United Nations


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United Nations

  1. 1. WHAT IS THE UNO ? The UN is an international organization that aims to promote peace and understanding between nations. The UN was founded in 1945 after World War II to replace the League of Nations, to stop wars between countries, and to provide a platform for dialogue. It contains multiple subsidiary organizations to carry out its missions.
  2. 2. UN HEADQUARTERS:The permanent headquarters of the UN since 1952, are New York. The first meeting of the General Assembly was held here in October 1952. UN FLAG:The white UN emblem is superimposed on light blue background. The emblem consist of the global map projected from the North Pole and embraced in twin olive branches (symbol of peace). The UN flag is not to be subordinated to any other flag of the world. FLAG OF UNITED NATIONS UNITED NATIONS
  3. 3. UN OFFICIAL LANGUAGES:There are six official working languages recognised by the United Nations. They are Chinese, English, French, Russian, Spanish and Arabic. UN FINANCES:Contributions of member states constitute the main source of funds for the regular budget. A state’s share is primarily determined by its total national income in relation to that of the member states. MEMBERSHIP:Membership of the United Nations is open to all peace loving nations which accept the obligations of its charter and in the judgement of the organization, are able and willing to carry out these obligations. Members may be suspended or expelled by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council.
  4. 4. 1) Maintain international peace and security. 2)Developed friendly relations among nations. 3) Cooperate in solving international, economic, social, cultural and humanitarian problems. 4) and to be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations.
  5. 5. The organization is divided into administrative bodies, including the 1) General Assembly, 2) Security Council, 3) Economic and Social Council, 4) International Court of Justice 5) Trusteeship council 6) Secretariat
  6. 6. General Assembly  The General Assembly has representatives in it from all of the member countries.  They discuss issues and draft resolutions (documents suggesting actions for the UN and participating countries to take).  The General Assembly also includes various councils, panels, and working groups that focus on current world issues.
  7. 7. Security Council The Security Council votes on resolutions created by the General Assembly and decides whether or not to put an action/resolution into place. Each member of the Security Council gets one vote. Five permanent members: US, Britain, France, Russia, and China. If any of these members vote against a measure it is vetoed. Ten non-permanent members: Azerbaijan, Arjentina, Australia, Guatemala, Republic of Korea, Morocco,Togo,Pakistan, Rwanda and Luxembourg. Non-permanent members are selected from the General Assembly and serve a 2 year term on the Security Council.
  8. 8. Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)  This group focuses on issues that impact the world and various countries economically and socially (this can be anything from drug trafficking, to rain forest destruction).  There are many specialized committees within this council.  Each member of this council has one vote, a simple majority is needed to pass a resolution.
  9. 9. International Court of Justice The court is located in the Netherlands and has 15 justices. It’s purpose is to settle disputes between nations. It also advises UN committees regarding international law. The court can only reside over states that are willing to participate in the legal proceedings.
  10. 10. Trusteeship Consule one of the principal organs of the United Nations, was established to help ensure that trust territories were administered in the best interests of their inhabitants and of international peace and security
  11. 11. Secretariat The UN Secretariat is headed by the Secretary- General, assisted by a staff of international civil servants worldwide. It provides studies, information, and facilities needed by United Nations bodies for their meetings. It also carries out tasks as directed by the Security Council, the General Assembly, the Economic and Social Council, and other UN bodies. The Current Secretary-General, Ban Ki-moon
  12. 12. Various Agencies of UN World Health Organization(WHO), United Nations Children’s Fund(UNICEF) United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization(UNESCO) International Labour Organization(ILO)  World Bank Group(WB) International Monetary Fund(IMF) World Trade Organization (WTO)
  13. 13. 1) World Health Organization (WHO), a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN), with headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland. WHO was established in 1948. The services of the agency may be either advisory or technical. Advisory services include aid in training medical personnel and in giving knowledge of various diseases. 2) United Nations Children’s Fund(UNICEF), agency of UN devoted to the welfare of children. The organization was established in 1946 to help children in post-World War 2 European and China.UNİCEF currently focuses on establishing programs that give long-term benefits to children everywhere.
