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An Asia-Pacific approach to teachingsustainability entrepreneurshipHoward FrederickDeakin University, Melbourne
 Silent Spring by Carson (1962) Spaceship Earth by Boulding (1966) Tragedy of the Commons by Hardin (1968) Earth Day (...
Sustainable entrepreneurshipcurriculum This is the first entrepreneurshiptextbook of the 21st century withpeople, planet ...
Entrepreneurs contribute tothe planetary crisisNegative Entrepreneurs are continuouslydisturbing the Earth’s balance.
Increasing demandDemand for resources and eco-systemservicesDeclining supplyResources and ecosystem servicesSustainable su...
 Industrial entrepreneurship 1800-2000• Did not consider environment in planning and design.• Focused on extraction of re...
 Industrial entrepreneurship 1800-2000• Did not consider environment in planning and design.• Focused on extraction of re...
EconosphereSociosphereBiosphere. . . located in theeconosphere andsurrounded by thebiosphereEntrepreneursare . . .
BiosphereSociosphereEconosphere• Planet• Climate & energy• Water, soil, flora & fauna• Atmosphere & topography• People• Hu...
 Negativeentrepreneurship Entrepreneurs undervaluebiodiversity, energy, water, andmaterials. Rather than adding value t...
Positiveentrepreneurship• Generates positive value-addingimpacts• Eliminate waste, duplication,and planned obsolescence.•...
What are disvalue anddisinnovation? Hindle (2009):Innovation is thecombination of aninventive process andan entrepreneuri...
Disvalue and disinnovation innegative entrepreneurship Hindle (2009):Innovation is thecombination of aninventive process ...
Disvalue and disinnovation innegative entrepreneurship Hindle (2009):Innovation is thecombination of aninventive process ...
Disvalue and disinnovation innegative entrepreneurship Hindle (2009):Innovation is thecombination of aninventive process ...
Disvalue and disinnovation innegative entrepreneurship Hindle (2009):Innovation is thecombination of aninventive process ...
Disvalue and disinnovation innegative entrepreneurship Hindle (2009):Innovation is thecombination of aninventive process ...
Disvalue and disinnovation innegative entrepreneurship Hindle (2009):Innovation is thecombination of aninventive process ...
 EntrepreneurshipTheory AndProcessPractice for theEnvironment‟ Romance root „etappe‟, whichmeans „a step in a journey or...
 Experiential, learner-centred and practical Allows students to teach themselves Support for the educator Learning thr...
Student thought exercise:Can you give the business case forremoving human life on Earth?Student thought exercise:Can you g...
 Stern Report has made the case for the“business of climate change” Why not simply remove humans and make Earthinto a pr...
An Asia-Pacific approach to teaching sustainability entrepreneurship
An Asia-Pacific approach to teaching sustainability entrepreneurship
An Asia-Pacific approach to teaching sustainability entrepreneurship
An Asia-Pacific approach to teaching sustainability entrepreneurship
An Asia-Pacific approach to teaching sustainability entrepreneurship
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An Asia-Pacific approach to teaching sustainability entrepreneurship

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Two entrepreneurs (Henry Ford and Thomas Edison) 'caused' part of Earth’s precarious climate today by accelerating our dependence on fossil fuels. Our hope is that it will be an en-trepreneur – perhaps one that develops the hydrogen-powered automobile – who will save it.
Business educators have the opportunity to create a cohort of moral, ethical and sustainable entrepreneurs who can solve the world’s major problems. Gifford Pinchot once rightly pointed out, 'Business is the dominant institution of our time. It’s also the biggest leverage point.'
Another way of saying this is that without business, we cannot save the planet, and without saving the planet there can be no business.
It is time to create a cohort of gaiapreneurs (after the Greek goddess of Earth, Gaia), whom I define as 'marked by imagination, initiative and readiness to undertake projects to save the planet'.
