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Introduction to ANS Pharmacology

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Introduction to ANS Pharmacology for Optometry and Vision Sciences

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Introduction to ANS Pharmacology

  1. 1. • Nervous system • The central nervous system is comprised of the brain and spinal cord. • The peripheral nervous system includes all peripheral nerves. • Central nervous system • Peripheral nervous system
  2. 2. • ANS – Sympathetic, parasympathetic, enteric nervous system • sympathetic & parasympathetic provide a link between CNS and peripheral organs (except motor innervation to skeletal muscle) • ANS is largely outside of voluntary control • Enteric nervous system – intrinsic nerve plexus of GIT (interconnected with sym & parasym)
  3. 3. • Autonomic nervous system (ANS) • Functions largely below the level of consciousness and controls visceral functions. • Like the somatic nervous system, the ANS consists of afferents, centre and efferents.
  4. 4. • Most visceral nerves – (mixed nerves) – – carry non myelinated visceral afferent fibres. • The cell bodies - in the dorsal root ganglion of spinal nerves • They mediate visceral pain as well as cardiovascular, respiratory and other visceral reflexes.
  5. 5. Central autonomic connections • no exclusively autonomic areas in the CNS • considerable intermixing and integration of somatic and autonomic innervation occurs. • Many autonomic centres (pupillary, vagal, respiratory, etc.) are located in the mid-brain and the medulla in relation to the cranial nerves. • The lateral column in the thoracic spinal cord contains cells which give rise to the sympathetic outflow.
  6. 6. • The motor limb of ANS is anatomically divided into sympathetic and parasympathetic. • functionally antagonistic • and most organs receive both sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation.
  7. 7. Efferent • ANS – efferent – two neurons arranged in series (preganglionic & post ganglionic) • Somatic – efferent – single motor neuron connects CNS to skeletal muscle fibre
  8. 8. Autonomic Ganglia • Between pre and post ganglionic neurones – there is autonomic ganglia – Situated outside CNS
  9. 9. • Cell bodies of preganglionic neurones – lateral horns of the spinal cord (thoraco-lumbar) - k/as thoracolumbar sympathetic outflow
  10. 10. • In parasympathetic pathways, – Post ganglionic cells are + in target organs • Two outflow – Cranial – Sacral • Cranial – Oculomotor (eye) – Facial & glossopharyngeal (salivary gland & nasopharynx) – Vagus nerve (thoracic and abdominal viscera)
  11. 11. • Ganglias exist close to target organs • Post ganglionic neurones – very short • Sacral outflow
  12. 12. • Neurohumoral transmission implies that nerves transmit their message across synapses and neuroeffector junctions by the release of humoral (chemical) messengers.
  13. 13. 1. should be present in the presynaptic neurone 2. should be released after nerve stimulation 3. It’s application should produce responses identical to those produced by nerve stimulation 4. Its effects should be antagonized or potentiated by other substances which similarly alter effects of nerve stimulation.
  14. 14. • RMP 70 mV (negative inside) High K+ & low Na+ inside • Stimulation or arrival of impulse • Sudden increase in Na+ entry • Depolarization & overshoot (+20mV) • AP is propragated
  15. 15. • The transmitter (excitatory or inhibitory) is stored in prejunctional nerve endings within synaptic vesicles
  16. 16. • Nerve impulse promotes fusion of vesicular and axonal membranes through Ca2+ entry which utilizes membranes
  17. 17. • All contents of the vesicle - transmitter, enzymes and other proteins) are extruded (exocytosis) in the junctional cleft
  18. 18. • The release process can be modulated by the transmitter itself and by other agents through activation of specific receptors located on the pre junctional membrane, – e.g. noradrenaline (NA) release is inhibited by NA ( α2 receptor).
  19. 19. • The released transmitter combines with specific receptors on the post-junctional membrane and depending on its nature induces an excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) or an inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP).
  20. 20. • A suprathreshold EPSP generates a propagated postjunctional AP which results in nerve impulse (in neurone), contraction (in muscle) or secretion (in gland). • An IPSP stabilizes the postjunctional membrane and resists depolarizing stimuli.
  21. 21. • Following its combination with the receptor, the transmitter is either locally degraded (e.g. ACh) or is taken back into the prejunctional neurone by active uptake or diffuses away (e.g. NA, GABA).
  22. 22. • In the ANS, • besides the primary transmitters ACh and NA, • neurones have been found to elaborate – purines (ATP, adenosine), – peptides (vasoactive intestinal peptide or VIP, neuropeptide-Y or NPY, substance P, enkephalins, somatostatin, etc.), – nitric oxide – and prostaglandins as co-transmitters.
  23. 23. • Neurotransmitter - acetylcholine • Receptor – two major subtypes – Muscarinic (M) – Nicotinic (N) • Muscarinic – M1, M2, M3, M4, M5 • Nicotinic – Muscle type, Ganglion type
  24. 24. • Mainly classified into α and β subtypes • 2 main α adrenoreceptor subtypes – α1 & α2 • 3 β adrenoreceptor subtypes – β1, β2, β3
  25. 25. • Contraction and relaxation of vascular and visceral smooth muscle • All excocrine and certain endocrine secretions • The heartbeat • Energy metabolism, particularly in liver and skeletal muscle • Other system – Kidney, immune, somatosensory
  26. 26. • The level of activity of innervated organ at a given moment is the algebric sum of sympathetic and parasympathetic tone: • Most blood vessels, spleen, sweat glands and hair follicles receive only sympathetic, • while ciliary muscle, gastric and pancreatic glands receive only parasympathetic innervation. • The enteric plexus of nerves receives input from both sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions, but in addition functions independently to integrate bowel movements as well as regulate: secretion and absorption labelled as a distinct 'enteric nervous system'.
  27. 27. • Rang, HP, Dale, MM, Ritter, JM, Flower, RJ, Henderson, G (2012). Rang and Dale's Pharmacology. 7th ed. London: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone. 139-149. • Tripathi, KD. 2008. Essentials of Medical Pharmacology. 6th Edition. India: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.
  28. 28. References for figures • http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/imagepages/8679.htm • http://faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/michael.gregory/files/bio%2 0102/bio%20102%20lectures/nervous%20system/nervous1.htm • http://dc313.4shared.com/doc/b5vS2zOA/preview.html • http://faculty.pasadena.edu/dkwon/PNS%20and%20propioception/p eripheral%20nervous%20system%20and%20propioception_files/text mostly/slide7.html • http://www.pharmacology2000.com/Autonomics/Introduction/Introd uction-1.htm • http://www.medicalgeek.com/mcqs/21215-mcqs-gastrointestinal- drugs.html(mc)* • http://cnx.org/content/m46579/latest/?collection=col11496/latest • http://www.pharmacology2000.com/Autonomics/Introduction/Introd uction-1.htm

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