backlog priorities.
Officially responsible for the pro...
Scrum MasterScrum Master
Responsible for ensuring that Scrum values,
practices, and rules are enacted and enforced.
Repres...
Scrum TeamScrum Team
Individuals with different strengths and abilities.
Seven people (plus or minus two), as small as thr...
ComponentsComponents
Product Backlog
Sprints & Sprint BacklogsSprints & Sprint Backlogs
Daily Scrum MeetingsDaily Scrum Me...
Product BacklogProduct Backlog
Evolving prioritized queue of business and technical
functionality to be done on the produc...
Sprint & BacklogSprint & Backlog
Every sprint has a defined goal.
The sprint team has final say in estimating and
determin...
Daily Scrum MeetingsDaily Scrum Meetings
Daily 15-30 minute status meeting.
Team individuals explain:
What has been accomp...
Daily Scrum MeetingsDaily Scrum Meetings
(contd)(contd)( )( )
Established meeting room.
same place and same time
Appropria...
Chickens and PigsChickens and Pigs
19-Jan-09 28®2009 Entinex, Inc. ***PROPRIETARY*** ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
Release PlanningRelease Planning
Sometimes referred-to as “iteration” planning.
Defines high level requirements and sets p...
Sprints in DetailSprints in Detail
Sprint Planning Meeting
Sprint GoalSprint Goal
Sprint BacklogSprint Backlog
S i t Ch t ...
Sprint Planning MeetingSprint Planning Meeting
Customers, users, management, the Product Owner
and the Scrum Team determin...
Sprint GoalSprint Goal
Craft the Sprint Goal.
Goals are specific and measurable/“testable”.Goals are specific and measurab...
Sprint Backlog, 1Sprint Backlog, 1
After the Sprint goal has been defined, the Sprint
Backlog is defined by the team assem...
Sprint Backlog, 2Sprint Backlog, 2
Only the team can change its Sprint Backlog during a
Sprint (except as noted earlier).
...
Sprint CharacteristicsSprint Characteristics
Accounts for all work (product, project, process) to
be performed.
The proces...
Sprint ReviewSprint Review
Management comes to the Sprint Review to see what
the team has been able to build with the reso...
Sprint Review ContentSprint Review Content
Scrum Master gives concise overview of the Sprint.
Sprint goal and Product Back...
Management ToolsManagement Tools
Progress and Backlogs can be managed in
Excel,
ScrumWorks,
XPlanner,
etc.
Burn-down is a ...
Development ActivitiesDevelopment Activities
Daily Inspection and Visibility into team progress.
Daily Issues Management a...
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Why Agile

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A presentation to a group of highly technical, experienced, process experts from a large defense systems developer. Explaining about agile and how it can benefit them while still maintaining fidelity to process discipline.