Ours is an Asia-Pacific approach to teaching sustainability entrepreneurship based on the inter-disciplinarity of entrepreneurship. There are many 'entrepreneurships' (with an emphasis on the plural). Business entrepreneurship is well known. Science and engineering entre-preneurship probably rank second in student popularity behind business entrepreneurship. But we can also mention arts, music, biomedical, sports, nursing and humanities entrepre-neurship. The big difference is that the fate of an entire planet is at stake, and they have contributions to make. That’s what leads us to sustainability entrepreneurship.
The process of transforming creative ideas into commercially viable businesses in support of healing the earth is a major challenge for entrepreneurs. Education is key for many entre-preneurs to commercialise their ideas. Drawing upon the theory of experiential, entre-preneurs, in their unique teachable moments, require active and concrete pedagogical interventions that can be enhanced through a blended learning environment of online and face-to-face modalities leading them step-by-step through deepening learning in the theory, process and practice of entrepreneurship on behalf of people, profits and planet. That about sums it up.

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An Asia-Pacific approach to teaching sustainability entrepreneurship

  1. 1. An Asia-Pacific approach to teachingsustainability entrepreneurshipHoward FrederickDeakin University, Melbourne
  2. 2.  Silent Spring by Carson (1962) Spaceship Earth by Boulding (1966) Tragedy of the Commons by Hardin (1968) Earth Day (1970)/Zero Population Growth (1971) Limits to Growth by Club of Rome (1972) Our Common Future by Brundtland (1987) Changing Course by WBCSD (1992) Ecology of Commerce by Hawkin (1993) Green and Competitive by Porter (1995) Love Canal, Acid Rain, Chernobyl, Bhopal, ThreeMile Island, Climate Change, Global WarmingInfluences on my climatechange pedagogy
  3. 3. Sustainable entrepreneurshipcurriculum This is the first entrepreneurshiptextbook of the 21st century withpeople, planet and profits (3Ps) atits base. Every chapter – fromperformance measures tomarketing, from strategy to start-up, from ethics to family business– is related the 3Ps. This is a course in“entrepreneurship as if the planetmattered”. All of this is linked toentrepreneurship through thePathways in a person’s life.
  4. 4. Entrepreneurs contribute tothe planetary crisisNegative Entrepreneurs are continuouslydisturbing the Earth’s balance.
  5. 5. Increasing demandDemand for resources and eco-systemservicesDeclining supplyResources and ecosystem servicesSustainable supplySustainable demandEntrepreneurs must help ustravel through the ‘funnel’SustainablefutureMargin for actionis narrowingThe present The future
  6. 6.  Industrial entrepreneurship 1800-2000• Did not consider environment in planning and design.• Focused on extraction of resources• Did not prevent negative effects• Entrepreneurs had a negative impact on the environment andsociety.Principles of „entrepreneurial ecology‟ Sustainable entrepreneurship from 2000+• Focus on biosphere and limiting waste embodied in products.• Take into account the living dimension of the products andservices that we produce.• Create net positive entrepreneurial impact loops
  7. 7.  Industrial entrepreneurship 1800-2000• Did not consider environment in planning and design.• Focused on extraction of resources• Did not prevent negative effects• Entrepreneurs had a negative impact on the environment andsociety.Principles of „entrepreneurial ecology‟The study of the interactions of livingorganisms (including businesses) witheach other and with their environment.Sum of all living matter onEarthEvery product after its useful life will be wasteA proportion of an entrepreneur’s product orservice is returned (looped back) to nature. Itcan have positive or negative impacts.Doingsomethingwith thelong termin mind Sustainable entrepreneurship from 2000+• Focus on biosphere and limiting waste embodied in products.• Take into account the living dimension of the products andservices that we produce.• Create net positive entrepreneurial impact loops
  8. 8. EconosphereSociosphereBiosphere. . . located in theeconosphere andsurrounded by thebiosphereEntrepreneursare . . .