  14. 14. 3) United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization(UNESCO), Its purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through education, science, and culture in order to further universal respect for justice, the rule of law, and human rights along with fundamental freedom proclaimed in the UN Charter. 4) International Labour Organization(ILO),improve working conditions and employment agencies. 5) World Bank Group(WB), It is the largest and most famous development bank in the world and is an observer at the United Nations Development Group. The bank's mission is to reduce poverty 6) International Monetary Fund(IMF), The IMF works to foster global growth and economic stability. It provides policy advice and financing to members in economic difficulties and also works with developing nations to help them achieve macroeconomic stability and reduce poverty. 7) World Trade Organization (WTO), The World Trade Organization (WTO) is the only global international organization dealing with the rules of trade between nations.
  15. 15. Role of the UN
  16. 16. Assurance of Peace  After two devastating world wars, the assurance of peace and international security form the central tasks of the world organisation, whereby the endeavour is to learn lessons from the failed attempt to set up a collective security system under the League of Nations in the period between the wars 20
  17. 17. Protection of Human Rights  The genocide and the crime against humanity of the Hitler regime in particular, form the background for the second major field of tasks for the United Nations: the protection of human rights and the continued development of public international law. 21
  18. 18. Economic and Social Development  Economic and social development makes up the third major field of tasks for the United Nations. Peace, in the sense of the negative peace, is not just understood as an absence of war, but, in the sense of positive peace, also encompasses questions of worldwide development and justice 22
  19. 19. Environmental Protection  In the face of global problems such as the greenhouse effect and the ozone hole, environmental protection has been added to this as an additional field of tasks in recent times. 23
  20. 20. it guarantees six fundamental rights:1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Right to equality. Right to freedom. Right against exploitation Right to freedom of religion Cultural and educational rights Right to constitutional remedies
  21. 21. UN Performance During the Cold War Low Point 1970s-1980s End of the Cold War 25
  22. 22. Cold War Period  Any cooperation was difficult due to East-West conflicts  Activities limited to areas where major powers not affected  1950 beginning of Peace Keeping Mission  Issues on North-South gained momentum 26
  23. 23. Period of 1970s-1980s  Securing Peace: UN failed in a series of peace keeping missions  A period of deep crisis, UN failed to prevent conflicts or find solutions to conflicts in Nicaragua, West Sahara, Cambodia, Afghanistan, and Iran-Iraq war 27
  24. 24. The End of Cold War  UN was back at center stage again  End of ideological war made cooperation and conflict resolution easier  Iraq/Kuwait conflict was through UN 28
  25. 25. What did the United Nations do when Iraq invaded Kuwait in 1990? On August 2, the day of the invasion, the Security Council passes the following resolution calling for Iraq to withdraw unconditionally from Kuwait
  26. 26. Resolution 660 (1990) 2 August 1990 The Security Council, Alarmed by the invasion of Kuwait on 2 August 1990 by the military forces of Iraq Determining that there exists a breach of international peace and security as regards the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait Acting under Articles 39 and 40 of the Charter of the United Nations, 1. 2. 3. 4. Condemns The Iraqi invasion of Kuwait Demands that Iraq withdraw immediately and unconditionally all its forces to the positions in which they were located on 1 August 1990 Calls upon Iraq and Kuwait to begin immediately intensive negotiations for the resolution of their differences and supports all efforts in this regard, and especially those of the League of Arab states Decides to meet again as necessary to consider further steps to ensure compliance with the present resolution
  27. 27. UN peacekeeping operations  At present, there are 90,000 UN peacekeepers serving all over the world.  The first ever UN peacekeeping mission established in the Middle East in 1948 is still continuing
  28. 28. Today, peace and security are not longer viewed only in terms of absence of military conflicts but the common interests of human- kind. Over the years the General Assembly has helped to promote peaceful relations among nations by adopting several resolutions and declarations on peace, the peaceful settlement of disputes and international cooperation in strengthening peace. UN played effective peace making role in Afghanistan, Somalia, crisis in former Yugoslav Republics, Kosovo, Middle East (Arabs, Israel conflict), Angola, Congo, Rwanda, and in Gulf crisis.
  29. 29. Development on İnternational Law The İnternational Law Commission: established by the General Assembly in 1947, is the primary institution responsible for these activities.  Promoting the codification of international law.  Solving problems within both public and private international law.
  30. 30. Thanks for your listening! Hamdi Furkan GÜNAY