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Why Agile

  1. 1. Why Agile?Why Agile?Why Agile?Why Agile? Context and BackgroundContext and Background 19-Jan-09 1®2009 Entinex, Inc. ***PROPRIETARY*** ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
  2. 2. TopicsTopics The Agile Manifesto Typical Agile Conceptsg Perceptions/Abuse of CMMI yp g p Scrum In a Nutshell RolesCMMI Correct Understanding Models Roles Components Models Assumptions Sprints in Detail Management Tools Overlap Over-Optimization g Development Activities Over Optimization 19-Jan-09 2®2009 Entinex, Inc. ***PROPRIETARY*** ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
  3. 3. Agile ManifestoAgile Manifesto “We are uncovering better ways of developing software by doing it and helping others do it. Through this work we have come to value: individuals and interactions over processes and tools ki ft h i d t tiworking software over comprehensive documentation customer collaboration over contract negotiation That is while there is value in the items on the right responding to change over following a plan That is, while there is value in the items on the right, we value the items on the left more.” 19-Jan-09 3®2009 Entinex, Inc. ***PROPRIETARY*** ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
  4. 4. Perception/Abuse of CMMIPerception/Abuse of CMMI CMMIE i ti P CMMIExisting Processes 19-Jan-09 4®2009 Entinex, Inc. ***PROPRIETARY*** ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
  5. 5. Correct UnderstandingCorrect Understanding CMMI is a Model FRAMEWORK for building process improvement systems… Not a standard Not a life-cycle Improvement vs ComplianceImprovement vs. Compliance Description vs. Prescription d l f b f hA model for business process improvement for the management of development processes Appraisal looks for evidence that a model has been followed. 19-Jan-09 5®2009 Entinex, Inc. ***PROPRIETARY*** ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
  6. 6. How we use ModelsHow we use Models 15 April 2008 6®2008 Entinex, Inc. ***PROPRIETARY*** ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
  7. 7. Assumptions & ApproachAssumptions & Approach You’re already successful.y Your people know how to deliver working products. You’re doing *something* right!g g g Each CMMI practice seeks to avoid some risk. Successful companies know how to avoid thoseSuccessful companies know how to avoid those risks. If we seek what your people are doing to avoid they p p g same risks, we can map what they’re doing to CMMI. Identify your working practices.y y g p If there are gaps, you probably could use the improvement. 719-Jan-09®2009 Entinex, Inc. ***PROPRIETARY*** ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
  8. 8. Practice/Process OverlapPractice/Process Overlap 19-Jan-09 8®2009 Entinex, Inc. ***PROPRIETARY*** ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
  9. 9. OptimizationOptimization Extreme Extreme Optimized Optimized Extreme CoreCoreCore CMMI Principles Agile Principles Agile Principles 19-Jan-09 9®2009 Entinex, Inc. ***PROPRIETARY*** ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
  10. 10. Typical Agile Concepts &Typical Agile Concepts & TechniquesTechniquesqq Iterative, incremental, and ti b d d l t Everyone is accountable f littime-boxed development Customer embedded with developer for quality “Fail early & often” Requirements developeddeveloper Tacit knowledge is the key Low risk when trust (with t & t ) i hi h Requirements developed JIT Change is “embraced”*customer & team) is high Continuous integration Each increment delivers Change is embraced Empowered co-located teams Each increment delivers value (not only product) Test written first, then the Status meetings: ceremony replaced with frequent interactions, code Tools reverse engineer a tifacts frequent interactions Regularly evaluate and adjust process artifacts j p Continuous re-planning 19-Jan-09 10®2009 Entinex, Inc. ***PROPRIETARY*** ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
  11. 11. Lean and TQMLean and TQM “Agile” is the result of applying “lean” concepts to software. CMMI is the result of applying TQM concepts to systems and software development.y p TQM and “lean” came from the same source!TQM and lean came from the same source! 19-Jan-09 11®2009 Entinex, Inc. ***PROPRIETARY*** ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
  12. 12. Scrum in a NutshellScrum in a Nutshell Definition How Scrum WorksHow Scrum Works Scrum CharacteristicsScrum Characteristics S Lif C lScrum Life Cycle Why Scrum Works 19-Jan-09 12®2009 Entinex, Inc. ***PROPRIETARY*** ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
