WHAT IS THE UNO ?
The UN is an international organization
that aims to promote peace and
understanding between nations.
The UN was founded in 1945 after World War II to replace the League of
Nations, to stop wars between countries, and to provide a platform for
dialogue. It contains multiple subsidiary organizations to carry out its
UN HEADQUARTERS:The permanent headquarters of the UN since 1952, are New York. The first
meeting of the General Assembly was held here in October 1952.
UN FLAG:The white UN emblem is superimposed on light blue background. The
emblem consist of the global map projected from the North Pole and
embraced in twin olive branches (symbol of peace). The UN flag is not to be
subordinated to any other flag of the world.
FLAG OF UNITED NATIONS
UN OFFICIAL LANGUAGES:There are six official working languages recognised by the United Nations.
They are Chinese, English, French, Russian, Spanish and Arabic.
UN FINANCES:Contributions of member states constitute the main source of funds for the
regular budget. A state’s share is primarily determined by its total national
income in relation to that of the member states.
MEMBERSHIP:Membership of the United Nations is open to all peace loving nations which
accept the obligations of its charter and in the judgement of the organization,
are able and willing to carry out these obligations. Members may be
suspended or expelled by the General Assembly on the recommendation of
the Security Council.
1) Maintain international peace and security.
2)Developed friendly relations among nations.
3) Cooperate in solving international,
economic, social, cultural and humanitarian
4) and to be a centre for harmonizing the
actions of nations.
The organization is divided into
1) General Assembly,
2) Security Council,
3) Economic and Social
4) International Court of Justice
5) Trusteeship council
The General Assembly has
representatives in it from all of
the member countries.
They discuss issues and draft
suggesting actions for the UN
and participating countries to
The General Assembly also
includes various councils,
panels, and working groups that
focus on current world issues.
The Security Council votes on resolutions created by the
General Assembly and decides whether or not to put an
action/resolution into place.
Each member of the Security Council gets one vote.
Five permanent members: US, Britain, France, Russia, and
China. If any of these members vote against a measure it is
Ten non-permanent members: Azerbaijan, Arjentina,
Australia, Guatemala, Republic of Korea,
Morocco,Togo,Pakistan, Rwanda and Luxembourg.
Non-permanent members are selected from the General
Assembly and serve a 2 year term on the Security Council.
Economic and Social Council
This group focuses on issues
that impact the world and
various countries economically
and socially (this can be
anything from drug trafficking,
to rain forest destruction).
There are many specialized
committees within this
Each member of this council
has one vote, a simple majority
is needed to pass a resolution.
International Court of Justice
The court is located in the
Netherlands and has 15
justices. It’s purpose is to
settle disputes between
nations. It also advises UN
The court can only reside
over states that are willing
to participate in the legal
one of the principal organs of the United Nations, was
established to help ensure that trust territories were
administered in the best interests of their inhabitants
and of international peace and security
The UN Secretariat is headed by the Secretary-
General, assisted by a staff of international civil
servants worldwide. It provides studies, information,
and facilities needed by United Nations bodies for
their meetings. It also carries out tasks as directed by
the Security Council, the General Assembly, the
Economic and Social Council, and other UN bodies.
The Current Secretary-General,
Various Agencies of UN
World Health Organization(WHO),
United Nations Children’s Fund(UNICEF)
United Nations Educational, Scientific and
International Labour Organization(ILO)
World Bank Group(WB)
International Monetary Fund(IMF)
World Trade Organization (WTO)
1) World Health Organization (WHO), a specialized
agency of the United Nations (UN), with headquarters
in Geneva, Switzerland. WHO was established in 1948.
The services of the agency may be either advisory or
technical. Advisory services include aid in training
medical personnel and in giving knowledge of various
2) United Nations Children’s Fund(UNICEF), agency of
UN devoted to the welfare of children. The
organization was established in 1946 to help children in
post-World War 2 European and China.UNİCEF
currently focuses on establishing programs that give
long-term benefits to children everywhere.
