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Hgm elpub2018

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Slides for Global Open Access 2010 - 2017: major trends presentation, June 23, 2018, ELPUB 2018

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Hgm elpub2018

  1. 1. GLOBAL OA APCS 2010 – 2017: MAJOR TRENDS Dr. Heather Morrison, Associate Professor, University of Ottawa Principal Investigator, sustainingknowledgecommons.org, a SSHRC Insight Project Connecting the knowledge commons: fromprojects to sustainable infrastructure. 22nd ELPUB, June 2018, Toronto.
  2. 2. WHY STUDY APC TRENDS? • Viability of model used by some OA journals • Evidence for 2 hypotheses: • Transparency of article-based pricing will lead to competition & lower costs • Market dysfunction (serial crisis) will continue (must-buy becomes must-publish-in) • Large dataset facilitates additional research
  3. 3. HOW? METHOD • Fully OA journals (DOAJ plus), APC and non-APC • Publisher APC data – annual sample • Mash-up dataset includes DOAJ, Crawford, Solomon & Björk • Analyses: multiple; annual global, publisher comparison, points of interest (blogpost)
  4. 4. SOME KEY POINTS
  5. 5. MOST OA JOURNALS HAVE NO APC No 73% Yes 26% No info 1% DOAJ journals: APC? DOAJ June 15, 2018 11,636 journals Article processing charges No: 8,532 (73%) Yes: 3,039 (26%) No information: 65 (1%) # journals is not the same as # articles paid for by APCs
  6. 6. IT’S COMPLICATED: MANY DIFFERENT PUBLISHING FEE MODELS • Single flat per-article charge • Single flat per-article charge in multiple currencies • Differential fees by: • Type of article (research article, review, case report, etc.) • Length of article • Author characteristics (e.g. society member, country of origin) • Per-page charges • Per-word charges • Print-based publication charges (e.g. per printed page, per colour illustration)
  7. 7. GLOBAL AVERAGE IS UNDER $1,000 USD AND NOT CHANGING… • 2010: $906 USD (Solomon & Björk ) • 2016: $964 USD (Morrison et al.) • 2017: $974 USD • But: mean of £1,969 (2,600 USD) paid in UK in 2016 (Univesities UK, 2017)
  8. 8. LARGEST OA PUBLISHERS BY # OF JOURNALS ARE TRADITIONAL COMMERCIAL PUBLISHERS Rank Publisher # journa ls 2017 # of journals DOAJ 2014 1 Springer (222) + BioMedCentral (306) + Nature (86) 614 341 2 De Gruyter Open 454 2 3 Elsevier 415 8 4 Wolters Kluwer Medknow 378 97 5 Hindawi Publishing Corporation 294 444
  9. 9. LARGE OA PUBLISHERS “NO LONGER IN DOAJ” • Of 25 largest publishers by journals, 5 (2017) / 6 (2018) are no longer in DOAJ • Canadian Center of Science and Education • Internet Scientific Publications, LLC, • Macrothink Institute • SCIENCEDOMAIN International, • Scientific Research Publishing; • Bentham Open (2018)
  10. 10. A VERY LONG TAIL: MOST OA JOURNAL PUBLISHERS ARE SMALL
  11. 11. NO PUBLICATION FEE: WHAT’S UP? • 7,367 titles were found to have a not-for-profit society, university, or government publisher involved, approximately 99% of the sample of 7,428 “no publication fee” journals (2017 data) • Based on word variations of society, university, government department, etc.
  12. 12. REFLECTIONS & CONCLUSION
  13. 13. APC TREND SO FAR: VOLATE (NOT STABLE MARKET) APC APPC Average 974 77 Mode 1,780 86 Median 750 79 Standard Deviation 832 62
  14. 14. HOPE FOR COMPETITION? • UK average spend 2016: £1,640 • UK-based Ubiquity Press’ base APC: £400 YES
  15. 15. CONCERN FOR MARKET DYSFUNCTION? • Market concentration (Springer, Elsevier, De Gruyter 3 largest OA journal publishers by # of journals) • Frontiers: 40% of journals have price rises of 18 – 31% from2017 – 2018 https://sustainingknowledgecommons.org/2018/04/12/frontiers-40-journals-have-apc-increases-of-18-31-from- 2017-to-2018/ • BMC, Hindawi, PLOS, PeerJ https://sustainingknowledgecommons.org/2018/04/13/recent-apc-price-changes- for-4-publishers-bmc-hindawi-plos-peerj/ • MDPI (thanks to CEOFranck Vazquez, PhD https://sustainingknowledgecommons.org/2018/05/16/mdpi-pricing- thanks-to-mdpi-ceo-franck-vazquez-phd/ • Fund a m e nta l c o nflic t b e tw e e n c o m m e rc ia l se c to r (m a rke t-b a se d p ric ing ) a nd m o st p o te ntia l A PC p a ye rs (unive rsitie s, fund ing a g e nc ie s): c o st-b a se d b ud g e ting / a c c o unting YES
  16. 16. IN PROGRESS… Elsevier April APC price list – “Open access” journals (not hybrid): • 2017: 418 journals • 2018: 325 journals • Research question: what happened to the other 93 journals? • Discontinued or transferred journals: good practices (hint: don’t just drop from your website; archive e.g. CLOCKSS, list title and link to where the content is now) • Watch for results on the sustainingknowledgecommons.org blog
  17. 17. CONCLUSIONS? • Not yet – volatile market • Competition or dysfunction? Too soon to tell • Large not-for-profit (societies, universities) sector worth further study • “The market” v. what we decide to support • Ongoing research: see sustainingknowledgecommons.org
  18. 18. THANK YOU! Heather.Morrison@uottawa.ca & the Sustaining the Knowledge Commons team Sustainingknowledgecommons.org
  19. 19. REFERENCES • Crawford, W. (2017). Gold OA journals 2011-2016. Project page (includes links to data and books). Retrieved December 20, 2017 from https://waltcrawford.name/goaj.html • Morrison, H. (2014 -). OA APC dataverse. Retrieved Dec. 21, 2017 from https://dataverse.scholarsportal.info/dataverse/oaapc (2017 data this summer) • Solomon, D.J. & Björk, B.-C. (2012) A study of OA journals using APCs. J. Am. Soc. Inf. Sci. Technol. 2012, 63, pp. 1485–1495. Retrieved December 21, 2017 from http://www.openaccesspublishing.org/apc2/preprint.pdf. • Ubiquity Press (n.d.). Publishing. Retrieved Dec. 20, 2017 from https://www.ubiquitypress.com/site/publish/ • Universities UK (2017). Monitoring the transition to OA: December 2017. Retrieved Dec. 20, 2017 fromhttp://www.universitiesuk.ac.uk/policy-and- analysis/reports/Pages/monitoring-transition-open-access-2017.aspx

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