  13. 13. DefinitionDefinition An iterative, incremental process for developing products and i l d f fservices – mostly used for software. Consists of a series of planned sprints, each sprint producing something of valuesomething of value. Between sprints, stakeholders evaluate progress and reevaluate technical and business requirements. Tasks areq assumed by the team for the next sprint. Identifying and adhering to roles and rules is the key to its success Customer ManagementManagement Product Owner Scrum Master Scrum Team 19-Jan-09 13®2009 Entinex, Inc. ***PROPRIETARY*** ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
  14. 14. How Scrum WorksHow Scrum Works A bottom-up empirical approach based in process control theory, Vice top-down “command and control.” Intended to give the team control of its time andg destiny. 19-Jan-09 14®2009 Entinex, Inc. ***PROPRIETARY*** ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
  15. 15. Scrum CharacteristicsScrum Characteristics Product Backlog – prioritized list of all product requirements hi h i d d d i i i d i lwhich is updated and re-prioritized continuously. Sprint Backlog – identified, self-contained list of prioritized work to be completed by the Sprintwork to be completed by the Sprint. Sprint – set time period for each iteration during which the work is not changed from outside the sprint although as workwork is not changed from outside the sprint, although as work occurs in the sprint, additional work may be uncovered. Scrum Master – a management representative whichg p enforces Scrum practices Daily Scrum – short daily meetings where a team identifies what work was just done, what work will be done next, and what is impeding work. S i t i ti i ti f th d t i tSprint review meeting – inspection of the product increment 19-Jan-09 15®2009 Entinex, Inc. ***PROPRIETARY*** ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
  16. 16. Scrum Life CycleScrum Life Cycle Notional 19-Jan-09 16®2009 Entinex, Inc. ***PROPRIETARY*** ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
  17. 17. Why Scrum WorksWhy Scrum Works Self-organizing -- team meets to figure out how to live up to its “Sprint goal”. Responding empirically -- focusing on what is possible. Visibility -- The work being performed and anythingy g p y g getting in the way of its completion is made visible every day. Focus -- The work being performed right then is identified and assessed. Incremental delivery -- showing progress earlier and often. 19-Jan-09 17®2009 Entinex, Inc. ***PROPRIETARY*** ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
  18. 18. RolesRoles Customer & Management Product OwnerProduct Owner Scrum MasterScrum Master S TScrum Team 19-Jan-09 18®2009 Entinex, Inc. ***PROPRIETARY*** ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
  19. 19. Customer & ManagementCustomer & Management Customer Pays for the project and provides developers with project, product and agreement expectations. Usually its interface to the project is via the Product Owner who understands Scrum and assumes ibilit b h lf f th C tresponsibility on behalf of the Customer. Management Allows Scrum to happen: provides resources, top- h b d h jnotch team members, and worthy projects. Otherwise, stays out of the way. Communicates to Sc m team ia Sc m MasteScrum team via Scrum Master. 19-Jan-09 19®2009 Entinex, Inc. ***PROPRIETARY*** ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
  20. 20. Product OwnerProduct Owner “Owns” the Product Backlog. Sets Product Backlog priorities. Officially responsible for the project.Officially responsible for the project. Who it is depends on the project. Customers are usually not Product Owners since mostCustomers are usually not Product Owners since most organizations don’t want the Customer “officially responsible for the project”.p p j Scrum Masters are usually not Product Owners because of potential conflict of interest and/or potential to bend Scrum meeting rules. 19-Jan-09 20®2009 Entinex, Inc. ***PROPRIETARY*** ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
  21. 21. Scrum MasterScrum Master Responsible for ensuring that Scrum values, practices, and rules are enacted and enforced. Represents management and the team to each other. Makes decisions and removes impediments. Sometimes making decisions without completeg p information (better some decision rather than no decision). Keep the team working at the highest possible level of productivity: Always working on value-adding activities. Removing obstacles. Resolving conflict. 19-Jan-09 21®2009 Entinex, Inc. ***PROPRIETARY*** ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