3) United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
Organization(UNESCO), Its purpose is to contribute to peace
and security by promoting international collaboration through
education, science, and culture in order to further universal
respect for justice, the rule of law, and human rights along
with fundamental freedom proclaimed in the UN Charter.
4) International Labour Organization(ILO),improve working
conditions and employment agencies.
5) World Bank Group(WB), It is the largest and most famous
development bank in the world and is an observer at the United
Nations Development Group. The bank's mission is to reduce
6) International Monetary Fund(IMF), The IMF works to foster
global growth and economic stability. It provides policy advice
and financing to members in economic difficulties and also works
with developing nations to help them achieve macroeconomic
stability and reduce poverty.
7) World Trade Organization (WTO), The World Trade
Organization (WTO) is the only global international organization
dealing with the rules of trade between nations.
Assurance of Peace
After two devastating world wars, the assurance of peace
and international security form the central tasks of the
world organisation, whereby the endeavour is to learn
lessons from the failed attempt to set up a collective
security system under the League of Nations in the period
between the wars
Protection of Human Rights
The genocide and the crime against humanity of the
Hitler regime in particular, form the background for
the second major field of tasks for the United Nations:
the protection of human rights and the continued
development of public international law.
Economic and Social Development
Economic and social development makes up the
third major field of tasks for the United Nations.
Peace, in the sense of the negative peace, is not just
understood as an absence of war, but, in the sense
of positive peace, also encompasses questions of
worldwide development and justice
In the face of global problems such as the
greenhouse effect and the ozone hole,
environmental protection has been added to this as
an additional field of tasks in recent times.
it guarantees six
Right to equality.
Right to freedom.
Right against exploitation
Right to freedom of religion
Cultural and educational rights
Right to constitutional remedies
During the Cold War
Low Point 1970s-1980s
End of the Cold War
Cold War Period
Any cooperation was difficult due to East-West
Activities limited to areas where major powers not
1950 beginning of Peace Keeping Mission
Issues on North-South gained momentum
Period of 1970s-1980s
Securing Peace: UN failed in a series of peace
A period of deep crisis, UN failed to prevent conflicts
or find solutions to conflicts in Nicaragua, West
Sahara, Cambodia, Afghanistan, and Iran-Iraq war
The End of Cold War
UN was back at center stage again
End of ideological war made cooperation and conflict
Iraq/Kuwait conflict was through UN
What did the United Nations do when
Iraq invaded Kuwait in 1990?
On August 2, the day of the invasion, the Security
Council passes the following resolution calling for
Iraq to withdraw unconditionally from Kuwait
Resolution 660 (1990)
2 August 1990
The Security Council,
Alarmed by the invasion of Kuwait on 2 August 1990 by
the military forces of Iraq
Determining that there exists a breach of international
peace and security as regards the Iraqi invasion of
Acting under Articles 39 and 40 of the Charter of the
Condemns The Iraqi invasion of Kuwait
Demands that Iraq withdraw immediately and
unconditionally all its forces to the positions in which
they were located on 1 August 1990
Calls upon Iraq and Kuwait to begin immediately
intensive negotiations for the resolution of their
differences and supports all efforts in this regard, and
especially those of the League of Arab states
Decides to meet again as necessary to consider
further steps to ensure compliance with the present
UN peacekeeping operations
At present, there are 90,000 UN
peacekeepers serving all over
The first ever UN
established in the Middle East
in 1948 is still continuing
Today, peace and security are not longer viewed only in terms of absence of
military conflicts but the common interests of human- kind. Over the years the
General Assembly has helped to promote peaceful relations among nations by
adopting several resolutions and declarations on peace, the peaceful
settlement of disputes and international cooperation in strengthening peace.
UN played effective peace making role in Afghanistan, Somalia, crisis in
former Yugoslav Republics, Kosovo, Middle East (Arabs, Israel conflict),
Angola, Congo, Rwanda, and in Gulf crisis.
Development on İnternational Law
The İnternational Law Commission: established
by the General Assembly in 1947, is the primary institution
responsible for these activities.
Promoting the codification of international law.
Solving problems within both public and private