  9. 9. BiosphereSociosphereEconosphere• Planet• Climate & energy• Water, soil, flora & fauna• Atmosphere & topography• People• Human enterprise• Knowledge, labour & capital• Opportunity and value• Profit• Entrepreneurs operate here• Business environment• Entrepreneurial factorconditions(+)Negativeentrepre-neurshipPositiveentrepre-neurship(0)(-)
  10. 10.  Negativeentrepreneurship Entrepreneurs undervaluebiodiversity, energy, water, andmaterials. Rather than adding value toliving materials we only aim toreduce (e.g. through recycling)the quantity of dead resources. In the end, society penalisesentrepreneurs throughregulation.
  11. 11. Positiveentrepreneurship• Generates positive value-addingimpacts• Eliminate waste, duplication,and planned obsolescence.• Creates net positive-impact loopsystems and innovations thatcreate levers for biophysicalimprovements and socialtransformation.
  12. 12. What are disvalue anddisinnovation? Hindle (2009):Innovation is thecombination of aninventive process andan entrepreneurialprocess to create neweconomic value fordefined stakeholders.
  13. 13. Disvalue and disinnovation innegative entrepreneurship Hindle (2009):Innovation is thecombination of aninventive process andan entrepreneurialprocess to create neweconomic value fordefined stakeholders.Innovation has a siblingnamed disinnovation.You disinnovate by makingsomething lookinginnovative when it merelyreframes exploitativeprocesses, economicdominance, or both eitherwithout adding value orby extracting value.
  14. 14. Disvalue and disinnovation innegative entrepreneurship Hindle (2009):Innovation is thecombination of aninventive process andan entrepreneurialprocess to create neweconomic value fordefined stakeholders.The word inventive has itsdark sibling calleddisinventive. We disinventwhen we erode the narrowniche of temperature,oxygen, sunlight thatsustain life.
  15. 15. Disvalue and disinnovation innegative entrepreneurship Hindle (2009):Innovation is thecombination of aninventive process andan entrepreneurialprocess to create neweconomic value fordefined stakeholders.Is it positive or negative?Entrepreneurs can disvaluenature as a livingecosystem.
  16. 16. Disvalue and disinnovation innegative entrepreneurship Hindle (2009):Innovation is thecombination of aninventive process andan entrepreneurialprocess to create neweconomic value fordefined stakeholders.Hindle definition is limited tofinancial capital withoutconsidering the otherforms of capital, whichmay lose value due toinnovation and invention,e.g. Human Capital, SocialCapital, or Natural capital
  17. 17. Disvalue and disinnovation innegative entrepreneurship Hindle (2009):Innovation is thecombination of aninventive process andan entrepreneurialprocess to create neweconomic value fordefined stakeholders.Innovation can devalue, orcreate disvalue. It candeform. Negative ecologicalfootprint could be called the“devalue chain”
  18. 18. Disvalue and disinnovation innegative entrepreneurship Hindle (2009):Innovation is thecombination of aninventive process andan entrepreneurialprocess to create neweconomic value fordefined stakeholders.Be sure we definestakeholder to includecultures, animals and earthfeatures who areinfluenced, either directlyor indirectly, by theactions of the firm.
  19. 19.  EntrepreneurshipTheory AndProcessPractice for theEnvironment‟ Romance root „etappe‟, whichmeans „a step in a journey or acompetition‟  pathwayEtappe™ Approach toEntrepreneurial Learning
  20. 20.  Experiential, learner-centred and practical Allows students to teach themselves Support for the educator Learning through active behaviour „Reasonable adventurer‟ Pathways approach Pedagogy matches the content Learning for sustainability, not learningabout sustainabilityHallmarks of approach
  21. 21. Student thought exercise:Can you give the business case forremoving human life on Earth?Student thought exercise:Can you give the business case forremoving human life on Earth?
  22. 22.  Stern Report has made the case for the“business of climate change” Why not simply remove humans and make Earthinto a protein factory? First species capable of effectively eliminatinglife on Earth. The planet would prefer that we leave so that itcan recover. We seem like an alien come from space with themission of eliminating life on earth. Entrepreneurs too if they are not careful.Can you give the business case forremoving human life on Earth?

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