  22. 22. Scrum TeamScrum Team Individuals with different strengths and abilities. Seven people (plus or minus two), as small as three. Cross-functional with all skills to meet the Sprint goal.p g At least one very experienced engineer as part of theAt least one very experienced engineer as part of the team. No titles on the teams (to encourage self organization). 19-Jan-09 22®2009 Entinex, Inc. ***PROPRIETARY*** ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
  23. 23. ComponentsComponents Product Backlog Sprints & Sprint BacklogsSprints & Sprint Backlogs Daily Scrum MeetingsDaily Scrum Meetings Chi k d PiChickens and Pigs Release Planning 19-Jan-09 23®2009 Entinex, Inc. ***PROPRIETARY*** ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
  24. 24. Product BacklogProduct Backlog Evolving prioritized queue of business and technical functionality to be done on the product. Higher priority items should be clearer and have a more detailed specification.p Solely controlled by Product Owner (one person) whoSolely controlled by Product Owner (one person) who works with others to estimate how long it will take to develop.p 19-Jan-09 24®2009 Entinex, Inc. ***PROPRIETARY*** ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
  25. 25. Sprint & BacklogSprint & Backlog Every sprint has a defined goal. The sprint team has final say in estimating and determining what they can accomplish during the sprintsprint. Once the sprint is underway, new backlog cannot be added to the sprintadded to the sprint. except that if the scrum master and team determine that a new backlog item will enhance the viability ofg y the product, is in alignment with the sprint goal, builds on the sprint’s value, and can be completed within the sprint’s time frame the backlog item can be addedsprint s time frame, the backlog item can be added. If external forces determine that the sprint is working on the wrong thing, a sprint can be halted andon the wrong thing, a sprint can be halted and restarted with new backlog and goal. 19-Jan-09 25®2009 Entinex, Inc. ***PROPRIETARY*** ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
  26. 26. Daily Scrum MeetingsDaily Scrum Meetings Daily 15-30 minute status meeting. Team individuals explain: What has been accomplished since last meeting, What will be worked on before the next meeting, and What obstacles are in the way. F ll i f h d il bFollow-up meetings after the daily scrum can be established based on answers to the above questionsquestions. Burn-Down is updated. Benefits:Benefits: Fosters team-based, rapid, intense, co-operative, courteous development.p Improves communication. 19-Jan-09 26®2009 Entinex, Inc. ***PROPRIETARY*** ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
  27. 27. Daily Scrum MeetingsDaily Scrum Meetings (contd)(contd)( )( ) Established meeting room. same place and same time Appropriate Facilities:pp p Door, speakerphone, table, chairs for each team member, whiteboards. Scrum Master facilitates meeting. Only SM and Team members speak.Only SM and Team members speak. Avoid: Turning it into a working or design sessionTurning it into a working or design session, Customer, management, or product owner interruptionsinterruptions 19-Jan-09 27®2009 Entinex, Inc. ***PROPRIETARY*** ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
  28. 28. Chickens and PigsChickens and Pigs 19-Jan-09 28®2009 Entinex, Inc. ***PROPRIETARY*** ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
  29. 29. Release PlanningRelease Planning Sometimes referred-to as “iteration” planning. Defines high level requirements and sets priorities. Defines high level work break down structureDefines high level work break down structure. May define high level release schedule. Can be used to establish project work and process environments. Can be a sprint in and of itself. 19-Jan-09 29®2009 Entinex, Inc. ***PROPRIETARY*** ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
  30. 30. Sprints in DetailSprints in Detail Sprint Planning Meeting Sprint GoalSprint Goal Sprint BacklogSprint Backlog S i t Ch t i tiSprint Characteristics Sprint Review Sprint Review Content 19-Jan-09 30®2009 Entinex, Inc. ***PROPRIETARY*** ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
  31. 31. Sprint Planning MeetingSprint Planning Meeting Customers, users, management, the Product Owner and the Scrum Team determine the Sprint goal and value-added effort. The team creates tasks, estimates and determines, who is going to do what, everyone commits to the feasibility of the plan. What can be done in the Sprint time-box with the resources we have at our disposal? More detailed WBS possible at this level. 19-Jan-09 31®2009 Entinex, Inc. ***PROPRIETARY*** ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
  32. 32. Sprint GoalSprint Goal Craft the Sprint Goal. Goals are specific and measurable/“testable”.Goals are specific and measurable/ testable . Goals must be drawn from prioritized ProductGoals must be drawn from prioritized Product Backlog items. Defining the goal gives the team some wiggle room as the degree to which the goal is satisfied is flexibleas the degree to which the goal is satisfied is flexible, depending on the difficulty of the task. 19-Jan-09 32®2009 Entinex, Inc. ***PROPRIETARY*** ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
  33. 33. Sprint Backlog, 1Sprint Backlog, 1 After the Sprint goal has been defined, the Sprint Backlog is defined by the team assembling a list of tasks from the Product Backlog to meet the Sprint lgoal. All team members must be present. Tasks should have enough detail so that each task takes roughly 4 to 16 hours to finish. Larger tasksg y g are broken-down. 19-Jan-09 33®2009 Entinex, Inc. ***PROPRIETARY*** ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
  34. 34. Sprint Backlog, 2Sprint Backlog, 2 Only the team can change its Sprint Backlog during a Sprint (except as noted earlier). Sprint Backlog is a highly visible, real time picture of the work that the team plans to accomplish duringp p g the Sprint. Sometimes the team discovers it has selected too much Product Backlog to complete in a single Sprint.g p g p Items may be removed functionality with scope orItems may be removed, functionality with scope or depth may also be lessened to meet the Sprint Goal. 19-Jan-09 34®2009 Entinex, Inc. ***PROPRIETARY*** ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
  35. 35. Sprint CharacteristicsSprint Characteristics Accounts for all work (product, project, process) to be performed. The process can produce mistakes but the “cost” is low and corrections are fast. Each person’s knowledge base is broadly expandedp g y p though their interaction. Resource Allocation: Managed by the team, asg y , members commit to getting the work done. At the very worst, the team has built nothing but hasy , g learned much. 19-Jan-09 35®2009 Entinex, Inc. ***PROPRIETARY*** ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
  36. 36. Sprint ReviewSprint Review Management comes to the Sprint Review to see what the team has been able to build with the resources it has been given. Coordinated and conducted by the Scrum Master. Learning, retrospectives and introspectives.g, p p Good place for some quality and other evaluations. The Sprint review is a form of validity check-it isThe Sprint review is a form of validity check it is determined that the right product is being built. Covers whether the product was built right because aCovers whether the product was built right because a working version of the product is giving a viewing to the product owner. 19-Jan-09 36®2009 Entinex, Inc. ***PROPRIETARY*** ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
  37. 37. Sprint Review ContentSprint Review Content Scrum Master gives concise overview of the Sprint. Sprint goal and Product Backlog are compared to the actual results of the Sprint.actual results of the Sprint. Reasons for any discrepancies are discussed. P d t O d id if f ti ll d litProduct Owner decides if functionally and quality are sufficient to be released. N i i i d (i f l)No extensive preparations required (informal). Purpose is informational, not critical or action-p oriented (the Sprint is over). Informational meeting should be time-limited (~4hr)Informational meeting should be time limited ( 4hr) 19-Jan-09 37®2009 Entinex, Inc. ***PROPRIETARY*** ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
  38. 38. Management ToolsManagement Tools Progress and Backlogs can be managed in Excel, ScrumWorks, XPlanner, etc. Burn-down is a chart providing visible measures of progress showing Effort Remaining (hours of Sprint backlog committed) vs. Time Remaining (hours remaining in Sprint) Sprint Backlog is typically adjusted by team and Sprintp g yp y j y p goal is re-visited for interpretation & assumptions. 19-Jan-09 38®2009 Entinex, Inc. ***PROPRIETARY*** ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
  39. 39. Development ActivitiesDevelopment Activities Daily Inspection and Visibility into team progress. Daily Issues Management and Resolution. Daily Project Command and Control within the selfy j managing team. Peer Reviews & InspectionsPeer Reviews & Inspections Peer reviews keeps the team members honest. Peer reviews are about mentoring, not policing.g, p g Complete checkpoints and tollgates along the project road map that can be done iteratively and kept non- i iinvasive. 19-Jan-09 39®2009 Entinex, Inc. ***PROPRIETARY*** ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

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